بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
A1L30M40. The meaning of 14 different combinations of alphabet letters/numbers initializing 29 chapters of the Quran remained a secret for centuries until 1974. Many scholars attempted to understand the meaning of these initial letters with no results. A computerized study that started in 1969 revealed in 1974 a 19-based mathematical design that was prophesied in Chapter 74. The frequency of the 14 alphabet letters in 14 different combinations that initialize 29 chapters are an integral part of this mathematical structure.
Arabs, during the time of revelation, did not use what we now know as Arabic Numerals. A notable book, The Universal History of Numbers by George Ifrah, dedicates Chapters 17-19 to ancient numerical systems, titled: Letters and Numbers, The Invention of Alphabetic Numerals and Other Alphabetic Number-Systems. The book provides extensive information on the Hebrew, Armenian, Phoenician, Greek, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopian Alphabetic Numerals. According to historical evidence, during the era of Muhammed, Arabs were using their alphabet as their numbering system. The Arabic alphabet then was arranged differently and was named after its first four letters, ABJaD. Each of the 28 letters of the alphabet corresponded to a different number starting from 1 to 9, from 10 to 90, and then from 100 to 1000. When Arabs started adopting Hindu numerals in 760 AC, long after the revelation of the Quran, they abandoned their alphabet/numeral system in favor of a pedagogically arranged alphabet, which is currently in use. Below is the list of the 28 Arabic letters/numbers. When they are put next to each other, their numerical values are added to each other to attain a total number. For instance, the numerical value of ALLaH (God) is 1+30+30+5=66, of ShaHYD (Witness) is 300+5+10+4=319, and of WAHiD (One) is 6+1+8+4=19. (The word WAHiD is missepelled as WaHiD in modern manuscripts. But the oldest available manuscripts and numerous oldest fragments uses the word with Alif, as WAHiD)
Thus, the Quran is not only a literary book, but also a book made of numbers. The numerical structure of the Quran has two features: intertwined patterns among the physical frequency of its literary units, such as letters, words, phrases, verses, and chapters AND intertwined patterns among the numerical values (ABJaD) of these literary units. Considering the relevancy of the common meaning of words and letters during the time of revelation, we cannot ignore the fact that the combinations of letters that initialize 29 chapters are primarily numbers. After Arabs commonly adopted the Indian numerals in the 9th century, unfortunately, the numerical system prevalent during the revelation became an antique abused by charlatan psychics, and astrologists. It is ironic that an innovation (today's Arabic numerals) replaced the original (ABJaD), but through the passage of time people started considering the original to be the innovation! The allergy of Muslim scholars to ABJaD and its use in the Quran, does not allow them to open their eyes to marvels of the numerically structured book (83:7).
To verify and witness the mathematical system of the Quran, one does not need to know Arabic, though the knowledge of Arabic might increase the magnitude of its appreciation. Though there are hundreds of examples of the 19-based mathematical system, there are surely many still out there yet to be discovered. Meanwhile, there are also some issues that need to be resolved; for instance, the count of the letter Alif still remains to be settled. We know the mathematical structure of the Quran verifies both the extraordinary nature of the text and its miraculous preservation from tampering. However, the system still involves the entire Quran and we have yet to discover a miraculous system verifying the divinity and authenticity of each chapter, independently.
Observers reacting to this prophetic feature fall into three main groups: 1) unappreciative skeptics or fanatic religionists who reject its existence without sufficient investigation; 2) appreciative seekers of truth who witness it and experience a paradigm change; and 3) gullible people who are impressed by it without fully appreciating the statistical facts and consequently indulge in "discovering" their own "miracles" through arbitrary numerical manipulations and jugglery. Ironically, the third group’s exaggerated claims serve as justification for the first group’s beliefs. For more information on this issue, please visit, 19.org.
2:1 Alif. Lam. Mim.1
Regarding the possible significance of the single letters called al-muqatta`at, which occur at the beginning of some surah of the Qur'an, see Appendix II, where the various theories bearing on this subject are discussed.
2:1 A.L.M.1 ,
These initials remained a divinely guarded secret for 1400 years. Now we recognize them as a major component of the Quran's mathematical miracle(see Appendices 1, 2, 24, and 26). The meaning of A.L.M. is pointed out inVerse 2: "This scripture is infallible." This is incontrovertibly provenby the fact that the frequencies of occurrence of these three initials in this sura are 4502, 3202, and 2195,respectively. The sum of these numbers is 9899, or 19x521. Thus, these mostfrequent letters of the Arabic language are mathematically placed accordingto a superhuman pattern. These same initials also prefix Suras 3, 29, 30,31, and 32, and their frequencies of occurrence add up to multiples of 19in each one of these suras.
2:1 A.L.M. Alif-Laam-Meem. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Majeed the Magnificent, knows and understands your needs.)1
This is the 2nd Surah of the Qur’an. It has 286 verses. The cow is merely one of the many quadrupeds made useful and subservient to mankind. The title of a Chapter or Surah of the Qur’an is important mainly for reference purposes. Therefore, we find most Surahs dealing with very diverse concepts completely unrelated to their titles. One major exception is Surah 12 Yousuf that describes the inspiring story of Prophet Yousuf (Joseph son of Jacob). But even that continues to give us very diverse concepts and guiding principles to reflect upon. Also, in the last several short Surahs of the Qur’an the title usually becomes the main center of discussion.
Proper understanding of this most detailed Surah Al-Baqarah will enable the reader to become familiar with the basic concepts and the true meanings of the Qur’anic terminology according to the Quraish dialect. The semantics and nuances of the language of revelation are not only interesting but mandatory for accurate understanding. Like the QXP in its entirety, my humble rendition of this Surah is not a literal translation, but an understanding from the Big Picture of the Qur’an without compromising the literary meanings.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
2:2 Thalika alkitabu larayba feehi hudan lilmuttaqeena
2:2 This is the book in which there is no doubt, a guide for the conscientious.
2:2 That is the Book in which there is no doubt, a guidance for the righteous.
2:2 THIS DIVINE WRIT - let there be no doubt about it is [meant to be] a guidance for all the God-conscious.2
The conventional translation of muttqi as "God-fearing" does not adequately render the positive content of this expression - namely, the awareness of His all-presence and the desire to mould one's existence in the light of this awareness; while the interpretation adopted by some translators, "one who guards himself against evil" or "one who is careful of his duty", does not give more than one particular aspect of the concept of God-consciousness.
2:2 This scripture is infallible; a beacon for the righteous;,
2:2 (Here is the guidance you asked for.) This is a Book whereof there is absolutely no doubt concerning its authority and authenticity. And it leaves no doubts lingering in a seeking mind. It is a Guide for those who wish to journey through life in honor and security.2
Rayib includes the meanings given in the first three lines. This Divine Writ, Al-Qur’an, is a Monograph that, when studied with an open mind, humility and sincerity, finds its own way from the mind to the heart. You will soon notice, as you proceed, that this scripture leaves no lingering doubts in a sincere, seeking mind. If you remember that this is a Book of guidance and treat it as such, the glittering reality will dawn upon you that this is a beacon of light! It is a Guide for all those who wish to journey through life in honor and security - Recorded on parchment ‘Raqq’ by honorable scribes appointed by the Messenger. 52:2, 80:11. The Almighty Himself guarantees the truth of this revelation, its explanation and its preservation. It is absolutely free of contradictions. Al-Qur’an = The Lecture or Monograph that finds its own way to sincere hearts, becoming Az-Zikr = The Reminder. 4:82, 10:37, 15:9, 29:48, 32:2, 52:2, 75:17, 80:11
2:3 Allatheena yu/minoona bialghaybiwayuqeemoona alssalata wamimma razaqnahumyunfiqoona
Those Who Acknowledge; Those Who Do Not Appreciate; And The Hypocrites2:3 Those who acknowledge the unseen, and observe the contact prayer (sala), and from Our provisions to them, they spend.2 3
We translated the word yuminun as "they acknowledge." The verbs and adjectives generated from the root AMaNa have been translated with different forms of the word “believe.” However, ”believe” does not accurately describe the positive meaning ascribed to the root AMaNa by the Quran. According to the Quran, guesswork, wishful thinking, following the majority, and believing without investigation and evidence, are not acts of AMaNa. The majority of people, according to the Quran, do not YuMiNun (11:17; 12:103; 13:1; 40:59). Knowing that the majority of people do "believe in God" or believe in some form of religious teachings, choosing to translate the appropriate Quranic phrase, say in 12:103, as "the majority of people do not believe" creates a contradiction. Belief in something, according to its common usage, may not need reasoning or acknowledgement of truth, but acknowledgement implies an intellectual process to search for and find the truth. Muminun are rational monotheists. No wonder the Quran repeats all the derivatives of the word AMN (acknowledge) 811 times, while repeating all the derivatives of ALM (know) 782 times and of ARF (recognize) 29 times, totaling the same amount of times AMN (acknowledge) is mentioned, that is, 811.
This verse, evaluated within the context of the Quranic precepts, does not mean that we should believe without evidence. The Quran categorically rejects blind faith or credulity (17:36). Unfortunately, the word belief or faith is commonly used as a euphemism for wishful thinking or joining the closest, the most crowded, the laudest bandwagon. Those who cannot justify their faith through deductive or inductive arguments, and those who cannot provide compelling reasons for why they believe certain dogmas and disbelieve others, are not considered muminun according to the definition of the word as used in the Quran. If the author of the scripture is also the creator of nature, and if it is He who is rewarding us with scientific knowledge and technology when we rationally and empirically investigate its laws, then why would He discourage us from using our mind and senses to investigate claims about Him and words attributed to Him? Otherwise, schizophrenia or inconsistency become divine attributes. God is not at the end of a dark tunnel of blind faith; but we can discover and get in touch with Him by tuning our minds and hearts to receive His message broadcast in the frequency of wisdom and knowledge. Therefore, according to the contextual semantics of the Quran, faith or belief denote conviction as a result of reason and compelling evidence. Thus, to distinguish the Quranic terminology of belief and faith from its common usage, we preferred the word "acknowledge."
A philosophical argument regarding the attributes of God is worth discussing. Plotinus, Moses Maimonides, and later Liebniz asserted that as imperfect beings we could not know God. How can limited creatures like us comprehend divine attributes? This is a fair question. Indeed, knowing or comprehending God is far beyond our capabilities. Do we really comprehend the meaning of Infinity, Perfection, Omnipotence, or Omniscience? Do we really understand existence of a First Cause beyond time and space? It is no easier to describe and comprehend God than to describe and comprehend the Singularity of the Big Bang or multiple universes, or quantum physics. As the Catholic philosopher, St. Augustine, cleverly argued, when we claim we do not comprehend perfection, we show that we understand the meaning of the word, for if we did not understand its meaning and implication, we would not be able to claim that we do not comprehend it. Understanding the meaning of a word or attribute without fully comprehending it is interesting. It might simply mean that we mentally distinguish a set from other sets without knowing all its members.
However, we can get a limited idea about Singularity through its offspring or effects; similarly, we can get an idea about God through His creation. Thus, all the attributes of God that we use are related and limited to our environment and to us. To water molecules, the most important attribute of God might be COHA, the Combiner of Oxygen and Hydrogen Atoms, or the Evaporator. To a whale, it might be the Creator of Planktons. To the stars in the galaxies, it is the Designer of Fission, Creator of Gravity, or Gravity itself. Not only are we limited in comprehending attributes that are related to us, but we are also unable to comprehend an infinite number of attributes, in relation to other creatures, possible universes, or God Himself. Our language is limited to our common experiences through the five senses and by the knowledge we gather through deductive and inductive inferences. Obviously, concepts, beings, and events beyond our experience and inferences cannot be communicated via human language; it would be akin to attempting to describe the colors of the rainbow to a group of congenitally blind people.
Nevertheless, possibility does not mean probability, let alone reality. Just as lack of direct evidence does not prove the existence of an asserted event or being, similarly not all proofs depend on direct evidence. The verse refers to the events and things whose existence and nature can be accepted through indirect evidence or inferences. These evidences and inferences are substantiated by a combination of verifiable and falsifiable objective hypotheses as well as personal experiences in harmony with their objective counterparts (41:53). Furthermore, the Quran acknowledges the maxim that extraordinary claims needs extraordinary evidence and it thus informs us that all of God's prophets and messengers were supported by ayat, that is, signs, evidences, or miracles (2:211; 6:4; 11:64; 13:38; 29:50; 79:20). Though the Quran criticizes the dogmatic and prejudiced challenge of unappreciative people against a messenger to demonstrate miracles, it approves of the requests by the sincere seekers of the truth to witness miracles to remove doubts from their hearts. Moreover, the Quran deems appreciation of miracles as a sign of intelligence and objective thinking (2:118; 7:146).
Not only do our five senses have limited capacity, their numbers too are most likely limited; we could have sixth, seventh, or more senses. A person blind from birth can never imagine the nature of color. If all humans were blind, the stars and galaxies, and almost the entire universe would disappear. The rare sighted person would not be able to prove the existence of stars to the blind majority; the entire universe would thus be considered a metaphysical concept by the all-blind scientific community. In an island inhabited by deaf people, a hearing person might be able to prove his extraordinary ability to detect sound, but he would never be able to make the deaf experience a similar auditory effect. It is possible there are, perhaps, beings that can only be detected by sixth, seventh, or Nth senses.
The Arabic word ghayb means things, events, and facts that are beyond the reach of our five senses or beyond our access in time and space (31:34). There are known knowns, known unknowns, and unknown unknowns. Hundreds of years ago, bacteria, viruses, radio waves, genes, the sex of a child before birth, black holes, and subatomic particles were beyond our perception and knowledge. Our five senses and our brain have a limited ability to perceive the external world, which we presume to exist; for instance, we cannot hear all sound waves and even dogs have a more acute hearing sense than us. We cannot see most of the spectrum of light; many animals or modern technological devices, such as radio and TV, are much better in their reception. Similarly, our nose cannot detect all the odor molecules; some insects are much better in smelling. Our knowledge of the world helps us invent and improve devices that increase the domain and range of our five senses and these new horizons, in turn, increase our knowledge further and help us invent newer devices. This perpetual process, as a byproduct, rewards us with technology, which we might use for good or bad ends.
A reminder to English-speaking readers: In Arabic, the pronoun "he" or "she" does not necessarily mean male or female, though the use of "she" is more restricted (for instance, see 16:97). Like in French, all Arabic words are grammatically feminine or masculine. Though God is referred by Arabic pronoun HU (He or It), God is never considered male. Christendom, greatly influenced by St. Paul's story of an incarnated god, has a propensity to envision God as a sort of Superman. No wonder Christian cartoonists depict God as a bearded old man. According to the Quran, God is beyond anything that we can imagine (42:11; 6:103). We entertained the idea of using the pronoun IT rather than HE for God, but we abandoned it since we thought it would create confusion.
All the necessary details of the Sala prayer are provided by the Quran. See, the Appendix titled Sala Prayer According to the Quran. You may visit www.islamicreform.org, www.19.org, or www.free-minds.org to read articles or to participate in forum discussions on this issue.
2:3 Those who believe in the unseen, and hold the contact prayer, and from Our provisions to them they spend.
2:3 Who believe in [the existence of] that which is beyond the reach of human perception,3 and are constant in prayer, and spend on others out of what We provide for them as sustenance;4
Al-ghayb (commonly, and erroneously, translated as "the Unseen") is used in the Qur'an to denote all those sectors or phases of reality which lie beyond the range of human perception and cannot, therefore, be proved or disproved by scientific observation or even adequately comprised within the accepted categories of speculative thought: as, for instance, the existence of God and of a definite purpose underlying the universe, life after death, the real nature of time, the existence of spiritual forces and their inter-action, and so forth. Only a person who is convinced that the ultimate reality comprises far more than our observable environment can attain to belief in God and, thus, to a belief that life has meaning and purpose. By pointing out that it is "a guidance for those who believe in the existence of that which is beyond human perception", the Qur'an says, in effect, that it will - of necessity - remain a closed book to all whose minds cannot accept this fundamental premise.
Ar-rizq ("provision of sustenance") applies to all that may be of benefit to man, whether it be concrete (like food, property, offspring, etc.) or abstract (like knowledge, piety, etc.). The "spending on others" is mentioned here in one breath with God-consciousness and prayer because it is precisely in such selfless acts that true piety comes to its full fruition. It should be borne in mind that the verb anfaqa (lit., "he spent") is always used in the Qur'an to denote spending freely on, or as a gift to, others, whatever the motive may be.
Three Categories of People (1) The Righteous2:3 who believe in the unseen, observe the Contact Prayers (Salat)2 , and from our provisions **to them, they give to charity.,
When God uses the plural tense, this indicates that other entities, usually the angels, are involved. When God spoke to Moses, the singular formwas used (20:12). See Appendix 10.
2:3 Those who (wish to journey through life in honor and security), believe in the Unseen, and establish the System of Salaat in which the following of Divine commands is facilitated, and keep open for others the resources that We have granted them.3
Establishing Salaat = The System in which Permanent Moral Values rule the hearts and minds of men and women. There are neither masters nor subjects in such a system, since therein prevails the Rule of Law. 2:177, 22:41, 94:7. Al-Ghayeb = The Unseen: The likeness of a seed that is beneath the soil hidden from a farmer’s view. Yet the farmer believes that given proper environment and care the seed will sprout. 9:119, 57:20, 89:27. Salaat = To follow closely, like a runner-up Musalli follows the winning horse Saabiq =Follow God’s commands closely. Aqimussallat = Establish the System that facilitates the following of Divine Commands. Zakaat = The Just Economic Order where everyone works according to one’s capacity and is compensated according to the needs. People spend on others or give to the Central Authority Islamic government whatever is surplus 2:219. And they do so whenever they earn any income 6:141. The System of Zakaat is managed by the Central Authority that ensures the development of the individuals and the society. The 2.5 percent annual mandatory charity is a non-Qur’anic concept that trivializes the comprehensive Qur’anic System of Zakaat. Also, the problems of Fiqh minor but confusing and contradictory jurisprudential details about what and who are exempt and what and who are not exempt etc, make the manmade Zakaat an absolute impossibility. For example, a man with an ounce of gold should not pay Zakaat, but a poor man with 52.5 ounces of silver, the value of which is less than 10% of the former instance, must pay! No wonder, God warns us not make His verses a laughing stock. The Central Authority can vary this percentage according to the changing times and needs of the society. Charity or Sadaqaat are meant only for the interim period whenever the Divinely Prescribed System of Life is not yet in place. For Central Authority, the Qur’an uses the terms Allah and Rasool 3:32. After the exalted Rasool Messenger, it is obligatory upon the believers to elect their leadership through a consultative process in a manner suitable for the times. The basic difference between the western democracy and the Islamic government: Any legislation can pass with the majority approval in the manmade constitutional democracy. But no law can pass contradicting the Qur’an in a truly Islamic State. That is one reason why the Qur’an generally gives us the basic Rules with details to be decided by people with mutual consultation according to changing times. 42:38. For God’s Right = Divinely ordained right of the poor, see 6:141, 11:64, 55:10
2:4 Waallatheena yu/minoona bimaonzila ilayka wama onzila min qablika wabial-akhiratihum yooqinoona
2:4 Those who acknowledge what was sent down to you, and what was sent down before you, and regarding the Hereafter they are certain.4
Previous scriptures still contain the divine message even though they were intentionally or unintentionally tampered by humans during the process of oral transmission, collection, writing, duplication, translations, translations of translations, revisions and re-revisions of the translations. Both the Torah (the Old Testament) and Injeel (Gospels) promote monotheism (Deuteronomy 6:4-5 , Mark 12:29-30 ). Theological distortions can be easily identified the light of the Quran or via modern textual criticism, such as the work of Bart Ehrman and Bruce Metzger. See 2:59, 79; 5:13; 7:162.
2:4 And those who believe in what was sent down to you, and what was sent down before you, and regarding the Hereafter they are certain.
2:4 And who believe in that which has been bestowed from on high upon thee, [O Prophet,] as well as in that which was bestowed before thy time:5 for it is they who in their innermost are certain of the life to come!
This is a reference to one of the fundamental doctrines of the Qur'an: the doctrine of the historical continuity of divine revelation. Life - so the Qur'an teaches us - is not a series of unconnected jumps but a continuous, organic process: and this law applies also to the life of the mind, of which man's religious experience (in its cumulative sense) is a part. Thus, the religion of the Qur'an can be properly understood only against the background of the great monotheistic faiths which preceded it, and which, according to Muslim belief, culminate and achieve their final formulation in the faith of Islam.
2:4 And they believe in what was revealed to you, and in what was revealed before you3 , and with regard to the Hereafter, they are absolutely certain.,
2:4 And those who choose to believe in what has been revealed to you (O Messenger) and in the (truth in) what was revealed before your times. And they have conviction in the Law of Requital, and, therefore, in the life Hereafter.4
Similar were the blessed people who believed in and followed the previous scriptures. Men and women of understanding use their faculty of reasoning and understand that human intellect is not boundless. It can tell people what is, but it cannot tell what ought to be. The human intellect is also affected by emotional, cultural and environmental conditions. Furthermore, direct revelation from the Creator economizes human effort and saves them time on trial and error. They also realize that life is no vain sport. It has a sublime purpose and keeps evolving like everything else in the Cosmos. So, the death of the human body is only a transition to a higher form of life for the human ‘self’. Thus, they have conviction in the Hereafter. This can be likened to the birth of a baby who leaves the mother’s womb and moves on to a new and higher level of existence. Anyone failing to understand the Eternity of the Nafs ‘Self’ -commonly termed as 'Soul', bars himself from seeing life in its totality and, therefore, toils through this life without a higher objective. 2:185, 6:73, 7:52, 7:157, 10:4, 21:10, 21:24, 40:11, 45:4, 67:2. “Confirming the truth in what they have” points to human touch in the Bible even before Prophet Muhammad’s times. See verses 2:75, 2:101, 3:70, 3:78, 3:186, 5:13, 5:41, 6:91, 9:31, 61:7
2:5 Ola-ika AAala hudan minrabbihim waola-ika humu almuflihoona
2:5 These are the ones guided by their Lord, and these are the winners.
2:5 These are the ones guided by their Lord, and these are the successful ones.
2:5 It is they who follow the guidance [which comes from their Sustainer; and it is they, they who' shall attain to a happy state!
2:5 These are guided by their Lord; these are the winners.,
2:5 They are the ones who walk on a path lighted by their Lord, and they are the ones whose crops of effort will flourish and they will truly prosper.5
Muflihoon from Fallaah = Farmer who ploughs the earth for seeding and gets an abundant crop in return. Huda minr-Rabb = The Lord’s light = This Qur’an to which one must turn with an open mind. Those who approach it without clearing their minds of pre-conceived notions will fail to “touch” this Book. For, that frame of mind defies reason and logic. 4:88, 5:15, 23:1, 24:35, 31:2, 42:5, 56:79
2:6 Inna allatheena kafaroo sawaonAAalayhim aanthartahum am lam tunthirhum layu/minoona
2:6 As for those who do not appreciate, whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not acknowledge.5
Those who decide to reject God and/or His message will be able to do so in accordance to God's system designed to test the result of one’s free will to choose good or evil, to choose freedom by submitting to the Truth or slavery by submitting to falsehood (2:37; 57:22). As long as individuals follow the religion of their parents or societies on faith, without critical evaluation, they will not be able to witness the divine evidence nor will they be guided to the truth (6:110). For a brief discussion on the freedom of choice, please see our discussion on 57:22.
The Quran delineates three categories of people in the context of their reaction to the truth: Acknowledgers, Rejecters, and Hypocrites. The first and second groups are associated to each other because they are opposites while the third group is associated with the first two since it resembles both. The actions of acknowledgers associate them with paradise according to cause and effect. According to the cause-and-effect rule of association, the actions of unappreciative rejecters and hypocrites lead them to hell.
We translated the word KaFeRun as "ingrates." The word KaFaRa means "became unappreciative" of God's blessings, such as reasoning, senses, revelation, messengers, life, health, friends, relatives, trust, liberty, provisions, etc. In only one verse, the word KaFaRa is used to describe a positive rejection (14:22). Mostly in early revelations during Meccan years, the verb KaFaRa with its various derivatives was used to literally mean “unappreciative.” Later, its semantic evolves, transforming to a more specific and a more serious attitude; it becomes a defining characteristics of those who oppose the message of the Quran (2:152; 27:40; 31:12; 76:3).
The skeptical philosopher David Hume came up with an ingenious thesis claiming that there are only three ways of making associations between concepts: resemblance; congruity in space or time; and cause-effect. For instance, bees and ants may be associated with each other because of their resemblance of being insects working in a social structure. Bees and flowers may be associated with each other because of their congruity in space. Bees and honey may be associated because of cause and effect since bees make honey. Resemblance may include lack of resemblance or resemblance in quantity. We associate the decimal system with our ten fingers both because of their resemblance in quantity and assumed cause and effect relationship between them.
The Quran, while using the already established associations or relationships in our language, also emphasizes those relationships or creates new ones between concepts by either juxtaposing or contrasting them within a particular context. Furthermore, the Quran is unique in creating a new semantic relationship (we call it nusemantic from numerical semantic) between concepts through their frequencies, verse numbers or numerical values of their letters. For instance, Jesus and Adam resemble each other because they both lacked two parents. It turns out their names are both mentioned exactly 25 times in the Quran, thereby numerically strengthening their relationship. Another example of nusemantics: the Quran creates a special relationship between the word ALLAH and the attribute "The One with Great Bounties" by making the frequency of the word ALLAH equal to the numerical value (not frequency) of the letters comprising that attribute, that is, 2698. Extensive evidence of the numerical structure of the Quran provides many nusemantic relationships. For instance, the frequency of the word YaWM (day) in its singular form in the Quran is exactly 365 times, thereby creating a nusemantic relationship between the word DAY and SOLAR YEAR rather than DAY and LUNAR YEAR, thus rejecting the claim of those who wish impose the knowledge of medieval Arabic culture, complete with the use of a lunar year, onto the Quran. However, the plural word of day aYyAM (days) occurring 27 times and the dual form YaWMayn (two days) occurring 3 times, relate to the approximate number of days both in a lunar and solar month. Similar nusemantic relationships are extensive and were first observed by an Egyptian scholar Abdurazzaq al-Nawfal in the 1960's and was published in Al-ijaz ul-Adady fil-Quran il-Karym (The Numeric Miracle/Challenge in the Quran). For the prophecy regarding the mathematical structure of the Quran, see 74:30.
2:6 As for those who reject, whether you warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.
2:6 BEHOLD, as for those who are bent on denying the truth6 - it is all one to them whether thou warnest them or dost not warn them: they will not believe.
In contrast with the frequently occurring term al-kafirun ("those who deny the truth"), the use of the past tense in alladhina kafaru indicates conscious intent, and is, therefore, appropriately rendered as "those who are bent on denying the truth". This interpretation is supported by many commentators, especially Zamakhshari (who, in his commentary on this verse, uses the expression, "those who have deliberately resolved upon their kufr"). Elsewhere in the Qur'an such people are spoken of as having "hearts with which they fail to grasp the truth, and eyes with which they fail to see, and ears with which they fail to hear" (7:179). - For an explanation of the terms kufr ("denial of the truth"), kafir ("one who denies the truth"), etc., see note 4 on 74:10, where this concept appears for the first time in Qur'anic revelation.
(2) The Disbelievers2:6 As for those who disbelieve, it is the same for them; whether you warn them, or not warn them, they cannot believe.,4
Those who make a decision to reject God are helped in that direction; they are prevented by God from seeing any proofor guidance for as long as they maintain such a decision. The consequencesof such a disastrous decision are spelled out in Verse 7.
2:6 Remember that those who have chosen denial in advance, it is all the same to them whether you apprise them (of the consequences of their actions) or apprise them not. They will refuse to acknowledge the truth. [2:89-109, 6:26, 27:14, 35:42-43, 36:70, 41:26, 47:32]
2:7 Khatama Allahu AAala quloobihimwaAAala samAAihim waAAala absarihim ghishawatunwalahum AAathabun AAatheemun
2:7 God has sealed their hearts and their ears; and over their eyes are covers. They will incur a great retribution.
2:7 God has sealed their hearts and their ears, and over their eyes are covers. They will incur a great retribution.
2:7 God; has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and over their eyes is a veil;7 and awesome suffering awaits them.
A reference to the natural law instituted by God, whereby a person who persistently adheres to false beliefs and refuses to listen to the voice of truth gradually loses the ability to perceive the truth, "so that finally, as it were, a seal is set upon his heart" (Raghib). Since it is God who has instituted all laws of nature -which, in their aggregate, are called sunnat Allah ("the way of God") -this "sealing" is attributed to Him: but it is obviously a consequence of man's free choice and not an act of "predestination". Similarly, the suffering which, in the life to come, is in store for those who during their life in this world have wilfully remained deaf and blind to the truth, is a natural consequence of their free choice -just as happiness in the life to come is the natural consequence of man's endeavour to attain to righteousness and inner illumination. It is in this sense . that the Qur'anic references to God's "reward" and "punishment" must be understood.
2:7 GOD seals their minds and their hearing, and their eyes are veiled. They have incurred severe retribution.,
2:7 God (His Law of Cause and Effect) has sealed their hearts and their hearing, and on their sight there is a veil. And theirs will be a tremendous suffering.6
KhatmorTaba’ from God, seal on the hearts, is a natural consequence of one’s deeds. Blind following, adamancy, being unjust due to selfish interests and arrogance render the human perception and reasoning unreceptive to Divine revelation. Thus, one loses sensitivity and the ability to perceive reality. It is easy to see how damaging this fall from the high stature of humanity can be, a tremendous suffering that is built-in as the logical consequence of such attitude. 4:88, 17:46, 18:57, 40:35, 45:23, 83:14
2:8 Wamina alnnasi man yaqoolu amannabiAllahi wabialyawmi al-akhiri wamahum bimu/mineena
2:8 Among the people are those who say, "We acknowledge God and the Last day," but they do not acknowledge.
2:8 And from the people are those who say: "We believe in God and in the Last Day," but they are not believers.
2:8 And there are people who say, "We do believe in God and the Last Day," the while they do not [really]. believe.
(3) The Hypocrites2:8 Then there are those who say, "We believe in GOD and the Last Day," while they are not believers.,
2:9 YukhadiAAoona Allaha waallatheenaamanoo wama yakhdaAAoona illa anfusahum wamayashAAuroona
2:9 They seek to deceive God and those who acknowledge, but they only deceive themselves without noticing.
2:9 They seek to deceive God and those who believe, but they only deceive themselves without noticing.
2:9 They would deceive God and those who have attained to faith-the while they deceive none but themselves, and perceive it not.
2:9 In trying to deceive GOD and those who believe, they only deceive themselves without perceiving.,
2:9 They wish to deceive God and those who have attained belief. But they deceive none but themselves and realize it not.8
Since reason is a faculty that has to be exercised and they have forsaken it, they are little aware of what opportunity of personal development they are missing. They live in a state of denial
2:10 Fee quloobihim maradun fazadahumuAllahu maradan walahum AAathabun aleemun bimakanoo yakthiboona
2:10 In their hearts is a disease, so God increases their disease, and they will have a painful retribution for what they have denied.
2:10 In their hearts is a disease, so God increases their disease, and they will have a painful retribution for what they have denied.
2:10 In their hearts is disease, and so God lets their disease increase; and grievous suffering awaits them because of their persistent lying.8
i.e., before God and man-and to themselves. It is generally assumed that the people to whom this passage alludes in the first instance are the hypocrites of Medina who, during the early years after the hijrah, outwardly professed their adherence to Islam while remaining inwardly unconvinced of the truth of Muhammad's message. However, as is always the case with Qur'anic allusions to contemporary or historical events, the above and the following verses have a general, timeless import inasmuch as they refer to all people who are prone to deceive themselves in order to evade a spiritual commitment.
2:10 In their minds there is a disease. Consequently, GOD augments their disease. They have incurred a painful retribution for their lying.,
2:10 (This negative attitude) is a disease in their hearts, and God (His law) increases their disease. And for them is painful suffering, for, they lie to themselves.9
Their attitude reinforces itself according to the Law of Cause and Effect. The conflict between one’s word and action amounts to self-deception that has its own dire consequences
2:11 Wa-itha qeela lahum latufsidoo fee al-ardi qaloo innama nahnumuslihoona
2:11 If they are told "Do not make evil in the land," they say, "But we are the reformers!"
2:11 And if they are told: "Do not make corruption in the land," they say: "But we are reformers!"
2:11 And when they are told, "Do not spread corruption on earth," they answer, "We are but improving things!"
2:11 When they are told, "Do not commit evil," they say, "But we are righteous.",
2:11 When it is said to them, “Do not cause disruption in the land”, they assert, “We are but reformers, setting things right.”
2:12 Ala innahum humu almufsidoona walakinla yashAAuroona
2:12 No, they are the evildoers, but they do not perceive.
2:12 No, they are the corruptors, but they do not perceive.
2:12 Oh, verily, it is they, they who are spreading corruption but they perceive it not?9
It would seem that this is an allusion to people who oppose any "intrusion" of religious considerations into the realm of practical affairs, and thus-often unwittingly, thinking that they are "but improving things"-contribute to the moral and social confusion referred to in the subsequent verse.
2:12 In fact, they are evildoers, but they do not perceive.,
2:12 Nay, it is they who are the disrupters. But they fail to use reason.10
They bring forth a common argument that they are acting in good faith and in accordance with their ‘conscience’. But conscience is only the "internalized society", a mental reflection of the values prevalent in a given environment. Therefore, it can never be a substitute for Divine revelation Wahi.3:20, 5:79, 9:67, 24:21
2:13 Wa-itha qeela lahum aminoo kamaamana alnnasu qaloo anu/minu kamaamana alssufahao ala innahum humu alssufahaowalakin la yaAAlamoona
2:13 If they are told, "acknowledge as the people have acknowledged," they say, "Shall we acknowledge as the fools have acknowledged?" No, they are the fools but they do not know.
2:13 And if they are told: "Believe, as the people have believed," they say: "Shall we believe like the foolish have believed?" No, they are the foolish but they do not know.
2:13 And when they are told, "Believe as other people believe," they answer, "Shall we believe as the weak-minded believe?" Oh, verily, it is they, they who are weak-minded -but they know it not!
2:13 When they are told, "Believe like the people who believed," they say, "Shall we believe like the fools who believed?" In fact, it is they who are fools, but they do not know.,
2:13 And when it is said to them, “Acknowledge the truth as people have acknowledged”, they retort, "Shall we accept what the foolish accept?" Nay, it is they who are foolish. But they do not know.11
Imaan = Belief = Conviction = Acceptance = Acknowledgement = Embracing the truth
2:14 Wa-itha laqoo allatheena amanooqaloo amanna wa-itha khalaw ilashayateenihim qaloo inna maAAakum innamanahnu mustahzi-oona
2:14 If they come across those who have acknowledged, they say, "We acknowledge," and when they are alone with their devils they say, "We are with you, we were only mocking."
2:14 And if they come across those who have believed, they say: "We believe," and when they are alone with their devils they say: "We are with you, we were only mocking."
2:14 And when they meet those who have attained to faith, they assert, "We believe [as you believe]"; but when they find themselves alone with their- evil impulses,10 they say, "Verily, we are with you; we were only mocking!"
Lit., "their satans" (shayatin, pl. of shaytan). In accordance with ancient Arabic usage, this term often denotes people "who, through their insolent persistence in evildoing (tamarrud), have become like satans" (Zamakhshari): an interpretation of the above verse accepted by most of the commentators. However, the term shaytan -which is derived from the verb shatana, "he was for "became"] remote [from all that is good and true]" (Lisan al -Arab, Taj al-'Arus ) - is often used in the Qur'an to describe the "satanic" (i.e., exceedingly evil) propensities in man's own soul, and especially all impulses which run counter to truth and morality (Raghib).
2:14 When they meet the believers, they say, "We believe," but when alone with their devils, they say, "We are with you; we were only mocking.",
2:14 And when they meet those who have chosen to believe, they say, “We have attained belief.” But when they go away to their shayaateen (devilish comrades), they say, "We are with you. We were only mocking.”
2:15 Allahu yastahzi-o bihim wayamudduhumfee tughyanihim yaAAmahoona
2:15 God mocks them, and leaves them prolonged in their transgression.
2:15 God mocks them, and leaves them prolonged in their transgression.
2:15 God will requite them for their mockery,11 and will leave them for a while in their overweening arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro:
Lit., "God will mock at them". My rendering is in conformity with the generally accepted interpretation of this phrase.
2:15 GOD mocks them, and leads them on in their transgressions, blundering.,
2:15 God will return their mockery to them, and leave them to wander in their arrogance, blindly stumbling to and fro.
2:16 Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawooalddalalata bialhuda famarabihat tijaratuhum wama kanoomuhtadeena
2:16 These are those who have purchased straying for guidance; their trade did not profit them, nor were they guided.
2:16 These are the ones who have purchased straying with guidance; their trade did not profit them, nor were they guided.
2:16 [for] it is they who have taken error in exchange for guidance; and neither has their bargain brought them gain, nor have they found guidance [elsewhere].
2:16 It is they who bought the straying, at the expense of guidance. Such trade never prospers, nor do they receive any guidance.,
2:16 They have bought straying at the expense of guidance. But their trade will go bankrupt because they have not set their caravan in the right direction.12
Muhtadi = Guided = He who journeys in the right direction
2:17 Mathaluhum kamathali allatheeistawqada naran falamma adaat ma hawlahuthahaba Allahu binoorihim watarakahum fee thulumatinla yubsiroona
2:17 Their example is like one who lights a fire, so when it illuminates what is around him, God takes away his light and leaves him in the darkness not seeing.
2:17 Their example is like the one who lights a fire, so when it illuminates what is around him, God takes away his light and leaves him in the darkness not seeing.
2:17 Their parable is that of people who kindle a fire: but as soon as it has illumined all around them, God takes away their light and leaves them in utter darkness, wherein they cannot see:
2:17 Their example is like those who start a fire, then, as it begins to shed light around them, GOD takes away their light, leaving them in darkness, unable to see.,
2:17 Their example is that of a person who lights up a fire without adequate fuel. As soon as brightness surrounds them, the fuel is consumed and God (His law) takes away their light leaving them in the dark where they cannot see.13
The pursuit of instant gains only grants them a fleeting sense of satisfaction since they have forfeited the long-term goal
2:18 Summun bukmun AAumyun fahum layarjiAAoona
2:18 Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not revert.
2:18 Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not return.
2:18 Deaf, dumb, blind - and they cannot turn back.
2:18 Deaf, dumb, and blind; they fail to return.,
2:18 Deaf, dumb and blind of reason! They will not return to journey in the right direction (unless they use their perceptual and conceptual faculties. 8:22, 16:76, 17:36).
2:19 Aw kasayyibin mina alssama-ifeehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqunyajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim mina alssawaAAiqihathara almawti waAllahu muheetunbialkafireena
2:19 Or like a storm from the sky, in it are darkness, thunder, and lightning. They place their fingers in their ears from stunning noises out of fear of death; and God is aware of the ingrates.
2:19 Or like a storm cloud from the sky, in it is darkness and thunder and lightning. They place their fingers in their ears from the thunder-claps for fear of death; and God is aware of the rejecters.
2:19 Or [the parable] of a violent cloudburst in the sky, with utter darkness, thunder and lightning: they put their fingers into their ears to keep out the peals of thunder, in terror of death; but God encompasses [with His might] all who deny the truth.
2:19 Another example: a rainstorm from the sky in which there is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They put their fingers in their ears, to evade death. GOD is fully aware of the disbelievers.,
2:19 Another example is that of a rainstorm from the sky with darkness, thunder and lightning. They plug their ears with their fingers for fear of death. And God encompasses the deniers.14
2:20 Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahumkullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi wa-itha athlamaAAalayhim qamoo walaw shaa Allahu lathahababisamAAihim waabsarihim inna Allaha AAalakulli shay-in qadeerun
2:20 The lightning nearly snatches away their sight, whenever it lights the path, they walk in it, and when it becomes dark for them, they stand. Had God willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. God is capable of all things.
2:20 The lightning nearly snatches their sight, whenever it lights the path they walk in it, and when it becomes dark for them they stand. Had God willed, He would have taken their hearing and their sight; God is capable of all things.
2:20 The lightning well-nigh takes away their sight; whenever it gives them light, they advance therein, and whenever darkness falls around them, they stand still. And if God so willed, He could indeed take away their hearing and their sight:12 for, verily, God has the power to will anything.
The obvious implication is: "but He does not will this"-that is, He does not preclude the possibility that "those who have taken error in exchange for guidance" may one day perceive the truth and mend their ways. The expression "their hearing and their sight" is obviously a metonym for man's instinctive ability to discern between good and evil and, hence, for his moral responsibility. - In the parable of the "people who kindle a fire" we have, I believe, an allusion to some people's exclusive reliance on what is termed the "scientific approach" as a means to illumine and explain all the imponderables of life and faith, and the resulting arrogant refusal to admit that anything could be beyond the reach of man's intellect. This "overweening arrogance", as the Qur'an terms it, unavoidably exposes its devotees - and the society dominated by them - to the lightning of disillusion which "well-nigh takes away their sight", i.e., still further weakens their moral perception and deepens their "terror of death".
The Light of Faith2:20 The lightning almost snatches away their eyesight. When it lights for them, they move forward, and when it turns dark, they stand still. If GOD wills, He 5 can take away their hearing and their eyesight. GOD is Omnipotent.,
"He" and "she" do not necessarily imply natural gender in Arabic (Appendix 4).
2:20 The lightning almost snatches away their sight and vision. They walk a few steps, in a stop and go fashion. When the light helps them, they walk therein. And when darkness prevails on them, they stand still. And if God willed, He could take away their faculties of hearing and seeing. For, God is Able to do all things.15
Absaarahum = Their sight = Their vision = Their sight and insight. Those who defy reason, eventually lose their perceptual and conceptual faculties. God is the Powerful Designer of His laws and He has supreme control over all things. He has prescribed laws for every thing and event in the Universe. And He does not infringe upon these laws even though He is Able to do so. 2:201, 6:96, 7:182, 10:5, 11:15, 13:8, 14:16, 17:18, 25:2, 29:54, 30:24, 36:38, 42:20, 54:49, 65:3, 79:36, 87:3. Those who reject the Divine messages and rely solely on their intellect do not realize that revelation is to the human intellect what sunlight is to the human eye. It takes them out of darkness into light. 2:257
2:21 Ya ayyuha alnnasuoAAbudoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum waallatheenamin qablikum laAAallakum tattaqoona
2:21 O people, serve your Lord who has created you and those before you that you may be conscientious.
2:21 O people, serve your Lord who has created you and those before you that you may be righteous.
2:21 O MANKIND! Worship your Sustainer, who has created you and those who lived before you, so that you might remain conscious of Him
2:21 O people, worship only your Lord - the One who created you and those before you - that you may be saved.,
2:21 O Mankind! Serve your Lord (by serving His creation). He is the One Who has created you and those before your times, so that you may journey through life secure against error. [7:172]
2:22 Allathee jaAAala lakumu al-ardafirashan waalssamaa binaan waanzalamina alssama-i maan faakhraja bihi mina alththamaratirizqan lakum fala tajAAaloo lillahi andadanwaantum taAAlamoona
2:22 The One who made the land a habitat, and the sky a structure, and He sent down from the sky water with which He brought out fruit as a provision for you. So do not make any equals with God while you now know.
2:22 The One who has made the earth a resting place, and the sky a shelter, and He sent down from the sky water with which He brought out fruits as a gift to you. So do not set up any equals with God while you know.
2:22 who has made the earth a resting-place for you and the sky a canopy, and has sent down water from the sky and thereby brought forth fruits for your sustenance: do not, then, claim that there is any power that could rival God,13 when you know [that He is One].
Lit., "do not give God any compeers" (andad, pl. of nidd ). There is full agreement among all commentators that this term implies any object of adoration to which some or all of God's qualities are ascribed, whether it be conceived as a deity "in its own right" or a saint supposedly possessing certain divine or semi-divine powers. This meaning can be brought out only by a free rendering of the above phrase.
2:22 The One who made the earth habitable for you, and the sky a structure. He sends down from the sky water, to produce all kinds of fruits for your sustenance. You shall not set up idols to rival GOD, now that you know.,
2:22 He Who has made the earth habitable for you, and the sky over it like a canopy, and brought down rain from therein so that fruits of His bounty may spring forth for you as abundant provision. When you understand this simple fact, (do not insult your intelligence and) do not equate others with God.16
The high atmosphere serves as a protecting canopy against meteorites and keeps balance in the gases and temperature. 2:164
2:23 Wa-in kuntum fee raybin mimma nazzalnaAAala AAabdina fa/too bisooratin min mithlihi waodAAooshuhadaakum min dooni Allahi in kuntum sadiqeena
Verifiable and Falsifiable Evidence2:23 If you are in doubt as to what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a chapter like this, and call upon your witnesses other than God if you are truthful.6
These verses primarily refer to the mathematical system of the Quran. The most popular position among Muslim scholars is that the miracle of the Quran is its literary excellence. This is, however, an imaginary or false claim, since there is no objective or universal criteria for comparing literary texts and thereby preferring one over the other. The miraculous nature of the Quran or the Quran's claim of divine authorship and its universal appeal cannot be relegated merely to the literary taste of those who know Arabic, which may change subjectively. It is impossible to argue that the Quran is divine by comparing its literary aspects to those of Al-Mutanabbi, Taha Hussain or any other Arabic literary work. Bukhari and Ibn Hanbal, the two so-called authentic hadith collections of Sunnism, tacitly confess the impossibility of distinguishing the Quranic statements from man-made literary works since they narrate a text, which is still uttered by millions of Sunni mushriks in “bonus” prayers called nawafil. According to their report, Ibn Masud, one of the most prominent comrades of prophet Muhammed, and allegedly one of the most prolific sources of hadith, had included that prayer to his Quran as an independent chapter while expunging the last two chapters. The claim of medieval Sunni and Shiite sources regarding the requirement for two witnesses for each verse to authenticate their divine nature, regardless of the truth-value of the claim, is another acknowledgment of their inability to distinguish a Quranic revelation from fabricated statements via the so-called literary excellence criterion. See 4:82; 10:20; 74:30, and the Appendix titled On it Nineteen.
2:23 And if you are in doubt as to what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a chapter like this, and call upon your witnesses other than God if you are truthful.
2:23 And if you doubt any part of what We have, bestowed from on high, step by step, upon Our servant [Muhammad],14 then produce a surah of similar merit, and call upon any other than God to bear witness for you15 -if what you say is true!
I.e., the message of which the doctrine of God's oneness and uniqueness is the focal point. By the use of the word "doubt" (rayb), this passage is meant to recall the opening sentence of this surah : "This divine writ - let there be no doubt about it.. .", etc. The gradualness of revelation is implied in the grammatical form nazzalna -which is important in this context inasmuch as the opponents of the Prophet argued that the Qur'an could not be of divine origin because it was being revealed gradually, and not in one piece (Zamakhshari).
Lit., "come forward with a surah like it, and call upon your witnesses other than God" -namely, "to attest that your hypothetical literary effort could be deemed equal to any part of the Qur'an." This challenge occurs in two other places as well ( 10:38 and 11:13 , in which latter case the unbelievers are called upon to produce ten chapters of comparable merit); see also 17:88.
Mathematical Challenge2:23 If you have any doubt regarding what we revealed to our servant, then produce one sura like these, and call upon your own witnesses against GOD, if you are truthful.,6
The Quran's miraculous mathematical code provides numerous proofs as it spells out the name "Rashad Khalifa" as God's servant mentioned here.Some literary giants, including Al-Mutanabby and Taha Hussein, have answeredthe literary challenge, but they had no awareness of the Quran's mathematicalcomposition. It is the Quran's mathematical code, revealed through God'sMessenger of the Covenant, Rashad Khalifa, that is the real challenge--for it can never be imitated.See Appendices 1, 2, 24, & 26 for the detailed proofs.
2:23 (For the real skeptic, here is a reason-friendly offer.) If you are still in doubt concerning what We have revealed to Our servant (Muhammad), call and set up (a committee, commission, organization, association of the highest order) all your helpers besides God, and then produce just one Surah like this, if you are truthful.17
Bring some chapters of comparable merit that even come close to it in magnificence, eloquence, grandeur and wisdom 10:38, 11:13, 17:88. The use of ‘We’ and ‘I’ … God uses for Himself the first person singular ‘I’ as well as the plural ‘We’. The Qur’an being the most eloquent Book on earth has its own unique charisma and style. Slight reflection even on a translation strikes us with the beauty and variety of its usage of semantics. ‘We’ in relation to God indicates His Supreme Royalty, whereas ‘I’ gives us some idea of how close the King of kings is to us. King Cyrus of Persia calls himself ‘We’ in 18:87 and that is just one example. But about God, "There is none like unto Him." 112:4. Likewise, the use of the masculine gender for God in all scriptures is meant to be in conformity with our social fabric and ease of expression. For third person singular, almost all languages in the world use the male gender except when referring to a specific female
2:24 Fa-in lam tafAAaloo walan tafAAaloo faittaqooalnnara allatee waqooduha alnnasuwaalhijaratu oAAiddat lilkafireena
Paradise and hell Descriptions are Allegorical2:24 If you cannot do this -- and you will not be able to do this -- then beware of the fire whose fuel is people and stones; it has been prepared for the ingrates.
2:24 And if you cannot do this; and you will not be able to do this; then beware the Fire whose fuel is people and stones, it has been prepared for the rejecters.
2:24 And if you cannot do it-and most certainly you cannot do it-then be conscious of the fire whose fuel is human beings and stones16 which awaits all who deny the truth!
This evidently denotes all objects of worship to which men turn instead of God-their powerlessness and inefficacy being symbolized by the lifelessness of stones-while the expression "human beings" stands here for human actions deviating from the way of truth (cf. Manar 1, 197): the remembrance of all of which is bound to increase the sinner's suffering in the hereafter, referred to in the Qur'an as "hell".
Allegorical Description of Hell2:24 If you cannot do this - and you can never do this - then beware of the Hellfire, whose fuel is people and rocks; it awaits the disbelievers.,
2:24 And if you fail to do it - and fail you will - yet remain haughty and scornful, then guard yourselves against the fire that has been readied for those who oppose the truth, and its fuel is the masses and their stonehearted leaders alike.18
2:25 Wabashshiri allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati anna lahum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu kullamaruziqoo minha min thamaratin rizqan qaloo hathaallathee ruziqna min qablu waotoo bihi mutashabihanwalahum feeha azwajun mutahharatun wahumfeeha khalidoona
2:25 Give good news to those who acknowledge and promote reforms, that they will have gardens with rivers flowing beneath. Every time they receive of its fruit, they say, "This is what we have been provisioned before," and they are given its likeness/allegories. Moreover, there they will have pure spouses, and there they will abide.7
The descriptions of Hell and Paradise are allegorical. See 13:35; 17:60; 47:15; 76:16. The language of 2:25 is similar to 74:31 and may consequently imply a miraculous prophecy that might cause a great controversy in the future. The fact that the verse follows 2:23, which challenges unappreciative people regarding the miraculous nature of the Quran, supports our expectation.
The Bible contains numerous verses referring to Hell. For instance: "Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a dragnet, that was cast into the sea, and gathered some fish of every kind, which, when it was filled, they drew up on the beach. They sat down, and gathered the good into containers, but the bad they threw away. So will it be in the end of the world. The controllers will come forth, and separate the wicked from among the righteous, and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth." (Matthew 13:47-50 )
2:25 And give good news to those who believe and do good works that they will have estates with rivers flowing beneath them. Every time they receive a provision of its fruit, they say: "This is what we have been provisioned before," and they are given its likeness. And there they will have pure mates, and in it they will abide.
2:25 But unto those who have attained to faith and do good works give the glad tiding that theirs shall be gardens through which running waters flow. Whenever they are granted fruits there from as their appointed sustenance, they will say, "It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance!"-for they shall be given something that will recall that [past].17 And there shall they have spouses pure, and there shall they abide.
Lit., "something resembling it". Various interpretations, some of them of an esoteric and highly speculative nature, have been given to this passage. For the manner in which I have translated it I am indebted to Muhammad `Abduh (in Manar I, 232 f.), who interprets the phrase, "It is this that in days of yore was granted to us as our sustenance" as meaning: "It is this that we have been promised during our life on earth as a requital for faith and righteous deeds." In other words, man's actions and attitudes in this world will be mirrored in their "fruits", or consequences, in the life to come - as has been expressed elsewhere in the Qur'an in the verses, "And he who shall have done an atom's weight of good, shall behold it; and he who shall have done an atom's weight of evil, shall behold it" (99:7). As regards the reference to "spouses" in the next sentence, it is to be noted that the term zawj (of which azwaj is the plural) signifies either of the two components of a couple-that is, the male as well as the female.
Allegorical Description of Paradise2:25 Give good news to those who believe and lead a righteous life that they will have gardens with flowing streams. When provided with a provision of fruits therein, they will say, "This is what was provided for us previously." Thus, they are given allegorical descriptions. They will have pure spouses therein, and they abide therein forever.,
2:25 Convey the happy news to those who have chosen to be graced with belief, and have done acts of service to humanity. For them will be a most pleasant reward, Paradise in both lives. (Try to understand it in the current human vocabulary.) - Plush Gardens with streams flowing underneath! When they are provided with the delicious fruit of their deeds, they will say, “This is what we were provided before.” They had tasted some of the reward in this world. They will be given sustenance that will recall their past. These men and women will have pure companions therein, an everlasting happy family life.19
This Paradise is not given away as charity. It has to be built in this life and then inherited. It has been described in the Qur’an allegorically and it is not confined to one particular place. It encompasses the entire Universe and is a logical consequence of living upright and contributing to the well-being of humanity. 3:133, 13:35, 14:24, 24:55, 32:17, 39:74, 47:15, 57:21, 76:5, 76:17
2:26 Inna Allaha la yastahyeean yadriba mathalan ma baAAoodatan famafawqaha faamma allatheena amanoofayaAAlamoona annahu alhaqqu min rabbihim waammaallatheena kafaroo fayaqooloona matha aradaAllahu bihatha mathalan yudillu bihikatheeran wayahdee bihi katheeran wama yudillu bihiilla alfasiqeena
2:26 God does not shy away from citing the example of a mosquito, or anything above it. As for those who acknowledge, they know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for the unappreciative, they say, "What does God want with this example?" He lets many stray by it, and He guides many, but He only lets stray the evildoers.
2:26 God does not shy away from putting forth the example of a mosquito, or anything above it. As for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for the rejecters, they say: "What does God intend with this example?" He strays many by it, and He guides many by it; but He only strays by it the wicked.
2:26 Behold, God does not disdain to propound a parable of a gnat, or of something [even] less than that.18 Now, as for those who have attained to faith, they know that it is the truth from their Sustainer - whereas those who are bent on denying the truth say, "What could God mean by this parable?" In this way does He cause many a one to go astray, just as He guides many a one aright: but none does He cause thereby to go astray save the iniquitous,
Lit., "something above it", i.e., relating to the quality of smallness stressed here-as one would say, "such-and-such a person is the lowest of people, and even more than that" (Zamakhshari). The reference to "God's parables", following as it does immediately upon a mention of the gardens of paradise and the suffering through hell-fire in the life to come, is meant to bring out the allegorical nature of this imagery.
2:26 GOD does not shy away from citing any kind of allegory7 , from the tiny mosquito and greater. As for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord. As for those who disbelieve, they say, "What did GOD mean by such an allegory?" He misleads many thereby, and guides many thereby. But He never misleads thereby except the wicked,,
See Appendix 5 for further discussion of Heaven and Hell.
2:26 God does not shy away from citing any kind of allegory, even of a mosquito or beyond. Those who attain belief by way of reason appreciate the allegories and know that it is the Truth from their Lord. But those who have chosen to disbelieve, try to ridicule, saying, "What could God mean to teach by this similitude?" Thus He (His law of guidance) lets go astray many and shows the lighted road to many. But He never lets go astray any but those who drift away from reason.20
Men and women of reason know that abstract phenomena are frequently best understood in the form of examples, metaphors and allegories. Faasiqoon singular, Faasiq = Those who drift away = Who slip out of discipline = Those who cross the bounds of what is right = Fruit whose seed slips out = Egg yolk that drops out of its shell = One who transgresses Divine laws and thus becomes vulnerable to desires and extrinsic challenge. 3:81, 5:3, 5:47, 5:108, 6:121, 7:102, 9:24, 9:80, 24:4, 24:55, 59:19
2:27 Allatheena yanqudoona AAahdaAllahi min baAAdi meethaqihi wayaqtaAAoona maamara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayufsidoona fee al-ardiola-ika humu alkhasiroona
2:27 The ones who break their pledge to God after making the covenant, and they sever what God had ordered to be joined. Moreover, they make corruption on earth; these are the losers.
2:27 The ones who break the pledge to God after making its covenant, and they sever what God had ordered to be delivered, and they make corruption on the earth; these are the losers.
2:27 who break their bond with God after it has been established [in their nature],19 and cut asunder what God has bidden to be joined, and spread corruption on earth: these it is that shall be the losers.
The "bond with God" (conventionally translated as "God's covenant") apparently refers here to man's moral obligation to use his inborn gifts-intellectual as well. as physical-in the way intended for them by God. The "establishment" of this bond arises from the faculty of reason which, if properly used, must lead man to a realization of his own weakness and dependence on a causative power and, thus, to a gradual cognition of God's will with reference to his own behaviour. This interpretation of the "bond with God" seems to be indicated by the fact that there is no mention of any specific "covenant" in either the preceding or the subsequent verses of the passage under consideration. The deliberate omission of any explanatory reference in this connection suggests that the expression "bond with God" stands for something that is rooted in the human situation as such, and can, therefore, be perceived instinctively as well as through conscious experience: namely, that innate relationship with God which makes Him "closer to man than his neck-vein" (50:16). For an explanation of the subsequent reference to "what God has bidden to be joined", see surah 13, note 43.
2:27 who violate GOD's covenant after pledging to uphold it, sever what GOD has commanded to be joined, and commit evil. These are the losers. Two Deaths and Two Lives for the Disbelievers*,
2:27 (Just as there is One Creator, likewise mankind is but one Community.) Those who break this ratified Bond of God and cut asunder the unity of mankind that God has commanded them to uphold, and thus lay the foundation of chaos on earth, those will be the losers in the long run. [9:33-34, 9:111, 10:19, 13:20-24, 31:28, 83:6, 114:1]
2:28 Kayfa takfuroona biAllahiwakuntum amwatan faahyakum thumma yumeetukumthumma yuhyeekum thumma ilayhi turjaAAoona
2:28 How can you not appreciate God when you were dead and He brought you to life? Then He makes you die, then He brings you to life, then to Him you return.8
After creation, we were put to death. Through birth we were given life on this planet; we will die again and we will be resurrected for the Day of Judgment. Death is simply the stage of unconsciousness that is required by God's system where our mind is forced to travel between universes.
2:28 How can you reject God when you were dead and He brought you to life? Then He makes you die, then He brings you to life, then to Him you return.
2:28 How can you refuse to acknowledge God, seeing that you were lifeless and He gave you life, and that He will cause you to die and then will bring you again to life, whereupon unto Him you will be brought back?
2:28 How can you disbelieve in GOD when you were dead and He gave you life, then He puts you to death, then He brings you back to life, then to Him you ultimately return?,8
The righteous do not really die; they go straight to Heaven. When their interim on this earth comes to an end, the angels of death simply invitethem to go to the same Paradise where Adam and Eve once lived (2:154, 3:169:24, 22:58, 16:32, 36:20, 44:56, 89:27). Thus, while the righteousexperience only the first death following our original sin, the unrighteous go through two deaths (40:11).At the timeof death, the disbelievers know their miserable fate (8:50, 47:27), thenthey suffer a continuous nightmare that lasts until Hell is created (40:46:23, Appendix 17.)
2:28 Think! How can you disbelieve in God knowing that He is the One Who gave you life when you were lifeless? Then He will cause you to die and bring you back to life again. And then, all of you will return to Him.21
2:29 Huwa allathee khalaqa lakum mafee al-ardi jameeAAan thumma istawa ila alssama-ifasawwahunna sabAAa samawatin wahuwa bikullishay-in AAaleemun
2:29 He is the One who created for you all that is in the earth. Moroever, He attended to the universe and made it seven heavens, and He is aware of all things.
2:29 He is the One who has created for you all that is on the earth, then He attended to the heaven and has made it seven heavens, and He is aware of all things.
2:29 He it is who has created for you all that is on earth, and has applied His design to the heavens and fashioned them into seven heavens;20 and He alone has full knowledge of everything.
The term sama' ("heaven" or "sky") is applied to anything that is spread like a canopy above any other thing. Thus, the visible skies which stretch like a vault above the earth and form, as it were, its canopy, are called sama': and this is the primary meaning of this term in the Qur'an; in a wider sense, it has the connotation of "cosmic system". As regards the "seven heavens", it is to be borne in mind that in Arabic usage - and apparently in other Semitic languages as well - the number "seven" is often synonymous with "several" (see Lisan al-Arab), just as "seventy" or "seven hundred" often means "many" or "very many" (Taj al-'Arus). This, taken together with the accepted linguistic definition that "every samu' is a sama' with regard to what is below it" (Raghib), may explain the "seven heavens" as denoting the multiplicity of cosmic systems. - For my rendering of thumma, at the beginning of this sentence, as "and", see surah 7, first part of note 43.
2:29 He is the One who created for you everything on earth, then turned to the sky and perfected seven universes therein,9 and He is fully aware of all things.,
Our universe with its billion galaxies, spanning distances of billions of light years, is the smallest and innermost of seven universes (Appendix 6). Please look up 41:10.
2:29 He is the One Who has created for you whatever is on earth – all of it. And He has applied His Design to the sky and fashioned it in several ascending heights. He is the Supreme Knower of what all things are destined to be.22
The subject of seven ascending heights is still under scientific investigation, but many astrophysicists already believe in it. 11:7, 53:31, 57:1. Saba' indicates seven or several. Thinking of the earth’s atmosphere, it contains seven layers: The Troposphere, Stratosphere, Ozone Layer, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Ionosphere and the Exosphere. This has been only discovered in the last century. The Qur’an repeatedly emphasizes the importance of scientific observation and intellectual inquiry. 3:191, 7:185, 17:36, 88:17
2:30 Wa-ith qala rabbuka lilmala-ikatiinnee jaAAilun fee al-ardi khaleefatan qalooatajAAalu feeha man yufsidu feeha wayasfiku alddimaawanahnu nusabbihu bihamdika wanuqaddisu lakaqala innee aAAlamu ma la taAAlamoona
Creation2:30 Your Lord said to the controllers, "I am placing a successor on earth." They said, "Would You place in it he who would corrupt it, and shed blood, while we sing Your glory, and praise You?" He said, "I know what you do not know."9
We may infer that Adam was the name of the new species created by God through evolution and he became the successor of a violent primate dominating the earth.
2:30 And your Lord said to the angels: "I am placing a successor on the earth." They said: "Will You place in it he who would make corruption in it, and spill blood; while we praise by Your glory, and exalt to You?" He said: "I know what you do not know."
2:30 AND LO!21 Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: "Behold, I am about to establish upon earth one who shall inherit it."22 They said: "Wilt Thou place on it such as will spread corruption thereon and shed blood -whereas it is we who extol Thy limitless glory, and praise Thee, and hallow Thy name?" [God] answered: "Verily, I know that which you do not know."
The interjection "lo" seems to be the only adequate rendering, in this context, of the particle idh, which is usually -and without sufficient attention to its varying uses in Arabic construction - translated as "when". Although the latter rendering is often justified, idh is also used to indicate "the sudden, or unexpected, occurrence of a thing" (cf. Lane 1, 39), or a sudden turn in the discourse. The subsequent allegory, relating as it does to the faculty of reason implanted in man, is logically connected with the preceding passages.
Lit., "establish on earth a successor" or a "vice-gerent". The term khalifah -derived from the verb khalafa, "he succeeded [another] " - is used in this allegory to denote man's rightful supremacy on earth, which is most suitably rendered by the expression "he shall inherit the earth" (in the sense of being given possession of it). See also 6:165, 27:62 and 35:39, where all human beings are - spoken of as khala'if al-ard.
Satan: A Temporary "god"2:30 Recall that your Lord said to the angels, "I am placing a representative (a temporary god) on Earth." They said, "Will You place therein one who will spread evil therein and shed blood, while we sing Your praises, glorify You, and uphold Your absolute authority?" He said, "I know what you do not know."10 ,
These verses answer such crucial questions as: "Why are we here?" (See Appendix 7)
2:30 (Now is related to you the creation of Adam or mankind, in allegorical terms; when God decided to create humans who would be given free will, and supremacy on earth.) Your Lord announced His Plan to the angels, “I am about to place on earth a new creation that will have supremacy over it.” They exclaimed, “Will you place on it such creation as will cause disorder therein and shed blood! - Whereas we strive to manifest Your glory (in the Universe)!” He answered, “I know what you do not know.”23
God had programmed the angels God’s forces in nature with specific tasks that express the Divine will. He created humans through the process of evolution and granted them the ability to make free choices. They may choose to follow Divine Guidance or deviate from it 33:72. The "angels" were not even remotely aware of any will other than God’s. The Qur’an metaphorically portrays the immense responsibility given to humans in the story of Adam. Free will may be likened to the breathing into humans from the Divine Energy. The angels wondered if a clash of wills would not result in chaos and bloody disorder on earth, while the angelic role had always been that of striving to manifest the Impeccable glory of their Lord and absolute submission to His commands. 15:28, 16:49. TasbeehfromSabah = Swim with long strides = Strive hard = Apply oneself to a mission. Moses and Aaron Haroon did Tasbeeh -strove hard against Pharaoh 20:33. Human Evolution … 6:2, 7:189, 15:26, 22:5, 23:12, 25:54, 32:7, 35:11, 37:11, 71:17
2:31 WaAAallama adama al-asmaakullaha thumma AAaradahum AAala almala-ikatifaqala anbi-oonee bi-asma-i haola-iin kuntum sadiqeena
Innate Ability to Relate and Discriminate2:31 He taught Adam the description of all things, and then He displayed them to the controllers and said, "Inform Me the descriptions of these things if you are truthful."10
The verse reminds us of one of the most important divine gifts: the capacity of creating abstract ideas, categorization, and discrimination. Through Adam, our common ancestor, our genetic program is made able to recognize and distinguish numerous animals, plants, devices, chemical compounds, emotions, ideas, etc.
The Old Testament has a parallel account: "And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found any help meet for him" (Genesis 2:19-20 ).
2:31 And He taught Adam the names of all things, then He displayed them to the angels and said: "Inform Me of the names of these if you are truthful."
2:31 And He imparted unto Adam the names of all things;23 then He brought them within the ken of the angels and said: "Declare unto Me the names of these [things], if what you say is true."24
Lit., "all the names". The term ism ("name") implies, according to all philologists, an expression "conveying the knowledge [of a thing] ... applied to denote a substance or an accident or an attribute, for the purpose of distinction" (Lane IV, 1435): in philosophical terminology, a "concept". From this it may legitimately be inferred that the "knowledge of all the names" denotes here man's faculty of logical definition and, thus, of conceptual thinking. That by "Adam" the whole human race is meant here becomes obvious from the preceding reference, by the angels, to "such as will spread corruption on earth and will shed blood", as well as from 7:11 .
Namely, that it was they who, by virtue of their purity, were better qualified to "inherit the earth".
The Test Begins2:31 He taught Adam all the names then presented them to the angels, saying, "Give me the names of these, if you are right.",11
These are the names of the animals, the automobile, the submarine, the space satellite, the VCR, and all other objects to be encountered bythe human beings on Earth.
2:31 And God endowed mankind with the capacity to attain knowledge. Then He showed the angels certain things and said to them, “Tell me if you have the capacity of learning about these, if you are truthful (and better qualified to have supremacy on the planet earth).”24
‘Allam-al-Aadam-al-Asma = He endowed humankind with the capacity to attain knowledge
2:32 Qaloo subhanaka laAAilma lana illa ma AAallamtanainnaka anta alAAaleemu alhakeemu
2:32 They said, "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what You have taught us, You are the Knowledgeable, the Wise."
2:32 They said: "Glory to You, we have no knowledge except that which You have taught us, You are the Knowledgeable, the Wise."
2:32 They replied: "Limitless art Thou in Thy glory! No knowledge have we save that which Thou hast imparted unto us. Verily, Thou alone art all-knowing, truly wise."
2:32 They said, "Be You glorified, we have no knowledge, except that which You have taught us. You are the Omniscient, Most Wise.",
2:32 They humbly said, “Glorified are You, High above all! We only know what You have taught us (the tasks assigned to us). Most certainly, You are all Knower, all Wise.”
2:33 Qala ya adamu anbi/humbi-asma-ihim falamma anbaahum bi-asma-ihim qalaalam aqul lakum innee aAAlamu ghayba alssamawatiwaal-ardi waaAAlamu ma tubdoona wamakuntum taktumoona
2:33 He said, "O Adam, inform them of the descriptions of these." When he informed them of their descriptions, He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen of the heavens and the earth, and that I know what you reveal and what you were hiding?"
2:33 He said: "O Adam, inform them of their names," so when he informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the unseen of the heavens and the earth, and that I know what you reveal and what you are hiding?"
2:33 Said He: "O Adam, convey unto them the names of these [things]." And as soon as [Adam] had conveyed unto them their names, [God] said: "Did I not say unto you, `Verily, I alone know the hidden reality of the heavens and the earth, and know all that you bring into the open and all. that you would conceal'?"
2:33 He said, "O Adam, tell them their names." When he told them their names, He said, "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the heavens and the earth? I know what you declare, and what you conceal.",
2:33 Then He said, “O Adam! Show them some of your capacity to attain knowledge.” And when Adam informed them of his ability to learn, He said to the angels, “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the highs and the lows? And I know what is manifested by your efforts and the potentials that lie dormant within you.”
2:34 Wa-ith qulna lilmala-ikatiosjudoo li-adama fasajadoo illa ibleesa abawaistakbara wakana mina alkafireena
TestingIblis (The one who Despaired) with Humans and Humans with Iblis2:34 We said to the controllers, "Submit to Adam," so they submitted except for the Despaired, he refused and became arrogant, and became of the ingrates.11
Jeffrey Lang, professor of Mathematics at Kansas University, in his remarkable book Losing My Religion: A Call for Help, (Amana Publications, 2004), notes the following about this verse, "If I had any doubt about the Qur'an's position is that the human character is potentially greater than the angelic one, this verse removed it. When Adam succeeds intellectually where the angels failed, God tells them, "Bow down to Adam." They then bow down, demonstrating their acknowledgement of his superiority. Bowing is also a symbol of subservience and thus the Qur'an seems to be indicating that the angels/controllers will serve mankind in its development on earth. (p.32).
2:34 And We said to the angels: "Yield to Adam," so they yielded except for Satan, he refused and became arrogant, and became of the rejecters.
2:34 And when We told the angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam!"25 -they all prostrated themselves, save Iblis, who refused and gloried in his arrogance: and thus he became one of those who deny the truth.26
To show that, by virtue of his ability to think conceptually, man is superior in this respect even to the angels.
For an explanation of the name of the Fallen Angel, see surah 7, note 10. The fact of this "rebellion", repeatedly stressed in the Qur'an, has led some of the commentators to the conclusion that he could not have been one of the angels, since these are incapable of sinning: "they do not bear themselves with false pride. .. and they do whatever they are bidden to do" ( 16:49). As against this, other commentators point to the Qur'anic phrasing of God's command to the angels and of Iblis' refusal to obey, which makes it absolutely clear that at the time of that command he was indeed one of the heavenly host. Hence, we must assume that his "rebellion" has a purely symbolic significance and is, in reality, the outcome of a specific function assigned to him by God (see note 31 on 15:41 ).
2:34 When we said to the angels, "Fall prostrate before Adam," they fell prostrate, except Satan; he refused, was too arrogant, and a disbeliever.,
2:34 And when We said to the angels, “Humble yourselves and be subservient to Adam-mankind, they instantly complied humbling themselves. But Iblees (Satan) refused through self-glorification, and so became a rejecter of the Divine Command.25
Thus, God endowed mankind with the ability to harness the forces in Nature through science. There is, however, an internal domain He has designed within humans, the Nafsor ‘Self’. Call it ‘I’, ‘Self’, ‘Ego’, ‘Personality’, ‘Iamness’, ‘Me’. This has been placed for the humans to exercise free will and achieve personal growth or self-actualization. But this ’self’ is vulnerable to the evil prompting of its own intrinsic selfish desire or that of extrinsic sources. In that situation the ’self’ rebels against the higher controls of human judgment, and more importantly, against the revealed Moral Values. This rebellious state of the ’self’ has the ability to rationalize its desire and emotions through the intellect. And this rebellious state of the ‘Ego’ is Satan or Iblees. It was this Iblees that refused to humble itself to the higher human controls of judgment and Divine Commands. Incidentally, the Qur’an nowhere mentions a human ’soul’, ’spirit’ or ’spirituality’. Iblees = Deprivation = Hopelessness = Frustration = Desperation and regret = Rebellious state of the human ’self’ that drifts away from the Divine Commands, but wishes to escape personal responsibility by blaming God for its own misdeeds. See 7:16. Sajdah = Prostration = Complete submission = Willful obedience = Utter humility = Adoration = Utmost commitment to Divine Cause = Humbling one’s own self
2:35 Waqulna ya adamu oskunanta wazawjuka aljannata wakula minha raghadan haythushi/tuma wala taqraba hathihi alshshajaratafatakoona mina alththalimeena
2:35 We said, "O Adam, reside you and your mate in the paradise, and eat from it bountifully as you both wish, and do not approach this tree, else you will be of those who did wrong."12
Serving God is living according the nature and reason. Human nature requires enjoyment of God's blessings within the limitations put by the Creator. By choosing to act against the advice of our own Creator we acted unreasonably. See: 51:56.
2:35 And We said: "O Adam, reside you and your mate in the paradise, and eat from it bountifully as you both wish, and do not come near this tree, else you will be of those who have wronged."
2:35 And We said: "O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in this garden,27 and eat freely thereof, both of you, whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become wrongdoers."28
Lit., "the garden". There is a considerable difference of opinion among the commentators as to what is meant here by "garden": a garden in the earthly sense, or the paradise that awaits the righteous in the life to come, or some special garden in the heavenly regions? According to some of the earliest commentators (see Manar I, 277), an earthly abode is here alluded to-namely, an environment of perfect ease, happiness and innocence. In any case, this story of Adam is obviously one of the allegories referred to in 3:7.
2:35 We said, "O Adam, live with your wife in Paradise, and eat therefrom generously, as you please, but do not approach this tree, lest you sin.",
2:35 We told the early humans, Adam and his wife (men and women), “O Mankind! Reside in this land which is Paradise and partake the fruit thereof as you please. But do not go near this branching Tree (of Selfishness). Or, you will become of the wrongdoers.”26
2:36 Faazallahuma alshshaytanuAAanha faakhrajahuma mimma kanafeehi waqulna ihbitoo baAAdukum libaAAdinAAaduwwun walakum fee al-ardi mustaqarrun wamataAAunila heenin
2:36 So, the devil tricked both and he brought both of them out from what they were in, and We said, "Descend, you are all enemies of one another. In the land shall be stability for you and luxury for a while."13
Though the Quran holds both Adam and his spouse equally responsible for their sinful act, the Old Testament's related verses have been distorted by all-male Jewish clerics, and this misogynistic distortion was later exploited further by St. Paul to promote male hegemony.
The dubious St. Paul justifies his misogynistic ideas with the following rationale: "Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity. I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting. In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; But (which becomes women professing godliness) with good works. Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection. But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence. For Adam was first formed, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression. Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety" (1 Timothy 2:7-15 ). "Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also says the law. And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church" (1 Corinthians 14:34-35 ). "Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honor unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered" (1 Peter 3:7 ).
Ironically, the Old Testament contradicts St. Paul's attempt to deprive women from freedom of expression: The Old Testament mentions several women as prophets: Miriam (Exodus 15:20 ), Deborah (Judges 4:4-5 ), Huldah (2Kings 22:14 ), Noadiah (Nehemiah 6:14 ). For the Old Testament account of this event, see Genesis 3:1-24 . See the Quran 4:1; 4:34; 49:13; 60:12. Also see 7:19; 20:115.
2:36 So, the devil caused them to slip from it, and he brought them out from what they were in, and We said: "Descend; for you are enemies to one another; and on the earth you will have residence and provisions until the appointed time."
2:36 But Satan caused them both to stumble therein, and thus brought about the loss of their erstwhile state.29 And so We said: "Down with you, [and be henceforth] enemies unto one another; and on earth you shall have your abode and your livelihood for a while !"30
Lit., "brought them out of what they had been in": i.e., by inducing them to eat the fruit of the forbidden tree.
With this sentence, the address changes from the hitherto-observed dual form to the plural: a further indication that the moral of the story relates to the human race as a whole. See also surah 7, note 16.
2:36 But the devil duped them, and caused their eviction therefrom. We said, "Go down as enemies of one another. On Earth shall be your habitation and provision for awhile.",
2:36 But Satan caused them both (men as well as women) to stumble therein and got them out of the happy state they were in. And so We said, “Degraded you have become with wedges of discord among yourselves! There shall be for you habitation and livelihood on earth for a while.”27
Their straying egos and selfish desires had clashed and led them into dividing among themselves for the pursuit of self-interest. Humanity fell from the height of felicity into contention and rivalry. The plentiful provision of the land that used to be open for all became a matter of private ownership and hoarding. They have since been living in a state of continuous toil, turmoil and strife
2:37 Fatalaqqa adamu min rabbihikalimatin fataba AAalayhi innahu huwa alttawwabualrraheemu
2:37 Adam then received words from His Lord, so He forgave him; He is the Forgiver, the Compassionate.
2:37 Adam then received words from His Lord, so He forgave him; He is the Forgiver, the Merciful.
2:37 Thereupon Adam received words [of guidance] from his Sustainer, and He accepted his repentance: for, verily, He alone is the-Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace.
Specific Words2:37 Then, Adam received from his Lord words, whereby He redeemed him. He is the Redeemer, Most Merciful.12 ,
Similarly, God has given us specific, mathematically coded words, the words of Sura 1, to establish contact with Him (see Footnote 1:1 and Appendix 15).
2:37 (The solution to this catastrophe was beyond human redress.) Then Adam received Words of guidance from his Lord and He accepted his repentance. Certainly, He is the Acceptor of repentance, the Most Merciful.28
Adam = Aadam = Man. His wife = Woman. Udma = Ability to live together as a community. Aadam from Udma thus, indicates humankind. The word “Eve” or Hawwa is not mentioned in the Qur’an. She is described with dignity as Mer’a-til-Aadam = Adam’s Zaujah = Wife, Consort, Mate of Adam = Mrs. Adam. The Qur’an adopts the beautiful method of either gently correcting or ignoring the errors in other scriptures. It does not repeat the Biblical fallacy of ‘Eve’ having been created from Adam’s rib. She also repented and God treated both of them equally. 7:23. Again, Adam and his wife mean humankind, male and female. Taubah = Repentance = Returning to the right path = Realizing one's fault and taking corrective action. 4:17, 4:18, 5:39, 3:89, 6:54, 16:119, 24:5, 27:71
2:38 Qulna ihbitoo minhajameeAAan fa-imma ya/tiyannakum minnee hudan faman tabiAAahudaya fala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona
2:38 We said, "Descend from it all of you, so when the guidance comes from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, they will have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve."
2:38 We said: "Descend from it all of you, so when the guidance comes from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, they will have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve."
2:38 [For although] We did say, "Down with you all from this [state]," there shall, none the less, most certainly come unto you guidance from Me: and those who follow My guidance need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve;
2:38 We said, "Go down therefrom, all of you. When guidance comes to you from Me, those who follow My guidance will have no fear, nor will they grieve.,
2:38 We said, “For now, all of you are degraded to a lower level of existence, out of this state of felicity (Paradise). But, when guidance comes to you from Me, those who will follow My guidance, on them shall be no fear from without, nor shall they have any grief from within.”29
Note here the multiple plural ‘all of you’ confirming that Adam and his wife are allegorical terms for the humankind. Incidentally, the word ‘Eve’ is nowhere mentioned in the Qur’an, once again Adam denoting humankind. Khauf = Fear from without. Huzn = Intrinsic depression or grief = Unhappiness = Regret
2:39 Waallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboobi-ayatina ola-ika as-habualnnari hum feeha khalidoona
2:39 Those who do not appreciate and deny Our signs, they are the dwellers of fire, in it they will abide.
2:39 And those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, they are the dwellers of Hell, in it they will abide.
2:39 but those who are bent on denying the truth and giving the lie to Our messages - they are destined for the fire, and therein shall they abide.
2:39 "As for those who disbelieve and reject our revelations, they will be dwellers of Hell, wherein they abide forever.",
2:39 But those who reject Our messages or deny them in practice, such will be the rightful dwellers of the fire. They will abide therein.
2:40 Ya banee isra-eela othkurooniAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waawfoo biAAahdee oofibiAAahdikum wa-iyyaya fairhabooni
Pledge with the Children of Israel2:40 O Children of Israel, remember My blessings that I had blessed you with, and fulfill your pledge to Me that I may fulfill My pledge to you, and revere Me alone.
2:40 O Children of Israel, remember My blessings that I had blessed you with, and fulfill your pledge to Me that I may fulfill My pledge to you, and reverence Me alone.
2:40 O CHILDREN of Israel!31 Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and fulfil your promise unto Me, [whereupon] I shall fulfil My promise unto you; and of Me, of Me stand in awe!
This passage connects directly with the preceding passages in that it refers to the continuous guidance vouchsafed to man through divine revelation. The reference to the children of Israel at this point, as in so many other places in the Qur'an, arises from the fact that their religious beliefs represented an earlier phase of the monotheistic concept which culminates in the revelation of the Qur'an.
Divine Commandments to All Jews: "You Shall Believe in This Quran."2:40 O Children of Israel, remember My favor, which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill your part of the covenant, that I fulfill My part of the covenant, and reverence Me.,
2:40 (One example is that of the Israelites.) O Children of Israel! Remember My blessings that I bestowed upon you (when you were following My commandments). Fulfill your promise to Me and I will fulfill My promise to you. And fear none but Me.30
2:41 Waaminoo bima anzaltu musaddiqanlima maAAakum wala takoonoo awwala kafirinbihi wala tashtaroo bi-ayatee thamananqaleelan wa-iyyaya faittaqooni
2:41 Acknowledge what I have sent down, authenticating what is already with you, and do not be the first to reject it! Moreover, do not purchase with My signs a cheap gain; and of Me you shall be conscientious.14
The Quran mentions Jews frequently; sometimes for their good deeds and accomplishments, and sometimes for their blunders and failures. God knew that the followers of Muhammed would fall for the same trap centuries later. The Quran narrates the history so that we do not repeat the same errors. Unfortunately, those who followed the hearsay stories about prophet Muhammed committed the same sins. For instance, compare these verses with the beliefs and actions of today's Sunni and Shiite mushriks: 2:48; 2:67; 2:80; 3:24; 9:31. The Quran was not revealed to dead people, but to the living (36:70). Thus, we should be warned and enlightened by the divine criticisms levied to the previous generations. Some people have problem with the expression "do not purchase with my signs a cheap gain" or "do not trade it with a cheap price" since they commit the fallacy called "accent." The accent should not be on "cheap gain" or "cheap price" rather should be on "do not purchase…" or "do not trade it…"
2:41 And believe in what I have sent down, authenticating what is with you, and do not be the first to disbelieve in it! And do not purchase with My revelations a cheap gain, and of Me you shall be aware.
2:41 Believe in that which I have [now] bestowed from on high, confirming the truth already in your possession, and be not foremost among those who deny its truth; and do not barter away My messages for a trifling gain;32 and of Me, of Me be conscious
A reference to the persistent Jewish belief that they alone among all nations have been graced by divine revelation. The "trifling gain" is their conviction that they are "God's chosen people" - a claim which the Qur'an consistently refutes.
2:41 You shall believe in what I have revealed herein, confirming what you have; do not be the first to reject it. Do not trade away My revelations for a cheap price, and observe Me.,
2:41 And grace yourselves with belief in what I have revealed now confirming (the truth) in what you already have. Be not the first among those who will conceal the truth therein, and trade not My revelations for petty gains. Rather, be mindful of Me.31
‘Confirming the truth in’ 2:101. Petty gains = The false dogma of being the ‘chosen ones’ which is consistently rejected by the Qur’an. The only criterion of honor in the Sight of God is character 2:80, 10:69, 29:23, 49:13. Kufr = Opposing the truth = Denying the truth = Concealing the truth = Ingratitude = Rejection of truth = Choosing to live in darkness = Hiding or covering something = Closing eyes to light. Kaafir = One given to Kufr =One who adamantly denies thetruth = One who opposes the truth = Commonly translated as ‘infidel’ = Derivatively and positively, a farmer who hides the seed under the soil 57:20. Therefore, Kufr or Kafir does not apply to the unaware, anyone to whom the message has not been conveyed or reached yet. Taqwa = Seeking to journey through life in security = Protect oneself from disintegration of the personality = Journeying in security = Being careful and observant = Getting empowered against evil = Avoid overstepping the laws = Exercising caution = Preserving oneself against deterioration = Good conduct = Building character = Live upright = Fear the consequences of violating Divine Commands = Being mindful of the Creator = Remaining conscious of the Divinely ordained Values = Taking precaution = Being watchful against error
2:42 Wala talbisoo alhaqqa bialbatiliwataktumoo alhaqqa waantum taAAlamoona
2:42 Do not obscure the truth with falsehood, nor keep the truth secret while you know.
2:42 And do not confound the truth with falsehood, nor keep the truth secret while you know.
2:42 And do not overlay the truth with falsehood, and do not knowingly suppress the truth;33
By "overlaying the truth with falsehood" is meant the corrupting of the Biblical text, of which the Qur'an frequently accuses the Jews (and which has since been established by objective textual criticism), while the "suppression of the truth" refers to their disregard or deliberately false interpretation of the words of Moses in the Biblical passage, "The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren. like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken" (Deuteronomy xviii, 15), and the words attributed to God Himself, "I will raise them up a prophet from among thy brethren, like unto thee, and will put My words in his mouth" (Deuteronomy xviii, 18). The "brethren" of the children of Israel are obviously the Arabs, and particularly the musta`ribah ("Arabianized") group among them, which traces its descent to Ishmael and Abraham: and since it is to this group that the Arabian Prophet's own tribe, the Quraysh, belonged, the above Biblical passages must be taken as referring to his advent.
2:42 Do not confound the truth with falsehood, nor shall you conceal the truth, knowingly.,
2:42 Do not confound the truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you are well aware of it. [2:159, 3:71]
2:43 Waaqeemoo alssalata waatooalzzakata wairkaAAoo maAAa alrrakiAAeena
2:43 Observe the Contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment, and bow with those who bow.15
For zaka (purification/betterment through sharing the blessings) see 7:146.
2:43 And hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification, and kneel with those who kneel.
2:43 and be constant in prayer, and spend in charity,34 and bow down in prayer with all who thus bow down.
In Islamic Law, zakah denotes an obligatory tax, incumbent on Muslims, which is meant to purify a person's capital and income from the taint of selfishness (hence the name). The proceeds of this tax are to, be spent mainly, but not exclusively, on the poor. Whenever, therefore, this term bears the above legal implication, I translate it as "the purifying dues". Since, however, in this verse it refers to the children of Israel and obviously implies only acts of charity towards the poor, it is more appropriate to translate it as "almsgiving" or "charity". I have also adopted this latter rendering in all instances where the term zakah, though relating to Muslims, does not apply specifically to the obligatory tax as such (e.g., in 73:20, where this term appears for the first time in the chronology of revelation).
2:43 You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and bow down with those who bow down.,
2:43 Strive to establish the System of Salaat, and to set up the Just Economic Order in the society. And bow with others who bow to these commands.32
System of Salaat = The System in which following the Divine commands is facilitated in the society
2:44 Ata/muroona alnnasa bialbirriwatansawna anfusakum waantum tatloona alkitaba afalataAAqiloona
2:44 Do you order the people to do goodness, but forget yourselves, while you are reciting the book? Do you not reason?
2:44 Do you exhort the people to do good, but forget yourselves, while you are reciting the Book? Do you not comprehend?
2:44 Do you bid other people to be pious, the while you forget your own selves -and yet you recite the divine writ? Will you not, then, use your reason? ;
2:44 Do you exhort the people to be righteous, while forgetting yourselves, though you read the scripture? Do you not understand?,
2:44 Do you exhort people to make room for everyone's welfare and progress in the society, while you disregard practicing what you preach? And all the while you study the scripture! Will you not, then, use your sense?33
2:45 WaistaAAeenoo bialssabriwaalssalati wa-innaha lakabeeratunilla AAala alkhashiAAeena
2:45 Seek help through patience, and the Contact prayer. It is a difficult thing, but not so for the humble.
2:45 And seek help through patience and through the contact prayer. It is a difficult thing, but not so for the humble.
2:45 And seek aid in steadfast patience and prayer: and this, indeed, is a hard thing for all but the humble in spirit,
2:45 You shall seek help through steadfastness and the Contact Prayers (Salat). This is difficult indeed, but not so for the reverent,,
2:45 If you wish to strengthen your own ‘self’ and promote the well-being of the society, then be patient and resolute in establishing the Divinely ordained System of Life. It is hard except for those who are humbly committed to a noble cause,34
2:153, 70:17, 90:10. You have become used to thriving on the fruit of others’ toil, such as devouring usury, and, therefore, economic equity and social equality strike at your selfish interests. 2:275. Khushoo’ = Being humbly compliant = Sincerely committed = Being devoted to a noble cause. Sabr = Patience = Facing adversity with courage = Steadfastness = Resolve = Determination in the face of affluence or adversity
2:46 Allatheena yathunnoonaannahum mulaqoo rabbihim waannahum ilayhi rajiAAoona
2:46 The ones who conceive that they will meet their Lord and that to Him they will return.
2:46 The ones who conceive that they will meet their Lord and that to Him they will return.
2:46 who know with certainty that they shall meet their Sustainer and that unto Him they shall return.
2:46 who believe that they will meet their Lord; that to Him they ultimately return.,
2:46 Those who realize that they are to meet their Lord and that they are to return to Him.35
Meeting the Lord also indicates facing His Law of Requital. Returning to Him signifies being subject to His law. It also denotes following His commands, and of course, it alludes to the life Hereafter
2:47 Ya banee isra-eela othkurooniAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waannee faddaltukumAAala alAAalameena
2:47 O Children of Israel, remember My blessings that I had blessed you with, and that I had preferred you to all the worlds!
2:47 O Children of Israel, remember My blessings that I had blessed you with, and that I had preferred you over all the worlds.
2:47 O children of Israel ! Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and how I favoured you above all other people;
2:47 O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I blessed you more than any other people.,
2:47 (Once again) O Children of Israel! Remember the blessings I bestowed upon you and how I gave you distinction among the nations36
of the times when you were faithful to commands. 2:122
2:48 Waittaqoo yawman la tajzeenafsun AAan nafsin shay-an wala yuqbalu minha shafaAAatunwala yu/khathu minha AAadlun wala humyunsaroona
2:48 Beware of a day where no person can avail another person, nor will any intercession be accepted from it, nor will any ransom be taken, nor will they have supporters.16
Belief in intercession is a mythology common in many religions. Satan, via religious clergymen, infected the faith of many people with the virus called intercession. Intercession generates false hope that promotes human-worship. The living religious leaders distinctly discover the power of intercession for their political and economic exploitation: if their followers believe that "holy dead humans" could bestow them eternal salvation and save them from God's justice, then they would be more susceptible to follow their semi-holy leaders blindly.
None has the power of saving criminals from God's judgment. The Quran considers the faith in intercession to be shirk or polytheism. If there is any intercession, it will be in the form of testimony for the truth (2:48; 6:70; 7:53; 10:3; 20:109; 34:23; 39:44; 43:86; 74:48; 78:38). Ironically, the Quran informs us that Muhammed will complain about his people deserting the Quran, not "his sunna" as they claim (25:30). If there were any intercession by Muhammed, this would be the one. Muhammedans are so ignorant and arrogant, like their ancestors, that they too are in denial of their associating partnership with God through attributing the power of intercession, or other false powers, to God's servants (6:23; 16:35; 17:57; 39:3, 38; 19:81). Those who acknowledge the Quran do not favor one messenger over another (2:285), since all the messengers belong to the same community (21:92; 23:51).
The Quran gives examples of many idolized concepts and objects. For instance, children (7:90), religious leaders and scholars (9:31), money and wealth (18:42), angels/controllers, dead saints, messengers and prophets (16:20, 21; 35:14; 46:5, 6; 53:23), and ego/wishful thinking (25:43, 45:23) all can be idolized.
In order to infect the human mind with the most dangerous disease called shirk (associating partners with God, or polytheism), Satan infects the unappreciative minds with a virus that destroys the faculty of recognition and self-criticism. As a result, the faulty and defective recognition program hands the mind over to the Satan’s control. Therefore, most of those who associate partners with God in various ways do not recognize their polytheism (6:23). Polytheists show all the symptoms of hypnosis; their master hypnotist is Satan.
We are instructed to glorify and praise God (3:41; 3:191; 33:42; 73:8; 76:25; 4:103), not His messengers, who are only human beings like us. We are instructed by the Gracious and Loving God to utter the name of messengers by their first names, without glorifying them, and Muhammed is no different from other messengers (2:136; 2:285; 3:144). Muhammed was a human being like us (18:110; 41:6), and his name is mentioned in the Quran as Muhammed, similar to how other people are mentioned in the Quran (3:144; 33:40; 47:2; 48:29).
Uttering expressions containing salli ala after Muhammed's name, as is commonly done by Sunni and Shiites alike, is based on a distortion of the meaning of a verb demanding action of support and encouragement of a living messenger, rather than utterance of praise for a dead messenger (compare 33:56 to 33:43; 9:103; and 2:157). Despite these verses clarifying the meaning of the word; despite the fact that the Quran does not instruct us to say something, but to do something; despite the fact that the third person pronoun in the phrase indicates that it was an innovation after Muhammed's departure; despite these and many other facts, Sunni and Shiite clerics try hard to find an excuse to continue this form of Muhammed worship. Contradicting the intention and practice of the masses, some clerics even claim this phrase to be a prayer for Muhammed rather than a phrase for his praise. Muhammed, especially the Muhammed of their imaginations, should be the last person who would need the constant prayers of millions. According to them, Muhammed already received the highest rank in paradise, and again according to them he did not commit any sins. Therefore, the addressee of their prayers is wrong. They should pray for themselves, and for each other, not for Muhammed. It is akin to homeless people donating their dimes, several times a day, to the richest person in the world. It is just as absurd.
A great majority of Sunni and Shiite mushriks declare their peaceful surrender to God alone while standing in their prayers, but immediately nullify that declaration twice while sitting down. They first tell God, "You alone we worship; you alone we ask for help" and then forget what they just promised God by greeting "the prophet" in the SECOND person, "Peace be on YOU o prophet!" (as salamu alayKA ayyuhan nabiyyu), as if he was another omnipotent and omniscient god. They give lip service to monotheism while standing, and they revert to confessing their idolatry when sitting. Those who betray the meaning of "the ruler of the day of judgment" which they utter numerous times in their prayers (1:4; 82:17), those who contradict the purpose of the prayer (20:15), are obviously those who are oblivious to their own prayers (107:4; 8:35). In defiance of the Quran, many sects and mystic orders competed with each other to put Muhammed in a position that Muhammed unequivocally rejected (39:30 and 16:20, 21). Also see, 2:123; 3:80; 5:109; 6:51; 6:70; 7:53; 9:80; 10:3; 13:14; 19:87; 21:28; 33:64; 34:23; 39:3; 43:86; 53:19; 74:48; 83:11.
After the departure of Jesus, the Pharisee Paul turned Jesus into a divine sacrifice and a middle man between his flock and God: "For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time" (1 Timothy 2:5-6). The Catholic Church went even further and added Mary and numerous saints to the ranks of the holy power brokers.
The followers of Sunni and Shiite sects follow a similar doctrine. They replace one idol with another, and consider Muhammed to be "the mediator" between God and men; they assert that without accepting Muhammed, none can attain salvation! Following the tradition of Paul, and then the tradition of Catholic Church, they too produced their own saints, thereby creating a Pyramid scheme of mediators. Interestingly, some later idols have surpassed the main idol in popularity. For instance, in Iran, people worship the second-generation idol, Ali, more than they worship Muhammed. They invoke Ali's name on almost every occasion. In Syria, a third-generation idol, Hussain, is more popular than both Ali and Muhammed. The long list of idols varies from country to country, from town to town, from order to order, and even includes the names of living local idols as well.
2:48 And beware of a Day when no soul can avail another soul, nor will any intercession be accepted from it, nor will any ransom be taken, nor will they have supporters.
2:48 and remain conscious of [the coming of] a Day when no human being shall in the least avail another, nor shall intercession be accepted from any of them, nor ransom taken from them,35 and none shall be succoured.
The "taking of ransom (`adl)" is an obvious allusion to the Christian doctrine of vicarious redemption as well ass to the Jewish idea that "the chosen people"-as the Jews considered themselves-would be exempt from punishment on the Day of Judgment. Both these ideas are categorically refuted in the Qur'an.
2:48 Beware of the day when no soul can avail another soul, no intercession will be accepted, no ransom can be paid, nor can anyone be helped.,
2:48 And beware of the Day (when all actions will encounter absolute justice, and contrary to your thinking), no person will avail another in the least. And neither intercession will be accepted, nor shall compensation be taken from anyone. And they will not be helped. (6:164)37
2:49 Wa-ith najjaynakum min alifirAAawna yasoomoonakum soo-a alAAathabi yuthabbihoonaabnaakum wayastahyoona nisaakum wafee thalikumbalaon min rabbikum AAatheemun
2:49 We saved you from the people of Pharaoh; they were punishing you with severe retribution, killing your children, and shaming your women. In that was a great trial from your Lord.
2:49 And We saved you from the people of Pharaoh, they were afflicting you with the worst punishment; they used to slaughter your children, and rape your women. In that was a great test from your Lord.
2:49 And [remember the time] when We saved you from Pharaoh's people, who afflicted you with cruel suffering, slaughtering your sons and sparing [only] your women36 - which was an awesome trial from your Sustainer;
See Exodus i, 15-16, 22.
2:49 Recall that we saved you from Pharaoh's people who inflicted upon you the worst persecution, slaying your sons and sparing your daughters. That was an exacting test from your Lord.,
2:49 Also remember when We saved you from Pharaoh’s people. They used to persecute you by selecting (the strong ones) for a dreadful torment. They slaughtered your sons and let your women live. That emancipation was a great turn of events from your Lord Supreme.38
In addition to killing the newborn boys, as a matter of state policy, Pharaoh humiliated the strong and left the vulnerable for slavery and shameful acts. Abna = Sons = Strong ones. Nisaa = Females = Women = Weak ones. Yastahyoon carries the connotation of ‘letting live’ as well as ‘in shame’. Yasoomoon = Selecting, choosing. This is what a tyrannical system does. 7:141, 27:34, 28:4, 40:25. Exodus 1:15-22 . Balaaun: Turn of events. Wa fi zalikum points to saving mentioned early in the verse
2:50 Wa-ith faraqna bikumu albahrafaanjaynakum waaghraqna ala firAAawnawaantum tanthuroona
2:50 We parted the sea for you, thus We saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were watching.
2:50 And We parted the sea for you, thus We saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were watching.
2:50 and when We cleft the sea before you, and thus saved you and caused Pharaoh's people to drown before your very eyes;
2:50 Recall that we parted the sea for you; we saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people before your eyes.,
2:50 And recall when We parted the sea and rescued you and drowned the people of Pharaoh right before your eyes.39
2:51 Wa-ith waAAadna moosaarbaAAeena laylatan thumma ittakhathtumu alAAijla minbaAAdihi waantum thalimoona
2:51 We appointed a meeting time for Moses of forty nights, but then you took the calf after him while you were wicked.17
This event reflects social and psychological weaknesses that may cloud human reasoning. Despite witnessing profound miracles, the Children of Israel turned back to the religion of their oppressors (20:83).
2:51 And We appointed a meeting time for Moses of forty nights, but then you took the calf after him while you were wicked.
2:51 and when We appointed for Moses forty nights [on Mount Sinai], and in his absence you took to worshipping the [golden] calf, and thus became evildoers:
2:51 Yet, when we summoned Moses for forty nights, you worshipped the calf in his absence, and turned wicked.13 ,
This incident reflects the humans' idolatrous tendency. Despite the profound miracles, Moses' followers worshiped the calf in his absence,and Moses ended up with only two believers (5:23). As pointed out in theIntroduction, the humans are rebels whose egos are their gods.
2:51 (Instead of being grateful, you did something bizarre.) While We summoned Moses for forty nights to reveal Our commandments, you took to worshiping the (golden) calf in his absence. You became once again those who hurt themselves.40
7:142. Zulm = Displace something from its rightful place = Relegating the truth = Hurting someone or one’s own self = Violation of human rights = Live in darkness = Oppression = Diminishing the due measure = Replace good with evil = Relegate the truth = Transgression = Oppression = Violation of human rights = Wrongdoing. See 2:35. Was not the calf an object of worship of the Egyptians, your recent masters? You demonstrated that physical emancipation did not equate psychological emancipation
2:52 Thumma AAafawna AAankum min baAAdi thalikalaAAallakum tashkuroona
2:52 Then We forgave you after so that perhaps you would be thankful.
2:52 Then We forgave you after that, perhaps you would be thankful.
2:52 yet, even after that, We blotted out this your sin, so that you might have cause to be grateful.37
The story of the golden calf is dealt with at greater length in 7:148 ff. and 20:85 ff. Regarding the crossing of the Red Sea , to which verse 50 above alludes, see 20:77 and 26:63, as well as the corresponding notes. The forty nights (and days) which Moses spent on Mount Sinai are mentioned again in 7:142.
2:52 Still, we pardoned you thereafter that you may be appreciative.,
2:52 Then, even after that, We pardoned you and gave you another chance to show gratitude. (2:56)41
Shukr = Thankfulness = Gratitude in word and action = Bring Divine bounties to the most fruitful use = Sharing one's wealth and resources with fellow humans = Opposite of Kufr when the context demands it, ingratitude
2:53 Wa-ith atayna moosaalkitaba waalfurqana laAAallakum tahtadoona
2:53 We gave Moses the book and the criterion so that perhaps you would be guided.
2:53 And We gave Moses the Book and the criterion, perhaps you would be guided.
2:53 And [remember the time] when We vouchsafed unto Moses the divine writ-and [thus] a standard by which to discern the true from the false38 -so that you might be guided aright;
Muhammad `Abduh amplifies the above interpretation of al-furqan (adopted by Tabari, Zamakhshari and other great commentators) by maintaining that it applies also to "human reason, which enables us to distinguish the true from the false" (Manar III, 160), apparently basing this wider interpretation on 8:41, where the battle of Badr is described as yawm al-furqan ("the day on which the true was distinguished from the false"). While the term furqan is often used in the Qur'an to describe one or another of the revealed scriptures, and particularly the Qur'an itself, it has undoubtedly also the connotation pointed out by `Abduh: for instance, in 8:29, where it clearly refers to the faculty of moral valuation which distinguishes every human being who is truly conscious of God.
2:53 Recall that we gave Moses scripture and the statute book, that you may be guided.,
2:53 And We gave Moses the scripture and (thus) the Criterion (between right and wrong) so that you might be guided right.42
Hudan = Hidayah = Guidance = Right guidance = A lighted road = Journey with prominent landmarks = A sincere gift = A high rock of identification in the sea = Lighthouse = A fixed sign in the desert
2:54 Wa-ith qala moosaliqawmihi ya qawmi innakum thalamtumanfusakum biittikhathikumu alAAijla fatooboo ilabari-ikum faoqtuloo anfusakum thalikumkhayrun lakum AAinda bari-ikum fataba AAalaykuminnahu huwa alttawwabu alrraheemu
2:54 Moses said to his people, "O my people, you have wronged yourselves by taking the calf, so repent to your Maker, and face yourselves. That is better for you with your Maker, so He would forgive you. He is the Forgiving, the Compassionate."18
Ego, the self-exaggerating or self-worshiping self, should be avoided while the realist or appreciative self should be nourished. It is astonishing to see that many translations of the Quran render the phrase uqtulu anfusakum as "fight/kill each other." How could they not notice thirty verses down, that is, the 84th and 85th verses of this very chapter? The Arabic word nafs is a multiple-meaning word and its intended meaning can be inferred by considering its proximate context consistent with the entire text of the scripture. The multiple meanings ascribed to the word nafs (person) suggest that our personhood is a complex program with multiple layers and one part of it, the ego, needs to be controlled with reason and submission to God alone.
However, there is another way. We should be open to read the text of the scripture without being restricted to the traditionally codified readings. We should be able to read the oldest texts that do not contain dots or vowels, in all possible readings, with the condition that they fit the context well and do not create internal or external contradictions within the ayat (signs) of the scripture or the ayat of nature. There is a divine blessing and purpose in such flexibility. For instance, we might read the following verses differently. If the alternative readings change the meaning dramatically, they are exclusive. However, sometimes both alternative readings can co-exist at the same time. One of the following, however, is a linguistic marvel; with its four alternative combinations, it excludes and includes at the same time, depending on the reference of the key word (3:7)! The following is a sample list:
2:243 Kharaju or Khuriju (inclusive)
3:7 Putting full stop after the word God and/or not stopping after the word God (both exclusive and inclusive!)
5:43; 5:6 Arjulakum or Arjulikum (exclusive)
11:46 Amalun or Amila (inclusive)
21:112 Qala or Qul (exclusive)
30:1 Yaglibun or Yughlabun (exclusive)
42:52 Nashau or Yashau (inclusive)
54:3 Kullu or Kulla (inclusive)
74:24 Yuthir or Yuthar (inclusive)
Kitab or Kutub (inclusive or exclusive) in numerous verses
3:146 Qatala or Qutila (both inclusive and exclusive)
7:57 Bushra or Nushra (iclusive)
Let's now discuss the alternative reading we are suggesting for 2:54.
The expression faqtulu anfusakum is traditionally mistranslated as "fight/kill yourselves" or "fight/kill each other" and it contradicts a proximate verse (2:84); thus, we may choose to translate the word nafs as "ego." If we prefer consistency in using "person/self" for translation of nafs, then we may follow the following alternative reading: Faqbilu anfusakum, that is, "turn to yourselves," or "accept yourselves," or "face yourselves." To discover other examples of different yet consistent and meaningful readings, we are hoping to systematically study the entire Quran in the future.
2:54 And Moses said to his people: "O my people, you have wronged your souls by taking the calf, so repent to your Maker, and kill yourselves. That is better for you with your Maker, so He would forgive you. He is the Forgiving, the Merciful."
2:54 and when Moses said unto his people: "O my people! Verily, you have sinned against yourselves by worshipping the calf; turn, then. in repentance to your Maker and mortify yourselves;39 this will be the best for you in your Maker's sight". And thereupon He accepted your repentance: for, behold, He alone is the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace.
Lit., "kill yourselves" or, according to some commentators, "kill one another". This literal interpretation (probably based on the Biblical account in Exodus xxxii, 26-28) is not, however, convincing in view of the immediately preceding call to repentance and the subsequent statement that this repentance was accepted by God. I incline, therefore, to the interpretation given by `Abd al-Jabbar (quoted by Razi in his commentary on this verse) to the effect that the expression "kill yourselves" is used here in a metaphorical sense (majazan), i.e., "mortify yourselves".
Kill Your Ego2:54 Recall that Moses said to his people, "O my people, you have wronged your souls by worshipping the calf. You must repent to your Creator. You shall kill your egos. This is better for you in the sight of your Creator." He did redeem you. He is the Redeemer, Most Merciful.14 ,
It is the ego that led to Satan's fall. It is the ego that caused our exile to this world, and it is the ego that is keeping most of us from redemptionto God's Kingdom.
2:54 When Moses returned, he said to his people, “O my people! You have hurt your own ‘self’ by worshiping the calf. So, turn in repentance to your Maker and kill your ego (rebellious mentality). This will be best for you in the Sight of your Maker.” Thereupon He turned toward you accepting your repentance. He is the Acceptor of repentance, the Merciful.43
7:148, 12:53. Baari = The Maker = Initiator = Originator = The Original Designer. Unfortunately, blindly following the account of Exodus to say in all humility, correctly described in QXP 32:26, most ancient and modern commentators of the Qur’an, including Maududi of the 20th century, stumble on this verse as well. They maintain that the Israelites in a matter of hours killed one another randomly up to 70,000 men! Others claim that only the culprits were killed! All this confusion arises for giving literal meaning to Qatl and for blindly following some Biblical accounts and fabricated Hadith. This is all the more amazing since the same verse is showing Pardon from God to the Israelites for their worshiping of the calf. Qatl = Subdue = Bring low = Humiliate = Make humble = Killing the inflated or rebellious Ego = Qatl also means murder, slaying, fighting, but in different contexts
2:55 Wa-ith qultum ya moosalan nu/mina laka hatta nara Allahajahratan faakhathatkumu alssaAAiqatu waantumtanthuroona
Those Who Cannot Withstand the Energy of Lightning Want to See God!2:55 When you said, "O Moses, we will not acknowledge you until we see God openly!" the lightning bolt took you while you were still staring.19
Intriguingly, the verse about people asking for physical evidence for God's existence contains the 19th occurrence of the word Allah (God) from the beginning of the Quran. As we know, the number 19 as the prophesied code of the Quran's miraculous mathematical structure, presents us with verifiable and falsifiable physical evidence regarding its divine authorship. See 82:19.
Lightning was not a punishment but was a lesson: if they could not withstand the energy of a lightning bolt, surely they could not withstand God's physical presence. The following verse supports our inference.
2:55 And you said: "O Moses, we will not believe you until we see God openly!" So the lightning strike took you while you were still staring.
2:55 And [remember] when you said, "O Moses. indeed we shall not believe thee unto we see God face to face!" - whereupon the thunderbolt of punishment40 overtook you before your very eyes.
The Qur'an does not state what form this "thunderbolt of punishment" (as -sa `iqah) took. The lexicographers give various interpretations to this word, but all agree on the element of vehemence and suddenness inherent in it (see Lane IV, 1690).
Physical Evidence2:55 Recall that you said, "O Moses, we will not believe unless we see GOD, physically." Consequently, the lightning struck you, as you looked.15 ,
It is noteworthy that the word "GOD" in this verse is the 19th occurrence, and this is the verse where the people demanded "physical evidence." TheQuran's mathematical code, based on the number 19, provides such physicalevidence. Note also that 2+55=57=19x3.
2:55 And recall when you said, “O Moses! We will not believe in you unless we see God face to face!” Thereupon thunder struck you as you were looking on.44
Your minds were still programmed with the primitive ways of the "Age of Worship" when humans could only appreciate the tangible. At that level of intellect, humans come to fear natural phenomena. Thus, when you saw the lightning thunder you almost fell dead in fright. 7:155
2:56 Thumma baAAathnakum min baAAdimawtikum laAAallakum tashkuroona
2:56 Then We resurrected you after your death that you may be appreciative.
2:56 Then We resurrected you after your death that you may be thankful.
2:56 But We raised you again after you had been as dead,41 so that you might have cause to be grateful.
Lit., "after your death". The expression mawt does not always denote physical death. Arab philologists - e.g., Raghib- explain the verb mata (lit., "he died") as having, in certain contexts, the meaning of "he became deprived of sensation, dead as to the senses"; and occasionally as "deprived of the intellectual faculty, intellectually dead"; and sometimes even as "he slept" (see Lane VII, 2741).
2:56 We then revived you, after you had died, that you may be appreciative.,
2:56 Then We revived you, and raised you from a dead to a living nation so that you might show gratitude (by following the Divine Commands.)
2:57 Wathallalna AAalaykumualghamama waanzalna AAalaykumu almanna waalssalwakuloo min tayyibati ma razaqnakum wamathalamoona walakin kanooanfusahum yathlimoona
Children of Israel in Sinai, yet Unwilling to Pay the Price of Freedom2:57 We shaded you with clouds, and sent down to you manna and quails, "Eat from the goodness of the provisions We have provided you." They did not wrong Us, but they wronged themselves.
2:57 And We shaded you with clouds, and sent down to you manna and quails: "Eat from the goodness of the provisions We have provided you." They did not wrong Us, but it was their souls that they wronged.
2:57 And We caused the clouds to comfort you with their shade, and sent down unto you manna and quails. [saying,] "Partake of the good things which We have provided for you as sustenance." And [by all their sinning] they did no harm unto Us-but [only] against their own selves did they sin.
2:57 We shaded you with clouds (in Sinai), and sent down to you manna and quails: "Eat from the good things we provided for you." They did not hurt us (by rebelling); they only hurt their own souls.,
2:57 And We shaded you with Our grace and We bestowed upon you Our bounties in abundance, saying, “Partake of the decent things We have provided you.” And they did not harm Us; but they had certainly harmed their own ‘self’.45
Zall = Shade. Ghamam = Clouds. Being shaded with clouds in the desert is a blessing, hence my rendition as grace. Manna-wus-Salwa = God’s sustenance that reaches all members of the community equitably. Literally, it also means delicious fruit Manna and fowl or quail meat Salwa. Tayyab = Decent and clean = Of one's liking = Not forbidden in the Qur’an = Good for mind and body = Pleasant
2:58 Wa-ith qulna odkhuloo hathihialqaryata fakuloo minha haythu shi/tum raghadan waodkhulooalbaba sujjadan waqooloo hittatun naghfirlakum khatayakum wasanazeedu almuhsineena
2:58 We said, "Enter this town, and eat from it as plentifully as you wish; and enter the gate humbly, and talk amicably, We will then forgive your mistakes, and We will increase for the good-doers."
2:58 And We said: "Enter this town, and eat from it as you wish bountifully. And enter the passageway by crouching, and say: "Our load is removed," so that your wrongdoings will be forgiven, and We will increase for the good doers."
2:58 And [remember the time] when We said: "Enter this land,42 and eat of its food as you may desire. abundantly; but enter the gate humbly and say, `Remove Thou from us the burden of our sins',43 [whereupon] We shall forgive you your sins, and shall amply reward the doers of good."
The word qaryah primarily denotes a "village" or "town", but is also used in the sense of "land". Here it apparently refers to Palestine .
This interpretation of the word hittah is recorded by most of the lexicographers (cf. Lane II, 592) on the basis of what many Companions of the Prophet said about it (for the relevant quotations, see Ibn Kathir in his commentary on this verse). Thus, the children of Israel were admonished to take possession of the promised land ("enter the gate") in a spirit of humility (lit., "prostrating yourselves"), and not to regard it as something that was "due" to them.
Lack of Confidence in God: They Refuse to Enter Jerusalem2:58 Recall that we said, "Enter this town, where you will find as many provisions as you like. Just enter the gate humbly, and treat the people nicely. We will then forgive your sins, and increase the reward for the pious.",
2:58 Then We commanded you, “Enter this town and enjoy the provisions therein, partake as you desire. But enter the gate with heart-felt humility, saying, “Hittatun.”(O Our Lord! Pardon our misdeeds as we mend our ways). And We shall forgive you your faults and amply reward the doers of good.”46
2:59 Fabaddala allatheena thalamooqawlan ghayra allathee qeela lahum faanzalna AAalaallatheena thalamoo rijzan mina alssama-ibima kanoo yafsuqoona
2:59 But the wicked altered what was said to them into a different saying, thus We sent down upon the wicked an affliction from the sky because they had transgressed.20
Today's Bible contains fragments from the books of prophets. Ezra is one of the Jewish Rabbis who changed the words of the Torah. The Pharisee-son-of-a-Pharisee Saul (Paul) and his followers radically distorted the message of Jesus. While Rabbis added Talmudic teachings, equivalent to Hadith and Sunna, into the Old Testament, Paul added his letters and polytheistic doctrines borrowed from pagans, to lure gentiles. Using God's scientific signs in nature and the revelation of the Quran, or using the methodology of Modern Textual Criticism we may be able to detect many of the distortions and additions in the Old and New Testament. For instance, the following verses do not appear to be from a Benevolent and Wise God: Genesis 3:6-16 ; Exodus 21:7-8 ; 21-22; 22:18; 26-27; Leviticus 12:2-4 ; 13:6; 17:5; 24:13; 25:44; 34:5; Numbers 15:32-36 ; 31:1; Leviticus 20:1-27 ; 21:14; 21:16; 24:13; 25:11; Deuteronomy 11:25 ; 12:1; 13:5; 17:2; 20:16; 22:23; 22:28; 25:11; Joshua 6:21 ; 9:6; Judges 1:4-12; 3:22; Judges 14:18 ; 15:15; 16:1; 1 Samuel 15:3; 1 Samuel 18:27 ; 2 Samuel 3:14 ; 2 Kings 2:23-24 ; 2 Chronicles 15:13 ; 36:17; Psalms 58:10; 78:52; 119:176; 137:9;149:6; Isaiah 13:13-16 ; Isaiah 20:1-3 ; 44:28: 56:11; Jeremiah 6:3; 10:10; 12:1; 13:13; 16:4; 23:4; 48:10; 49:19, 50:6; 51:10; Ezekiel 9:5-6; 23:25; 34:2; Zephaniah 3:8; Zechariah 10:2; Matthew 5:17-19 , 29-30; Matthew 10:34 ;19:12; 21:19; John 15:6 ; 10:14; 1 Corinthians 9:7 ; 11:6; 14:34; Ephesians 6:5 ; Colossians 3:22 ; I Timothy 2:11-15 ; 1 Timothy 6:2 ; Titus 2:9 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 2:13-14 ; 1 Peter 2:18 .
2:59 But the wicked altered what was said to them to a different saying, thus We sent down upon the wicked an affliction from the heavens for what wickedness they were in.
2:59 But those who were bent on evildoing substituted another saying for that which had been given them:44 and so We sent down upon those evildoers a plague from heaven in requital for all their iniquity.
According to several Traditions (extensively quoted by Ibn Kathir), they played, with a derisive intent upon the word hittah, substituting for it something irrelevant or meaningless. Muhammad `Abduh, however, is of the opinion that the "saying" referred to in verse 58 is merely a metaphor for an attitude of mind demanded of them, and that, correspondingly, the "substitution" signifies here a wilful display of arrogance in disregard of God's command (see Manar I, 324 f.).
2:59 But the wicked among them carried out commands other than the commands given to them. Consequently, we sent down upon the transgressors condemnation from the sky, due to their wickedness.,
2:59 But, the transgressors altered the meaning of the word they had been given, and changed their attitude of humility and perseverance. So, We brought down upon the transgressors consequences from the sky for, they repeatedly drifted away from the commandments.47
Rijz = Weak, shaky legs = Loss of determination and resolve = Losing individual and collective strength = Becoming lazy = Replacing action with word. 7:134, 7:162, 29:34. Fisq= Drifting away from the commands or from discipline = ‘Sin’ = Disregarding moral values. Divinely determined consequences = Divine Law of Requital. You became shaky in your resolve losing discipline and courage, therefore, the Promised Land became forbidden to you for forty years. 2:61, 3:21, 5:22
2:60 Wa-ithi istasqa moosaliqawmihi faqulna idrib biAAasaka alhajarafainfajarat minhu ithnata AAashrata AAaynan qadAAalima kullu onasin mashrabahum kuloo waishraboomin rizqi Allahi wala taAAthaw fee al-ardimufsideena
2:60 Moses was seeking water for his people, so We said, "Strike the rock with your staff." Thus, twelve springs burst out of it; each tribe then knew from where to drink. "Eat and drink from God's provisions, and do not roam the earth as corruptors."21
Moses bringing water out of a rock is mentioned in the Old Testament, Numbers 20:7-13 .
2:60 And Moses was seeking water for his people, so We said: "Strike the stone with your staff." Thus twelve springs exploded out of it; each people then knew from where to drink. "Eat and drink from the provisions of God, and do not roam the earth as corrupters."
2:60 And [remember] when Moses prayed for water for his people and We replied, "Strike the rock with thy staff!"-whereupon twelve springs gushed forth from it, so that all the people knew whence to drink.45 [And Moses said:] "Eat and drink the sustenance provided by God, and do not act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption."
i.e., according to their tribal divisions.
More Miracles2:60 Recall that Moses sought water for his people. We said, "Strike the rock with your staff." Whereupon, twelve springs gushed out therefrom. The members of each tribe knew their own water. Eat and drink from GOD's provisions, and do not roam the earth corruptingly.,
2:60 (Remember the times when you were in the Sinai desert) and Moses asked for water for his people. We said, “Strike the rock with your staff.” And there gushed out twelve springs so that each tribe found its respective source of fresh cool water. Moses said, “Enjoy God’s provision, but desist from becoming mischievous.”48
Mischief = Creating disruption and chaos in the land for selfish gains. ‘Asa = Staff = Force = Conviction = Support = A united community holding on to a mission as the five fingers hold on to a cane. Moses was guided to rocks under which were hidden twelve springs of water ready to gush forth. With the strength of his conviction and with the help of his companions, Moses unclogged those springs. 7:160
2:61 واذ قلتم يموسى لن نصبر على طعام وحد فادع لنا ربك يخرج لنا مما تنبت الارض من بقلها وقثائها وفومها وعدسها وبصلها قال اتستبدلون الذى هو ادنى بالذى هو خير اهبطوا مصرا فان لكم ما سالتم وضربت عليهم الذلة والمسكنة وباءو بغضب من الله ذلك بانهم كانوا يكفرون بايت الله ويقتلون النبين بغير الحق ذلك بما عصوا وكانوا يعتدون
2:61 Wa-ith qultum ya moosalan nasbira AAala taAAamin wahidinfaodAAu lana rabbaka yukhrij lana mimmatunbitu al-ardu min baqliha waqiththa-ihawafoomiha waAAadasiha wabasaliha qalaatastabdiloona allathee huwa adna biallatheehuwa khayrun ihbitoo misran fa-inna lakum masaaltum waduribat AAalayhimu alththillatu waalmaskanatuwabaoo bighadabin mina Allahi thalikabi-annahum kanoo yakfuroona bi-ayati Allahiwayaqtuloona alnnabiyyeena bighayri alhaqqi thalikabima AAasaw wakanoo yaAAtadoona
2:61 You said, "O Moses, we will not be patient to one type of food, so call for us your Lord that He may bring forth what the earth grows of its beans, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions." He said, "Would you trade what is lowly with what is good?" Descend to Egypt, there you will find what you want. They were thus stricken with humiliation and disgrace, and they remained under God's wrath for they were not appreciating God's signs, and killing the prophets with no justification. This is for what they have disobeyed and transgressed.22
After attaining their freedom in Sinai, the Children of Israel started missing the variety of food they were fed by their Egyptian masters. This verse emphasizes the importance of liberty and our lack of appreciation of it when we have it. The book of Exodus in the Old Testament is dedicated to the historic emigration of the Children of Israel that led them to freedom. Compare this verse to the Old Testament, Numbers 11:4-5 . For the quail, see Numbers 11:31-33 .
A verse in the New Testament is profound in relating freedom to intellect and reality: "And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free" (John 8:32). Also, See Isaiah 61:1 ; Isaiah 42:6-7 .
2:61 And you said: "O Moses, we will not be patient to one type of food, so call for us your Lord that He may bring forth what the earth grows of its beans, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions." He said: "Would you trade that which is lowly with that which is good?" Descend Egypt, you will have in it what you have asked for. And they were stricken with humiliation and disgrace, and they remained under the wrath of God for they were disbelieving in the revelations of God, and killing the prophets without right; this is for what they have disobeyed and transgressed.
2:61 And [remember] when you said: "O Moses, indeed we cannot endure but one kind of food; pray, then, to thy Sustainer that He bring forth for us aught of what grows from the earth - of its herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, its onions." Said [Moses]: "Would you take a lesser thing in exchange for what is [so much] better?46 Go back in shame to Egypt , and then you can have what you are asking for!"47 And so, ignominy and humiliation overshadowed them, and they earned the burden of God's condemnation: all this, because they persisted in denying the truth of God's messages and in slaying the prophets against all right: all this, because they rebelled [against God], and persisted in transgressing the bounds of what is right.48
i.e., "Would you exchange your freedom for the paltry comforts which you enjoyed in your Egyptian captivity?" In the course of their wanderings in the desert of Sinai, many Jews looked back with longing to the comparative security of their life in Egypt, as has been explicitly stated in the Bible (Numbers xi), and is, moreover, evident from Moses' allusion to it in the next sentence of the above Qur'anic passage.
The verb habata means, literally, "he went down a declivity"; it is also used figuratively in the sense of falling from dignity and becoming mean and abject (cf. Lane VIII, 2876). Since the bitter exclamation of Moses cannot be taken literally, both of the above meanings of the verb may be combined in this context and agreeably translated as "go back in shame to Egypt ".
This passage obviously refers to a later phase of Jewish history. That the Jews actually did kill some of their prophets is evidenced, for instance, in the story of John the Baptist, as well as in the more general accusation uttered, according to the Gospel, by Jesus: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee" (Matthew xxiii, 37). See also Matthew xxiii, 34-35, Luke xi, 51-both of which, refer to the murder of Zachariah -and I Thessalonians ii, 15. The implication of continuity in, or persistent repetition of, their wrongdoing transpires from the use of the auxiliary verb kanu in this context.
Israel Rebels2:61 Recall that you said, "O Moses, we can no longer tolerate one kind of food. Call upon your Lord to produce for us such earthly crops as beans, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, and onions." He said, "Do you wish to substitute that which is inferior for that which is good? Go down to Egypt, where you can find what you asked for." They have incurred condemnation, humiliation, and disgrace, and brought upon themselves wrath from GOD. This is because they rejected GOD's revelations, and killed the prophets unjustly. This is because they disobeyed and transgressed.,
2:61 (At one stage you demanded Moses to provide you with a great variety of edibles, although you were living in the Sinai desert.) You said, “O Moses! We are weary of the same kind of food, so ask your Lord on our behalf to bring forth for us plant food such as herbs, cucumbers, garlic, lentils and onions.” He said, “Would you exchange something superior for something inferior? (Return to slavery for petty desires instead of achieving higher goals?) Go back in shame to Egypt and you will get what you demand.” So, humiliation and misery were stamped upon them and they had to face God’s requital. That was because they kept rejecting God's messages. And they persisted in opposing and even killing some Prophets against all right. They did all this, because they chose to rebel and went on transgressing.
2:62 Inna allatheena amanoo waallatheenahadoo waalnnasara waalssabi-eenaman amana biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwaAAamila salihan falahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihimwala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona
Conditions for Salvation2:62 Surely those who acknowledge, and those who are Jewish, and the Nazarenes, and those who follow other religions, any one of them who acknowledge God and the Last day, and promote reforms, they will have their reward with their Lord, with no fear over them, nor will they grieve.23
Regardless of religion, ritual, language, nationality, and books followed, any individual who fulfills these three requirements attains eternal salvation. Based on these criteria, Socrates who risked his life for promoting dialectic reasoning and rejecting the polytheistic religion of his countrymen was a muslim. Similarly, Maimonides who considered God as the Prime Mover, Rabi Judah ben Samuel who witnessed one of the greatest divine signs and stood against religious distortion, Leibniz who regarded God as the creator and coordinator of monads, Galileo who studied and appreciated God's signs in the heavens and stood against religious charlatans, Darwin who traveled the world and studied God's biological creation with diligence and open mind, Newton who studied God's laws in the universe and showed the wisdom and courage to reject Trinity and deity of Jesus by arguing that this Christian doctrine to be contradictory to the first Commandment in the scripture, and many of those who fit the description of the Quranic verse 2:62, yes all according to the Quran might be considered muslims.
Those who judge a person's eternal salvation by whether they carry an Arabic name or not, are not following the Quranic definition of islam; instead they are following a diabolic definition made by Arab nationalists.
The conditions listed in this verse are explained in detail within the context of the Quran. For instance, a person is not considered to be acknowledging God if he or she associates partners or ordained mediators with Him, or follows the teachings and restrictions falsely attributed to Him. Furthermore, such a belief is not accepted if it is mere lip service or to conform to a particular group; it must be based on reason, evidence, and intuition. Acknowledging the hereafter implies acknowledging the hour, the day of resurrection and the day of judgment in which none except God will be the sole authority. Leading a righteous life is also defined in the Quran. For instance, righteousness requires a desire and action of sharing a portion of one's possessions--be it knowledge, talents, services, or wealth--with others, while appreciating his or her own. It also means maintaining honesty, integrity, and justice with good intention, while fighting against aggression and oppression.
The Quran refers to the followers of the New Testament with the word Nasara (Nazarenes), rather than Masihiyyun (Christians). The root of the word has several implications. First, it might have originated from the Semitic word NaSaRa (to support), and originated from the answer given by the disciples of Jesus when he asked for their support for his cause (61:14). Or, it could have originated from the birth place of Jesus, Nazareth. Perhaps, it has a linguistic and historical link to both origins. Also, see 5:82.
Knowing the motive of the Gospel authors to establish a stronger messianic link between Jesus and King David, by binding him through genealogy and birthplace, some scholars of theology justifiably question whether Bethlehem was the actual birthplace of Jesus, as is commonly accepted. Though Matthew acknowledges the fact that Jesus was called Nazarene (Matthew 2:23 ), both Matthew and Luke mention Bethlehem as his birthplace. However, Mark, which was written earlier, mentions Nazareth as the birthplace of Jesus instead of Bethlehem: "And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan" (Mark 1:9 ). For the Biblical verses referring to Nazareth, see (Matthew 2:23 ; 4:13; 21:11; 26:71; Mark 1:9,24 ; 10:47; 14:67; 16:6; Luke 1:26 ; 2:4; 4:16; 18:37; 24:19; John 1:45-46 ; 18:5; 19:19; Acts 2:22 ; 3:6; 4:10; 6:14; 10:38; 22:8; 26:9).
According to Christian scholars, such as Easton, "The name Christian was given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch (Acts 11:26 ). The names by which the disciples were known among themselves were 'brethren,' 'the faithful,' 'elect,' 'saints,' 'believers.' But as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name 'Christian' came into use, and was universally accepted. This name occurs but three times in the New Testament (Acts 11:26 ; 26:28; 1Peter 4:16)." It seems that some followers of Jesus adopted the name attributed to them by their enemies, and some continued using one of their earlier names, Nazarenes.
As for the word Sabiene, it is mistranslated as a proper name by the majority of commentators. In fact, it derives from the Arabic word SaBaA, meaning to be an apostate, or ‘the follower of other religions.’ Hadith books use this word as an accusation of Meccan mushriks directed against Muhammed when he started denouncing the religion of his people; they described his conversion to the system of Islam with the verb SaBaA.
2:62 Surely those who believe; and those who are Jewish, and the Nazarenes, and the Sabians, whoever of them believes in God and the Last Day and does good works; they will have their recompense with their Lord, and there is no fear upon them, nor will they grieve.
2:62 VERILY, those who have attained to faith [in this divine writ], as well as those who follow the Jewish faith, and the Christians, and the Sabians49 -all who believe in God and the Last Day and do righteous deeds-shall have their reward with their Sustainer; and no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve.50
The Sabians seem to have been a monotheistic religious groupeintermediate between Judaism and Christianity. Their name (probably derived from the Aramaic verb tsebha`, "he immersed himself [in water]") would indicate that they were followers of John the Baptist-in which case they could be identified with the Mandaeans, a community which to this day is to be found in `Iraq. They are not to be confused with the so-called "Sabians of Harran", a gnostic sect which still existed in the early centuries of Islam, and which may have deliberately adopted the name of the true Sabians in order to obtain the advantages accorded by the Muslims to the followers of every monotheistic faith.
The above passage - which recurs in the Qur'an several times - lays down a fundamental doctrine of Islam. With a breadth of vision unparalleled in any other religious faith, the idea of "salvation" is here made conditional upon three elements only: belief in God, belief in the Day of Judgment, and righteous action in life. The statement of this doctrine at this juncture - that is, in the midst of an appeal to the children of Israel - is warranted by the false Jewish belief that their descent from Abraham entitles them to be regarded as "God's chosen people".
Unity of All Submitters2:62 Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the Christians, and the converts; anyone who (1) believes in GOD, and (2) believes in the Last Day, and (3) leads a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.,
2:62 (That was a glimpse of the past.) Those who believe (in the Qur’an and call themselves Muslims), and those who are Jews, and Christians and the Sabians; whoever truly believes in God and the Last Day and does works that benefit humanity, their reward is with their Lord. For them shall be no fear from without, nor shall grief touch them from within.
2:63 Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakumwarafaAAna fawqakumu alttoora khuthooma ataynakum biquwwatin waothkurooma feehi laAAallakum tattaqoona
2:63 We took your covenant, and raised the mount above you, "Take what We have given you with strength, and remember what is in it that you may be conscientious."
2:63 And We took your covenant, and raised the mount above you: "Take what We have given you with strength, and remember what is in it that you may be righteous."
2:63 AND LO! We accepted your solemn pledge, raising Mount Sinai high above you,51 [and saying;] "Hold fast with [all your] strength unto what We have vouchsafed you, and bear in mind all that is therein, so that you might remain conscious of God!"
Lit., "and We raised the mountain (at-tur) above you": i.e., letting the lofty mountain bear witness, as it were, to their solemn pledge, spelled out in verse 83 below. Throughout my translation of the Qur'an, I am rendering the expression at-tur as " Mount Sinai ", since it is invariably used in this sense alone.
Covenant with Israel2:63 We made a covenant with you, as we raised Mount Sinai above you: "You shall uphold what we have given you strongly, and remember its contents, that you may be saved.",
2:63 (O Children of Israel) We accepted your solemn pledge, letting Mount Sinai tower above you as witness, and saying, “Hold fast unto what We have given you, and take to heart what is therein, so that you may live upright.”
2:64 Thumma tawallaytum min baAAdi thalikafalawla fadlu Allahi AAalaykum warahmatuhulakuntum mina alkhasireena
2:64 Then you turned away after this. Had it not been for God's favor upon you and His mercy, you would have been of the losers.
2:64 Then you turned away after this. And had it not been for the grace of God upon you and His mercy, you would have been of the losers.
2:64 And you turned away after that-! And had it not been for God's favour upon you and His grace, you would surely have found yourselves among the lost;
2:64 But you turned away thereafter, and if it were not for GOD's grace towards you and His mercy, you would have been doomed.,
2:64 Then, even after that, you turned away. And were it not for the bounty of God upon you and His grace, you would have been undone.
2:65 Walaqad AAalimtumu allatheenaiAAtadaw minkum fee alssabti faqulna lahum koonooqiradatan khasi-eena
2:65 You have come to know who it was amongst you that transgressed the Sabbath, We said to them, "Be despicable apes!"24
Turning to monkeys and swine is most likely a metaphor indicating their spiritual and intellectual regression since verse 5:60 adds another phrase, “Servants of the aggressor”, which does not depict a physiological transformation. Also see 7:166. Jesus likens his own people figuratively to swine and dogs (Matthew 7:6 ; 2 Peter 2:22 ). Swine was regarded as the most filthy and the most abhorred of all animals (Leviticus 11:7 ; Isaiah 65:4 ; 66:3, 17; Luke 15:15-16 ). See 5:60; 7:166).
2:65 You have come to know who it was among you that transgressed the Sabbath, We said to them: "Be despicable apes!"
2:65 for you are well aware of those from among you who profaned the Sabbath, whereupon We said unto them, "Be as apes despicable!"
2:65 You have known about those among you who desecrated the Sabbath. We said to them, "Be you as despicable as apes.",
2:65 You are well aware of those among you who broke the Sabbath, whereupon We said to them, “Be you held in contempt like apes!”49
For social and ecological reasons and to inculcate the sanctity of the law in your hearts, We had commanded you to desist from fishing or working on Saturdays and to strengthen your social ties rather than going after business on that day 4:154, 7:163, 16:124. Persistent indiscipline is more befitting of an apish, rather than human mentality. 4:47, 4:154, 5:60. Note: Strangely enough, some ancient, and even modern commentators like Maududi, maintain that they were physically transformed into apes!
2:66 FajaAAalnaha nakalanlima bayna yadayha wama khalfahawamawAAithatan lilmuttaqeena
2:66 We did this as a punishment for what they had done on it and afterwards, and a reminder to the righteous.
2:66 So it was that We made it into an example for what had happened in it and also what had passed, and a reminder to the righteous.
2:66 and set them up as a warning example for their time and for all times to come, as well as an admonition to all who are conscious of God.52
For the full story of the Sabbath-breakers, and the metaphorical allusion to "apes", see 7:163. The expression ma bayna yadayha, rendered here as "their time", is explained in surah 3, note 3 .
2:66 We set them up as an example for their generation, as well as subsequent generations, and an enlightenment for the righteous.,
2:66 We made this degradation a lesson for them in their times, and for the future generations, We made it a source of enlightenment that should soften the hearts of those who seek to live upright.50
Wa’z = Admonition that softens the hearts
2:67 Wa-ith qala moosaliqawmihi inna Allaha ya/murukum an tathbahoobaqaratan qaloo atattakhithuna huzuwan qalaaAAoothu biAllahi an akoona mina aljahileena
Seeking Unnecessary Details in Divine Instructions and its Consequences2:67 Moses said to his people, "God orders you to slaughter a heifer." They said, "Do you mock us?" He said, "I seek refuge with God lest I be of the ignorant ones."25
Through ordering the Children of Israel to sacrifice a cow, God wanted to remove the influence of the upper-class culture on the Jews who were once the slaves of cow-worshipping Egyptians. Another lesson taught by God through this instruction was to teach them not to complicate God's simple commandments through trivial theological speculations and questions. The resurrection of the cow was to pull their attention to the fact that resurrection is easy for God, just as easy as creation in the first place. The Quran does not repeat the Biblical assertion that the sacrifice was for removing the guilt of murdering an innocent person.
By reminding us of this event, which is narrated in the Old Testament, Numbers 19, we are expected not to repeat the errors committed by the Jews. Ironically, Muslims repeated them to the letter. Muslims, soon after the prophet's death, started doubting the sufficiency and completeness of the Quran and asked many irrelevant and ridiculous questions. To answer those trivial questions, many people fabricated stories and instructions and attributed them to Muhammed and his companions. Two centuries after Muhammed's departure, some ignorant zealots such as Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, Nasai, and Ibn Hanbal started collecting and classifying the stories in numerous hadith books. These volumes of contradictory "holy fabrications" created a new occupation termed emamet, ijtihad or fiqh. Therefore, many emams, mujtahids, or fuqaha created numerous sects and orders by interpreting, reconciling, refuting and codifying these volumes of contradictory sources. These books fabricated numerous rules that included answers to frivolous questions such as: 1) in what order must one cut his fingernails, 2) with which feet must one enter the bathroom, or 3) with which hand must one eat? The blind followers of hadith and sunna are hypnotized into believing that they would not even be able to properly clean themselves in the bathroom unless they followed those teachings. Sectarian books contain chapters of extensive, yet primitive and occasionally unhealthy religious instructions on personal hygiene. Thus, God's system was transformed into the religion or sect of this or that scholar, and the medieval Arab culture and borrowings from Christians and Jews were sanctified. Through this story, God pulls our attention to the chronic cause of distortion and corruption in religion. Unfortunately, Muslims repeated the same blunder. See 5:6; 23:52; 42:21.
2:67 And Moses said to his people: "God orders you to slaughter a heifer." They said: "Do you mock us?" He said: "I seek refuge with God that I not be of the ignorant ones."
2:67 AND LO! Moses said unto his people: "Behold, God bids you to sacrifice a cow."53 They said: "Dost thou mock at us?" He answered: "I seek refuge with God against being so ignorant!"54
Lit., "lest I be one of the ignorant". The imputation of mockery was obviously due to the fact that Moses promulgated the above ordinance in very general terms, without specifying any details.
The Heifer2:67 Moses said to his people, "GOD commands you to sacrifice a heifer." They said, "Are you mocking us?" He said, "GOD forbid, that I should behave like the ignorant ones."16 ,
Although this sura contains important laws and commandments, including the contact prayers, fasting, Hajj pilgrimage, and the laws of marriage,divorce, etc., the name given to the sura is "The Heifer." This reflectsthe crucial importance of submission to God and immediate, unwavering obedienceto our Creator. Such submission proves our belief in God's omnipotence andabsolute authority. See also the Bible's Book of Numbers, Chapter 19.
2:67 And remember, Moses said to his people, “God commands you to sacrifice a cow.” They said, “Do you mock us?” He replied, “I seek shelter with God from being among the ignorant who mock people.”51
2:68 Qaloo odAAu lana rabbakayubayyin lana ma hiya qala innahu yaqooluinnaha baqaratun la faridun walabikrun AAawanun bayna thalika faifAAaloo matu/maroona
2:68 They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may clarify which it is." He said, "He says it is a heifer neither too old nor too young, an age between that. So now do as you are commanded."
2:68 They said: "Call upon your Lord for us that He may clarify which it is." He said: "He says it is a heifer neither too old nor too young, an age between that. So now do as you are commanded."
2:68 Said they: "Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what she is to be like." [Moses] replied: "Behold, He says it is to be a cow neither old nor immature, but of art age in-between. Do, then, what you have been bidden!"
2:68 They said, "Call upon your Lord to show us which one." He said, "He says that she is a heifer that is neither too old, nor too young; of an intermediate age. Now, carry out what you are commanded to do.",
2:68 (Now, they started making excuses.) They said, "Ask your Lord on our behalf to enlighten us as to what kind of a cow she is." He answered, “Indeed, He says that she is a cow neither too old nor too young. She is between the two conditions. Do, then, as commanded.”
2:69 Qaloo odAAu lana rabbakayubayyin lana ma lawnuha qala innahuyaqoolu innaha baqaratun safrao faqiAAunlawnuha tasurru alnnathireena
2:69 They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may clarify what color it is." He said, "He says it is a yellow heifer with a bright color, pleasing to those who see it."
2:69 They said: "Call upon your Lord for us that He may clarify what color it is." He said: "He says it is a yellow heifer with a strong color, pleasing to those who see it."
2:69 Said they: "Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what her colour should be. "[Mopes] answered: "Behold; He says it is to be a yellow cow, bright of hue, pleasing to the beholder."
2:69 They said, "Call upon your Lord to show us her color." He said, "He says that she is a yellow heifer, bright colored, pleases the beholders.",
2:69 (Then) they said, “Ask for us your Lord that He enlighten us as to what color she is.” He answered, “He says that she is a yellow cow. Bright is her color, pleasing to beholders.”
2:70 Qaloo odAAu lana rabbakayubayyin lana ma hiya inna albaqara tashabahaAAalayna wa-inna in shaa Allahulamuhtadoona
2:70 They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may clarify which one it is, for the heifers all look alike to us and we will, God willing, be guided."
2:70 They said: "Call upon your Lord for us that He may clarify which one it is, for the heifers all look alike to us and we will, God willing, be guided."
2:70 Said' they: "Pray on our behalf unto thy Sustainer that He make clear to us what she is to be like, for to us all cows resemble one another; and then, if God so wills, we shall truly be guided aright!"
2:70 They said, "Call upon your Lord to show us which one. The heifers look alike to us and, GOD willing, we will be guided.",
2:70 (Again) they said, “Call upon your Lord that He make it clear to us what exactly she is. To us all cows are much alike. If God so wills, we shall be rightly guided.”
2:71 Qala innahu yaqoolu innahabaqaratun la thaloolun tutheeru al-arda walatasqee alhartha musallamatun la shiyata feehaqaloo al-ana ji/ta bialhaqqi fathabahoohawama kadoo yafAAaloona
2:71 He said, "He says it is a heifer which was never subjugated to plough the land, or water the crops, free from any blemish." They said, "Now you have come with the truth." They slaughtered it, though they had nearly not done so.
2:71 He said: "He says it is a heifer which was never subjugated to plough the land, or water the crops, free from any blemish." They said: "Now you have come with the truth." And they slaughtered it, though they had nearly not done so.
2:71 [Moses] answered: "Behold, He says it is to be a cow not broken-in to plough the earth or to water the crops, free of fault, without markings of any other colour."Said they: "At last thou hast brought out the truth!"-and thereupon they sacrificed her, although they had almost left it undone.55
I.e., their obstinate desire to obtain closer and closer definitions of the simple commandment revealed to them through Moses had made it almost impossible for them to fulfil it. In his commentary on this passage; Tabari quotes the following remark of Ibn 'Abbas: "If [in the first instance] they had sacrificed any cow chosen by themselves, they would have fulfilled their duty; but they made it complicated for themselves, and so God made it complicated for them." A similar view has been expressed, in the same context, by Zamakhshari. It would appear that the moral of this story points to an important-problem of all (and, therefore, also of Islamic) religious jurisprudence: namely, the inadvisability of trying to elicit additional details in respect of any religious law that had originally been given in general terms-for, the more numerous and multiform such details become, the more complicated and rigid becomes the law. This point has been acutely grasped by Rashid Rida', who says in his commentary on the above Qur'anic passage (see Manar I, 345 f.): "Its lesson is that one should not pursue one's [legal] inquiries in such a way as to make laws more complicated .... This was how the early generations [of Muslims] visualized the problem. They did not make things complicated for themselves-and so, for them, the religious law (din) was natural, simple and liberal in its straightforwardness. But those who came later added to it [certain other] injunctions which they had deduced by means of their own reasoning (ijtihad); and they multiplied those [additional] injunctions to such an extent that the religious law became a heavy burden on the community." For the sociological reason why the genuine ordinances of Islamic Law - that is, those which have been prima facie laid down as such in the Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet-are almost always devoid of details, I would refer the reader to my book State and Government in Islam (pp. 11 ff. and passim). The importance of this problem, illustrated in the above story of the cow-and correctly grasped by the Prophet's Companions-explains why this surah has been entitled "The Cow". (See also 5:101 and the corresponding notes 120-123.)
2:71 He said, "He says that she is a heifer that was never humiliated in plowing the land or watering the crops; free from any blemish." They said, "Now you have brought the truth." They finally sacrificed her, after this lengthy reluctance.,
2:71 He answered, “Indeed, He says it is to be a cow that has not toiled in tilling the land nor in watering the crops and it is whole and healthy, unblemished.” They said, “Finally, you bring out a concrete description!” So they sacrificed her, although they would rather not have done it.52
2:72 Wa-ith qataltum nafsan faiddara/tumfeeha waAllahu mukhrijun ma kuntumtaktumoona
2:72 You had murdered a person, and then disputed in the matter; God was to bring out what you were keeping secret.
2:72 And you had murdered a person, then disputed in the matter; God was to bring out what you were keeping secret.
2:72 For, O children of Israel, because you had slain a human being and then cast the blame for this [crime] upon one another -although God will bring to light what you would conceals56
See note 53 above. The use of the plural "you" implies the principle of collective, communal responsibility stipulated by Mosaic Law in cases of murder by a person or persons unknown. God's bringing the guilt to light obviously refers to the Day of Judgment.
2:72 You had killed a soul, then disputed among yourselves. GOD was to expose what you tried to conceal.,
2:72 Recall! A person was slain and you were casting blame on each other. So God brought forth what you were hiding.
2:73 Faqulna idriboohu bibaAAdihakathalika yuhyee Allahu almawtawayureekum ayatihi laAAallakum taAAqiloona
2:73 We said, "Strike him with its parts." It is thus that God brings the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you may reason.26
By transferring the DNA of a heifer to old tissues thereby reversing its age, biochemists perhaps have scientifically realized this miraculous event in our times. See 4:82.
2:73 We said: "Strike him with parts from it." It is thus that God brings the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you may comprehend.
2:73 We said: "Apply this [principle] to some of those [cases of unresolved murder]:57 in this way God saves lives from death and shows you His will, so that you might [learn to] use your reason."58
The phrase idribuhu bi-ba'diha can be literally translated as "strike him [or "it"] with something of her [or "it"]" -and this possibility has given rise to the fanciful assertion by many commentators that the children of Israel were commanded to strike the corpse of the murdered man with some of the flesh of the sacrificed cow, whereupon he was miraculously restored to life and pointed out his murderer! Neither the Qur'an, nor any saying of the Prophet, nor even the Bible offers the slightest warrant for this highly imaginative explanation, which must, therefore, be rejected-quite apart from the fact that the pronoun hu in idribuhu has a masculine gender, while the noun nafs (here translated as "human being") is feminine in gender: from which it follows that the imperative idribuhu cannot possibly refer to nafs. On the other hand, the verb daraba (lit., "he struck") is very often used in a figurative or metonymic sense, as, for instance, in the expression daraba fi 'l-ard ("he journeyed on earth"), or daraba 'sh-shay' bi'sh-shay' ("he mixed one thing with another thing"), or daraba mathal ("he coined a similitude" or "propounded a parable" or "gave an illustration"), or `ala darb wahid ("similarly applied" or "in the same manner"), or duribat `alayhim adh-dhillah ("humiliation was imposed on them" or "applied to them"), and so forth. Taking all this into account, I am of the opinion that the imperative idribuhu occurring in the above Qur'anic passage must be translated as "apply it" or "this" (referring, in this context, to the principle of communal responsibility). As for the feminine pronoun ha in ba'diha ("some of it"), it must necessarily relate to the nearest preceding feminine noun-that is, to the nafs that has been murdered, or the act of murder itself about which (fiha) the community disagreed. Thus, the phrase idribuhu bi-ba'diha may be suitably rendered as "apply this [principle] to some of those [cases of unresolved murder]": for it is obvious that the principle of communal responsibility for murder by a person or persons unknown can be applied only to some and not to all such cases.
Lit., "God gives life to the dead and shows you His messages" (i.e., He shows His will by means of such messages or ordinances). The figurative expression "He gives life to the dead" denotes the saving of lives, and is analogous to that in 5:32 . In this context it refers to the prevention of bloodshed and the killing of innocent persons (Manar I, 351), be it through individual acts of revenge, or in result of an erroneous judicial process based on no more than vague suspicion and possibly misleading circumstantial evidence.
Purpose of the Heifer2:73 We said, "Strike (the victim) with part (of the heifer)." That is when GOD brought the victim back to life, and showed you His signs, that you may understand.,
2:73 We said, “Connect the pieces of evidence that each one of you has (and the case will be resolved). This is how God gives life to the dead. And He expounds His messages for you to use your common sense.53
There is life for you in the law of Just Recompense. A law that deters murder and, thus, saves lives, in fact, gives you life 2:179. Another explanation: The Mosaic law, according to the Bible, ordains the sacrifice of a cow in cases of unsolved murder. The elders of the town wash their hands and say: “Our hands have not shed this blood, nor have our eyes seen it.” The community is then absolved of the collective responsibility Deuteronomy 21:1-9 . In this particular instance the mystery was solved and the murderer was identified
2:74 Thumma qasat quloobukum min baAAdi thalikafahiya kaalhijarati aw ashaddu qaswatanwa-inna mina alhijarati lama yatafajjaruminhu al-anharu wa-inna minha lamayashshaqqaqu fayakhruju minhu almao wa-inna minhalama yahbitu min khashyati Allahi wamaAllahu bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloona
2:74 Despite this, your hearts hardened; like rocks. Or even harder, since some rocks allow rivers to gush out, others crack and release water, and some rocks fall down out of reverence for God. God is never unaware of what you do.
2:74 Then your hearts became hardened after that, they became like stone or even harder; but even from stone there are rivers that burst forth, and from them are those that crack so that the water comes forth, and from them are what descends from concern towards God; and God is not unaware of what you do.
2:74 And yet, after all this, your hearts hardened and became like rocks, or even harder: for, behold, there are rocks from which streams gush forth; and, behold, there are some from which, when they are cleft, water issues; and, behold, there are some that fall down for awe of God59 And God is not unmindful of what you do!
For an explanation of this allusion, see 7:143. The simile of "the rocks from which streams gush forth" or "from which water issues" serves to illustrate its opposite, namely, dryness and lack of life, and is thus an allusion to the spiritual barrenness with which the Qur'an charges the children of Israel .
2:74 Despite this, your hearts hardened like rocks, or even harder. For there are rocks from which rivers gush out. Others crack and release gentle streams, and other rocks cringe out of reverence for GOD. GOD is never unaware of anything you do.,
2:74 Then, even after that, you persisted in defiance so much so that your hearts became hardened as rocks, impermeable to reason or even worse. For, there are rocks out of which streams gush forth, and there are rocks that split asunder so that streams flow from them. And yet there are rocks that become soft in awe of God. God is not unaware of what you do.54
Rocks may become soft according to Divine laws in nature. They are more compliant than the hearts that defy reason
2:75 AfatatmaAAoona an yu/minoo lakumwaqad kana fareequn minhum yasmaAAoona kalama Allahithumma yuharrifoonahu min baAAdi ma AAaqaloohuwahum yaAAlamoona
2:75 Did you expect that they would acknowledge for you, when a group of them had heard God's words then altered them knowingly after what they had reasoned?
2:75 Did you expect that they would believe with you, when a group of them had heard the words of God then altered them knowingly after having understood?
2:75 CAN YOU, then, hope that they will believe in what you are preaching60 - seeing that a good many of them were wont to listen to the word of God and then, after having understood it, to pervert it knowingly?61
Here the Muslims are addressed. In the early period of Islam-and especially after their exodus to Medina, where many Jews were then living-the Muslims expected that the Jews, with their monotheistic beliefs, would be the first to rally to the message of the Qur'an: a hope that was disappointed because the Jews regarded their own religion as a kind of national heritage reserved to the children of Israel alone, and did not believe in the necessity -or possibility -of anew revelation.
Cf. Jeremiah xxiii, 26-"Ye have perverted the words of the living God".
Distorting the Word of God2:75 Do you expect them to believe as you do, when some of them used to hear the word of GOD, then distort it, with full understanding thereof, and deliberately?,
2:75 Do you still hope that they will join your ranks in faith? A party among them used to listen to the Word of God in the Torah, then, distorted its words and true meanings, after they had understood it. And they knew full well what they were doing!
2:76 Wa-itha laqoo allatheena amanooqaloo amanna wa-itha khalabaAAduhum ila baAAdin qaloo atuhaddithoonahumbima fataha Allahu AAalaykum liyuhajjookumbihi AAinda rabbikum afala taAAqiloona
2:76 When they come across those who acknowledge, they say, "We acknowledge!", and when they are alone with each other they say, "Why do you inform them about what God has said to us? Then, they would use it in an argument against us at your Lord. Do you not reason?"
2:76 And when they come across those who believe, they say: "We believe!" And when they are alone with each other they say: "Why do you inform them of what God has said to us? Then they would use it in argument against us at your Lord. Do you not comprehend?"
2:76 For, when they meet those who have attained to faith. they say, "We believe [as you believe]" - but when they find themselves alone with one another, they say. "Do you inform them of what God has disclosed to you, so that they might use it in argument against you, quoting the words of your Sustainer?62 Will you not. then, use your reason?"
Lit., "before [or "in the sight of"] your Sustainer". Most of the commentators '(e.g , Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi) agree in that the expression "your Sustainer" stands here for "that which your Sustainer has revealed", namely, the Biblical prophecy relating to the: coming. of a, , prophet "from among the brethren" of the children of Israel , and that, therefore, the above phrase implies an argument on the basis of the Jews' own scriptures. (See also note 33 above.)
Concealing the Word of God2:76 And when they meet the believers, they say, "We believe," but when they get together with each other, they say, "Do not inform (the believers)of the information given to you by GOD, lest you provide them with support for their argument concerning your Lord. Do you not understand?",
2:76 And when they meet with those who have attained belief, they say, “We have attained belief.” But when they meet each other in private, they say, “Would you inform them (the Muslims) of what God has disclosed to you? Therewith they may engage you in argument before your Lord. Will you not, then, use your sense?”55
‘What God has disclosed to you’ = "The Lord your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from among your brethren – him you shall heed --- I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren; and I will put my words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him." Deuteronomy 18:15-18
2:77 Awa la yaAAlamoona anna AllahayaAAlamu ma yusirroona wama yuAAlinoona
2:77 Do they not know that God knows what they conceal and what they declare?
2:77 Do they not know that God knows what they conceal and what they declare?
2:77 Do they not know, then, that God is aware of all that they would conceal as well as of all that they bring into the open?
2:77 Do they not know that GOD knows everything they conceal, and everything they declare?,
2:77 Do they not realize that God knows what they conceal and what they reveal?
2:78 Waminhum ommiyyoona la yaAAlamoonaalkitaba illa amaniyya wa-in hum illayathunnoona
2:78 Amongst them are Gentiles who do not know the book except by hearsay, and they only conjecture.27
2:78 And among them are Gentiles who do not know the Book except by hearsay, and they only conjecture.
2:78 And there are among them unlettered people who have no real knowledge of the divine writ,63 [following] only wishful beliefs and depending on nothing but conjecture.
In this case, the Old Testament.
2:78 Among them are gentiles who do not know the scripture, except through hearsay, then assume that they know it.,
2:78 Among them are unlettered people who do not know the scripture, but learn their wishful beliefs through hearsay. They depend on nothing but conjecture.
2:79 Fawaylun lillatheena yaktuboona alkitababi-aydeehim thumma yaqooloona hatha min AAindi Allahiliyashtaroo bihi thamanan qaleelan fawaylun lahum mimmakatabat aydeehim wawaylun lahum mimma yaksiboona
Those Who Attribute Their Religious Fabrications to God2:79 So woe to those who write the book with their hands then say, "This is from God," so that they can seek a cheap gain! Woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for what they have gained.28
Rabbinic Judaism is based not only on the Old Testament, but also on the Talmud. Like the followers of Hadith, Sunna and sectarian Sharia, Orthodox Jews consider the Talmud (Mishna hearsay and commentaries called Gemara) and Talmudic Halakha (sharia, or rules of life) to be a supplement or explanation of the Old Testament. The first five books of the Old Testament are attributed to Moses but there are many clues that indicate they were written long after Moses by anonymous authors. For instance, there are many verses in the first five books referring to Moses as a third person, and the last chapter of Deuteronomy is dedicated to Moses' death, which contains the following statements, "And Moses the servant of the Lord died there in Moab… Since then, no prophet has risen in Israel like Moses…" Obviously, a dead person could not have written his own obituary.
This is just one of the many evidences showing that not only the divine nature of the Old Testament, but even the identity of its alleged human authors, is in question. What was the Mysterious Q document? Are the first five books of the Old Testament a mishmash of Yahwist, Elohist, Deuteronomistic, and Priestly Writings? Why are 2 Kings 19 and Isaiah 37 identical word for word? Who wrote the Bible? Why are there so many contradictions in the Bible? These are but a few of the many questions Biblical scholars have wrestled with for centuries. Similar questions are valid for the Gospels. Though they may contain many words from the message delivered by Jesus, they were written about a century after his death and were handpicked by the Trinitarian faction of the Church in the fourth century. Thus, they are not Gospels according to God, or Jesus, but rather Gospels according to this man or that man, people who never met Jesus and who were influenced more by the teaching of St. Paul, a Pharisee who also never met Jesus and was rejected by the real disciples of Jesus. For instance, see Matthew 9:9 . See Old Testament, Jeremiah 8:8 . Also, see the Quran 2:59; 5:13, 41-44; 7:162; 9:30.
2:79 So woe to those who write the Book with their hands then say: "This is from God," so that they can purchase with it a cheap price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they gained.
2:79 Woe, then, unto those who write down, with their own hands, [something which they claim to be] divine writ, and then say. "This is from God," in order to acquire a trifling gain thereby;64 woe, then, unto them for what their hands have written, and woe unto them for all that they may have gained!
The reference here is to the scholars responsible for corrupting the' text of the Bible and thus misleading their ignorant followers. The "trifling gain" is their feeling of pre-eminence as the alleged "chosen people".
2:79 Therefore, woe to those who distort the scripture with their own hands, then say, "This is what GOD has revealed," seeking a cheap material gain. Woe to them for such distortion, and woe to them for their illicit gains.,
2:79 Then, lost are those (their scholars) who write the scripture with their own hands and then claim, “This is from God.” They traffic it for petty gains. And loss is to them for what they write, and for the illicit profits they make thereby.”
2:80 Waqaloo lan tamassana alnnaruilla ayyaman maAAdoodatan qul attakhathtumAAinda Allahi AAahdan falan yukhlifa AllahuAAahdahu am taqooloona AAala Allahi ma lataAAlamoona
2:80 They said, "The fire will not touch us except for a few number of days." Say, "Have you taken a pledge with God? If so, then God will not break His pledge. Or do you say about God what you do not know?"
2:80 And they said: "The Fire will not touch us except for a few number of days." Say: "Have you taken a pledge with God? If so, then God will not break His pledge. Or do you say about God what you do not know?"
2:80 And they say, "The fire will most certainly not touch us for more than a limited number of days."65 Say [unto them]: "Have you received a promise from God - for God never breaks His promise - or do you attribute to God something which you cannot know?"
According to popular Jewish belief, even the sinners from among the children of Israel will suffer only very limited punishment in the life to come, and will be' quickly reprieved by virtue of their belonging to "the chosen people": a belief which the Qur'an rejects.
Eternity of Heaven and Hell2:80 Some have said, "Hell will not touch us, except for a limited number of days." Say, "Have you taken such a pledge from GOD - GOD never breaks His pledge - or, are you saying about GOD what you do not know?"17 ,
It is an established belief among corrupted Muslims that they will suffer in Hell only in proportion to the number of sins they had committed,then they will get out of Hell and go to Heaven. They also believe that Muhammadwill intercede on their behalf, and will take them out of Hell. Such beliefs are contrary to the Quran (Appendix 8).
2:80 Yet they say, “The fire will not touch us but for a few numbered days.” Say, “Have you received a promise from God? – For, God never breaks His promise. Or is it that you say things about God that you have no knowledge of?”
2:81 Bala man kasaba sayyi-atan waahatatbihi khatee-atuhu faola-ika as-habu alnnarihum feeha khalidoona
2:81 Indeed, whoever gains a bad deed and his mistakes surround him; those are the people of the fire, there they abide eternally.
2:81 Indeed, whoever gains a sin, and is surrounded by his mistakes; those are the people of the Fire, in it they will abide.
2:81 Yea! Those who earn evil and by their sinfulness are engulfed - they are destined for the fire. therein to abide;
2:81 Indeed, those who earn sins and become surrounded by their evil work will be the dwellers of Hell; they abide in it forever.,
2:81 Nay, but those who disrupt the lives of others, and their crimes surround them, are the rightful dwellers of the fire. Therein they will abide.
2:82 Waallatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati ola-ika as-habualjannati hum feeha khalidoona
2:82 Those who acknowledge and promote reforms, they are the people of paradise, in it they abide eternally.
2:82 And those who believe and do good works, they are the people of the Paradise, in it they will abide.
2:82 whereas those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds -they are destined for paradise, therein to abide.
2:82 As for those who believe, and lead a righteous life, they will be the dwellers of Paradise; they abide in it forever.,
2:82 And those who choose to be graced with belief, and do acts of benevolence; those are the rightful dwellers of Paradise. Therein they will abide.
2:83 Wa-ith akhathna meethaqabanee isra-eela la taAAbudoona illa Allahawabialwalidayni ihsanan watheealqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeniwaqooloo lilnnasi husnan waaqeemoo alssalatawaatoo alzzakata thumma tawallaytum illaqaleelan minkum waantum muAAridoona
Covenant With the Children of Israel2:83 We took the covenant of the Children of Israel, "You shall not serve except God, and regard your parents, and regard the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and say kind things to the people, and observe the Contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment." Then you turned away, except a few of you; you were objecting.
2:83 And We took the covenant of the Children of Israel: "You shall not serve except God, and do good to your parents, and regard the relatives, and the orphans, and the needy, and say kind things to the people, and hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification." But then you turned away, except for a few of you; you were objecting.
2:83 AND LO! We accepted this solemn pledge from [you,] ' the children of Israel:66 "You shall worship none but God; and you shall do good unto your parents and kinsfolk, and the orphans, and the poor; and you shall speak unto all people in a kindly way; and you shall be constant in prayer; and you shall spend in charity.67 "And yet, save for a few of you, you turned away: for you are obstinate folk!68
In the preceding passages, the children of Israel have been reminded of the favours that were bestowed on them. Now, however, the Qur'an -reminds them of the fact that the way of righteousness has indeed been shown to them by means of explicit social and moral injunctions: and this reminder flows directly from the statement that the human condition in the life to come depends exclusively on the manner of one's life in this word, and not on one's descent.
See note 34 above.
The Old Testament contains many allusions to the waywardness and stubborn rebelliousness of the children of Israel - e.g., Exodus xxxii, 9, xxxii, 3, xxxiv, 9; Deuteronomy by, 6-8, 23-24, 27.
The Commandments2:83 We made a covenant with the Children of Israel: "You shall not worship except GOD. You shall honor your parents and regard the relatives, the orphans, and the poor. You shall treat the people amicably. You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat)." But you turned away, except a few of you, and you became averse.,
2:83 (God never promised unconditional favors to any nation, the Children of Israel being no exception.) And remember when We took a Covenant from the Children of Israel, “Serve none but God, Be generous to your parents, And to family and relatives, To orphans, widows, and those left without any means of support to make progress in the society, To those who have suffered loss of income, the disabled, the needy, and the poor, Speak to people kindly, And treat them nicely, Help establish the Divinely ordained System of Life (Salaat), And set up the Economic Order of Zakaat.” Then, after that, you slid back, except a few of you. And you turn away from these commandments even now.56
Salaat = To follow closely, like a runner-up Musalli follows the winning horse Saabiq =Follow God’s commands closely. Aqimussallat = Establish the System that facilitates the following of Divine Commands. 2:3.Zakaat= Divinely ordained Economic Order in which people work according to their capacity and get compensated according to their needs. It is the System in which all members of the society flourish and, with their basic needs having been met, they are able to rise up on the ladder of self-actualization. The cornerstone of this Economic Order: The God-given natural resources and wealth are the common property of all, and every individual willfully leaves for the welfare of others whatever is over and above his needs. The Central Authority will be responsible for administering and maintaining the Order of Zakaat.2:219, 22:41, 27:12, 53:39.
Unfortunately, under the influence of fabricated Hadith, most commentators of the Qur’an confuse Zakaat with Sadaqaat. The latter means voluntary charity. See verse 9:60. It describes eight categories of the recipients of charity and not of Zakaat. With the solitary exception of Allama G.A. Parwez, to my knowledge, all commentators fail to notice the word Sadaqaat and somehow ‘misread’ the word Zakaat which is not there in that verse. So powerful is the influence of blind following! The current 2.5% giving of one's wealth and the complex and contradictory details of Fiqhassociated with it find no authority in the Qur’an. One example is the flagrant disparity between the compulsory 'charity or poor-due' to be paid by a rich man who possesses gold versus a poor man who possesses some silver. The poor will pay charity on less than one tenth of what the wealthy has! Ihsan= An act of balance = Restoring symmetry and beauty = Social and individual equity = Selfless service = An act of equity. Yateem = Orphan = Who is left alone in the society = Lonely = Without immediate family = Helpless = Derivatively, a widow. Miskeen = The needy poor = One with no means to earn livelihood = The disabled = One whose life has stalled for any reason = Jobless = Truly bankrupt of finances = One whose running business has stalled. 17:23, 29:8, 46:15, 4:36, 6:151, 2:177, 2:215, 17:26
2:84 Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakumla tasfikoona dimaakum wala tukhrijoonaanfusakum min diyarikum thumma aqrartum waantum tashhadoona
2:84 We have taken a covenant with you, "You shall not spill each other's blood, nor drive each other out from your homes." You agreed to this while bearing witness.
2:84 And We have taken a covenant with you: "You shall not spill the blood of each other, nor expel each other from your homes." And you agreed to this while bearing witness.
2:84 And lo! We accepted your solemn pledge that you would not shed one another's blood, and would not drive one another from your homelands - whereupon you acknowledged it; and thereto you bear witness [even now].
2:84 We made a covenant with you, that you shall not shed your blood, nor shall you evict each other from your homes. You agreed and bore witness.,
2:84 And watch out! We accepted your solemn pledge that you would desist from mutual bloodshed, and from evicting your own people from your townships. This is what you agreed to and you were witnesses to it.
2:85 ثم انتم هؤلاء تقتلون انفسكم وتخرجون فريقا منكم من ديرهم تظهرون عليهم بالاثم والعدون وان ياتوكم اسرى تفدوهم وهو محرم عليكم اخراجهم افتؤمنون ببعض الكتب وتكفرون ببعض فما جزاء من يفعل ذلك منكم الا خزى فى الحيوة الدنيا ويوم القيمة يردون الى اشد العذاب وما الله بغفل عما تعملون
2:85 Thumma antum haola-itaqtuloona anfusakum watukhrijoona fareeqan minkum min diyarihimtathaharoona AAalayhim bial-ithmi waalAAudwaniwa-in ya/tookum osara tufadoohum wahuwa muharramunAAalaykum ikhrajuhum afatu/minoona bibaAAdi alkitabiwatakfuroona bibaAAdin fama jazao manyafAAalu thalika minkum illa khizyun fee alhayatialddunya wayawma alqiyamati yuraddoona ilaashaddi alAAathabi wama Allahu bighafilinAAamma taAAmaloona
2:85 But here you are killing each other and driving out a group of you from their homes; you act towards them with evil and animosity. If they come to you as prisoners, you ransom them while it was forbidden for you to drive them out! Do you acknowledge some of the book and reject some? The punishment for those amongst you who do so is humiliation in this worldly life; and on the day of Resurrection, they will be returned to the most severe retribution. God is not oblivious of what you all do.
2:85 But then here you are killing each other and expelling a group of you from their homes; you act towards them with evil and animosity. And if they come to you as prisoners, you ransom them while it was unlawful for you to expel them! Do you believe in part of the Book and disbelieve in part? The punishment for those among you who do so is humiliation in this worldly life, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be delivered to the most severe retribution. God is not unaware of what you all do.
2:85 And yet, it is you who slay one another and drive some of your own people from their homelands, aiding one another against them in sin and hatred; but if they come to you as captives, you ransom them - although the very [act of] driving them away has been made unlawful to you!69 . Do you, then, believe in some parts of the divine writ and deny the truth pf other parts? What, then, could be the reward of those among you who do such things but ignominy in the life of this world and, on the Day of Resurrection, commitment to most grievous suffering? For God is not unmindful of what you do.
This is a reference to the conditions prevailing at Medina at the time of the Prophet's hijrah. The two Arab tribes of Medina - AI-Aws and Khazraj - were, in pre-Islamic times permanently at war with one another; and out of the three Jewish tribes living there-the Banu Qaynuqa', Banu 'n-Nadir and Banu Qurayzah - the first-named two were allied with Khazraj, while the third was allied with Al-Aws. Thus, in the course of their warfare, Jew would kill Jew in alliance with pagans ("aiding one another in sin and hatred"): a twofold crime from the viewpoint of Mosaic Law. Nevertheless, they would subsequently ransom their mutual captives in obedience to that very same Law -and it is this glaring inconsistency to which the Qur'an alludes in the next sentence.
2:85 Yet, here you are killing each other, and evicting some of you from their homes, banding against them sinfully and maliciously. Even when they surrendered, you demanded ransom from them. Evicting them was prohibited for you in the first place. Do you believe in part of the scripture and disbelieve in part? What should be the retribution for those among you who do this, except humiliation in this life, and a far worse retribution on the Day of Resurrection? GOD is never unaware of anything you do.,
2:85 Yet it is you who subdue and slay your own people, and evict a weak faction among you from their homes. And you support one another in hurting the community and sowing the seeds of discord. And when these homeless people get enslaved by others and are brought to you, you ransom them, whereas it was unlawful for you to evict them in the first place. What! Do you wish to accept one part of the scripture and reject the other? Think then, what the reward of such wrongdoing must be - nothing but disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection the most grievous chastisement. God is not unaware of what you do.57
The verse is referring to the Jewish community of MadinahMedina, but as is always the case in the Qur’an, the commands have a wide historical applicability; in this case, to oppressive societies anywhere anytime. Ithm = Any action that depletes individual or communal energy. ‘Udwaan and its derivatives = Wedge = Creating distance between hearts = Discord = Crossing the bounds of law = Committing excesses = Deeds beyond decency = Transgressing moral values
2:86 Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawooalhayata alddunya bial-akhiratifala yukhaffafu AAanhumu alAAathabu wala humyunsaroona
2:86 These are the ones who have purchased this lowly/worldly life instead of the Hereafter. The retribution will not be reduced for them, nor will they be supported.
2:86 These are the ones who have purchased this worldly life instead of the Hereafter. The retribution will not be reduced for them, nor will they be supported.
2:86 All who buy the life of this world at the price of the life to come - their suffering shall not be lightened, nor shall they be succoured!
2:86 It is they who bought this lowly life at the expense of the Hereafter. Consequently, the retribution is never commuted for them, nor can they be helped.,
2:86 These are the ones who buy instant gratification in exchange for Eternity. The logical consequence of this trade is relentless suffering in a state of utter helplessness.58
Numerous verses underscore the point that the Law of Cause and Effect has no room for making amends in the Hereafter, therefore, the helplessness. Duniya = This world = Immediate gains = Short term benefits = Short-sightedness = Disregarding the Law of Cause and Effect = Forsaking the Future. Aakhirah = Hereafter = Life to come = Eternity = Long term = Far-sightedness = Future = Logical outcome = Tomorrow as built on today
2:87 Walaqad atayna moosaalkitaba waqaffayna min baAAdihi bialrrusuliwaatayna AAeesa ibna maryama albayyinatiwaayyadnahu biroohi alqudusi afakullama jaakumrasoolun bima la tahwa anfusukumuistakbartum fafareeqan kaththabtum wafareeqan taqtuloona
2:87 We gave Moses the book, and after him, We sent the messengers. Later We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and We supported Him with the Holy Spirit. Is it that every time a messenger comes to you with what your minds do not desire, you become arrogant? A group of them you deny, and a group of them you fight/kill!
2:87 And We gave Moses the Book, and after him We sent the messengers. And We gave Jesus, son of Mary, the clear proofs, and We supported him with the Holy Spirit. Is it that every time a messenger comes to you with what your souls do not desire, you become arrogant? A group of them you deny, and a group of them you kill!
2:87 For, indeed, We vouchsafed unto Moses the divine writ and caused apostle after apostle to follow him;70 and We vouchsafed unto Jesus, the son of Mary, all evidence of the truth, and strengthened him with holy inspiration.71 [Yet] is it not so that every time an apostle came unto you with something that was not to your liking, you gloried in your arrogance, and to some of them you gave the lie, while others you would slay?72
Lit., "We caused him to be followed, after his time, by [all] the other apostles": a stress upon the continuous succession of prophets among the Jews (see Tabari, Zamakhshari, Razi, Ibn Kathir), which fact deprives them of any excuse of ignorance.
This rendering of ruh al-qudus (lit., "the spirit of holiness") is based on the recurring use in the Qur'an of the term rah in the sense of "divine inspiration". It is also recorded that the Prophet invoked the blessing of the ruh al-qudus on his Companion, the poet Hassan ibn Thabit (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud and Tirmidhi): just as the Qur'an (58:22) speaks of all believers as being "strengthened by inspiration (ruh) from Him".
Lit., "and some you are slaying". The change from the past tense observed throughout this sentence to the present tense in the verb taqtulun ("you are slaying") is meant to express a conscious intent in this respect and, thus, a persistent, ever-recurring trait in Jewish history (Manar I, 377), to which also the New Testament refers (Matthew xxiii, 34-35, 37), and I Thessalonians ii, 15).
The Prophets of Israel2:87 We gave Moses the scripture, and subsequent to him we sent other messengers, and we gave Jesus, son of Mary, profound miracles and supported him with the Holy Spirit. Is it not a fact that every time a messenger went to you with anything you disliked, your ego caused you to be arrogant? Some of them you rejected, and some of them you killed.,
2:87 We gave the scripture to Moses, and after him We sent a succession of Messengers. And We gave Jesus, son of Mary (Mariam), clear evidence of the truth and We strengthened him with Ruh-il-Qudus. Yet, is it not the case that whenever a Messenger came to you with messages that did not conform to your desires, you resorted to self-glorification? And some of them you called impostors, and others you killed or tried to subdue.59
2:88 Waqaloo quloobuna ghulfun ballaAAanahumu Allahu bikufrihim faqaleelan mayu/minoona
2:88 They said, "Our hearts are uncircumcised/covered!" No, it is God who has cursed them for their rejection, for very little do they acknowledge.
2:88 And they said: "Our hearts are sealed!" No, it is God who has cursed them for their rejection, for very little do they believe.
2:88 But they say, "Our hearts are already full of knowledge."73 Nay, but God has rejected them because of their refusal to acknowledge the truth: for, few are the things in which they believe.74
Lit., "our hearts are repositories [of knowledge]'-'- an allusion to the boast of the Jews that in view of the religious knowledge which they already possess, they are in no need of any further preaching (Ibn Kathir, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; identical explanations are mentioned by Tabari and Zamakhshari).
i.e., all their beliefs are centred on themselves and their alleged "exceptional" status in the sight of God.
Tragic Statement: "My mind is made up!"2:88 Some would say, "Our minds are made up!" Instead, it is a curse from GOD, as a consequence of their disbelief, that keeps them from believing, except for a few of them.,
2:88 And they say, “Our hearts are bags of knowledge.” Nay, but God has deprived them of His grace for their persistent rejection of the truth. Therefore, only a few of them will choose to believe.60
2:6. La’nah = Curse = Deprivation of God’s grace = God’s rejection = Condemnation = Losing citizenship of the Islamic State = To be downgraded = Abasement = Lasting humiliation
2:89 Walamma jaahum kitabunmin AAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahumwakanoo min qablu yastaftihoona AAala allatheenakafaroo falamma jaahum ma AAarafoo kafaroobihi falaAAnatu Allahi AAala alkafireena
Authenticating the Previous book2:89 At a time when they were asking for victory against those who were unappreciative a book came to them from God, authenticating what is with them. But when what they knew came to them they did not appreciate it! God's curse is upon the ingrates.
2:89 And when a Book came to them from God, authenticating what is with them; while before that they were mocking those who rejected; so when what they knew came to them, they rejected it! The curse of God be upon the rejecters.
2:89 And whenever there came unto them a [new] revelation from God, confirming the truth already in their possession-and [bear in mind that] aforetime they used to pray for victory over those who were bent on denying the truth -: whenever there came unto them something which they recognized [as the truth], they would deny it. And God's rejection is the due of all who deny the truth.
The Quran Consummates All Scriptures2:89 When this scripture came to them from GOD, and even though it agrees with, and confirms what they have, and even though they used to prophesy its advent when they talked with the disbelievers, when their own prophecy came to pass, they disbelieved therein. GOD's condemnation thus afflicts the disbelievers.,
2:89 Whenever revelation from God is delivered to them, confirming (the truth in) what they have, they flatly deny it! Yet, before that, they had been praying for winning the hearts of those who denied all Divine revelation. And now that a message has come to them that they very well recognize, they deny it and conceal (what they know). God’s condemnation is the due of all those who turn ungrateful.61
2:90 Bi/sama ishtaraw bihi anfusahum anyakfuroo bima anzala Allahu baghyan an yunazzilaAllahu min fadlihi AAala man yashaomin AAibadihi fabaoo bighadabin AAalaghadabin walilkafireena AAathabun muheenun
2:90 Miserable indeed is with what they traded themselves by not appreciating what God has sent down. They did so because of their resentment that God would send down from His grace to whom He pleases from among His servants; thus, they have incurred wrath upon wrath. The ingrates will have a humiliating retribution.
2:90 Miserable indeed is what they purchase with their souls, that they disbelieve in what God has sent down as a resentment that God would send down from His grace to whom He pleases of His servants; thus they have incurred wrath upon wrath. And the rejecters will have a humiliating retribution.
2:90 Vile is that [false pride] for which they have sold their own selves by denying the truth of what God has bestowed from on high, out of envy that God should bestow aught of His favour upon whomsoever He wills of His servants:75 and thus have they earned the burden of God's condemnation, over and over. And for those who deny the truth there is shameful suffering in store.
i.e. out of envy that God should bestow revelation upon anyone but a descendant of Israel - in this particular instance, upon the Arabian Prophet, Muhammad.
2:90 Miserable indeed is what they sold their souls for - rejecting these revelations of GOD out of sheer resentment that GOD should bestow His grace upon whomever He chooses from among His servants. Consequently, they incurred wrath upon wrath. The disbelievers have incurred a humiliating retribution.,
2:90 Awful is the price for which they sell their own ‘self’. They reject what God has revealed, complaining grudgingly as to why God should bestow His bounty of revelation to whomever He may elect among His servants! Thus, (for their bias) they have experienced bitter consequences of their misdeeds again and again. And for all those who oppose the truth, the logical consequence is a humiliating suffering.62
Ghadhab= Opposite of blessing = Bitter consequences = Logical results of defying Divine laws = Physical and mental destitution for defying God = Suffering loss = Incorrectly translated as anger or wrath in relation to God. See 1:7, 2:61. Grudgingly: They cannot get over the fact that God has elected a non-Israelite Prophet. 2:97, 2:100, 2:142, 5:18, 7:157
2:91 Wa-itha qeela lahum aminoo bimaanzala Allahu qaloo nu/minu bima onzilaAAalayna wayakfuroona bima waraahu wahuwa alhaqqumusaddiqan lima maAAahum qul falima taqtuloonaanbiyaa Allahi min qablu in kuntum mu/mineena
2:91 If it is said to them, "Acknowledge what God has sent down," they say, "We acknowledge only what was sent down to us," and they do not appreciate what came after it, while it is the truth authenticating what is with them. Say, "Why then did you fight/kill God's prophets if you were those who acknowledge?"
2:91 And if it is said to them: "Believe in what God has sent down;" they say: "We believe only in what was sent down to us," and they reject what came after it, while it is the truth authenticating what is with them. Say: "Why then did you kill the prophets of God if you were believers?"
2:91 For when they are told, "Believe in what God has bestowed from on high," they reply, "We believe [only] in what has been bestowed on us"-and they deny the truth of everything else, although it be a truth confirming the one already in their possession. Say "Why, then, did you slay God's prophets aforetime, if you were (truly] believers?"76
A reference to their assertion that they believe in what has been revealed to them -i.e., the Law of Moses, which obviously prohibits the killing not only of prophets but of any innocent human being. See also the concluding sentences of verses 61 and 87, and the corresponding notes.
2:91 When they are told, "You shall believe in these revelations of GOD," they say, "We believe only in what was sent down to us." Thus, they disbelieve in subsequent revelations, even if it is the truth from their Lord, and even though it confirms what they have! Say, "Why then did you kill GOD's prophets, if you were believers?",
2:91 When it is said to them, “Believe in what God has revealed”, they say, “We only accept what has been sent to us.” And they reject all besides that, even though it is the truth confirming what they possess. Say, “(If you claim to believe in the scripture that you have), then why did you oppose and even slay the Prophets of God before, if you were believers?”63
2:92 Walaqad jaakum moosa bialbayyinatithumma ittakhathtumu alAAijla min baAAdihi waantum thalimoona
2:92 Moses had come to you with clear proofs, then you took the calf after him; you were wicked!*
2:92 And Moses had come to you with clear proofs, then you took the calf after him; you were wicked!
2:92 And indeed, there came unto you Moses with all evidence of the truth - and thereupon. in his absence, you took to worshipping the (golden] calf, and acted wickedly.
Learning From Israel's History2:92 Moses went to you with profound miracles, yet you worshipped the calf in his absence, and you turned wicked.,
2:92 Moses came to you with all evidence of the truth, yet you worshiped the golden calf in his absence! You did, thus, exchange the Right with the Wrong and hurt yourselves.
2:93 Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakumwarafaAAna fawqakumu alttoora khuthooma ataynakum biquwwatin waismaAAoo qaloosamiAAna waAAasayna waoshriboo feequloobihimu alAAijla bikufrihim qul bi/sama ya/murukumbihi eemanukum in kuntum mu/mineena
2:93 We took your covenant, and raised the mount above you, "Take what We have given you with strength, and listen." They said, "We hear and disobey!" and they had consumed the calf inside their hearts by their rejection. Say, "Miserable indeed is what your acknowledgement instructs you if you are those who acknowledge!"29
To describe the mindless obsession of the ex-slave Children of Israel with cow worship, the Quran uses the metaphor "they consumed the calf inside their hearts." The more literal translation of this phrase would be: "the love of calf was sipped into their hearts." The similar Biblical metaphor using the key word "sip/drink," however, has been distorted through revisions, commentaries and translation errors, thereby transforming it into a bizarre story falsely attributed to Moses: "And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it" (Exodus 32:20 ).
2:93 And We took your covenant, and raised the mount above you: "Take what We have given you with strength, and listen." They said: "We hear and disobey!" And they had consumed the calf inside their hearts by their disbelief. Say: "Miserable indeed is what your belief orders of you if you are believers!"
2:93 And, lo, We accepted your solemn pledge, raising Mount Sinai high above you, [saying,] "Hold fast with [all your] strength unto what We have vouchsafed you, and hearken unto it!" [But] they say, "We have heard, but we disobey"77 - for their hearts are filled to overflowing with love of the [golden] calf because of their refusal to acknowledge the truth.78 Say: "Vile is what this [false] belief of yours enjoins upon you-if indeed you are believers!"
It is obvious that they did not actually utter these words; their subsequent behaviour, however, justifies the above metonymical expression.
Lit., "into their hearts has been instilled the calf because of their denial of the truth": i.e., as soon as they turned away from the genuine message propounded by Moses, they fell into worshipping material goods, symbolized by the "golden calf".
2:93 We made a covenant with you, as we raised Mount Sinai above you, saying, "You shall uphold the commandments we have given you, strongly, and listen." They said, "We hear, but we disobey." Their hearts became filled with adoration for the calf, due to their disbelief. Say, "Miserable indeed is what your faith dictates upon you, if you do have any faith.",
2:93 Recall again that We accepted your solemn pledge, with Mount Sinai towering above you, as witness, “Hold fast to what We have given you, and listen with your hearts!” They (your elite) said, “We hear and we disobey.” (The desire to worship a tangible deity was so intense in them that) their hearts were infused with the love of the golden calf. This led them to persistently refuse to acknowledge the truth. Say, “Evil is what your faith enjoins on you if you have any faith at all.”64
It teaches you to go back to the primitive ways of worshiping tangible objects!
2:94 Qul in kanat lakumu alddarual-akhiratu AAinda Allahi khalisatanmin dooni alnnasi fatamannawoo almawta in kuntum sadiqeena
2:94 Say, "If the abode of the Hereafter has been set exclusively for you to the exception of all other people, then you should wish for death if you are truthful!"
2:94 Say: "If the abode of the Hereafter has been set exclusively for you with God, to the exception of all other people, then you should wish for death if you are truthful!"
2:94 Say: "If an afterlife with God is to be for you alone, to the exclusion of all other people,79 then. you should long for death-if what you say is true!"
An allusion to the Jewish belief that paradise is reserved for the children of Israel alone (cf. verse 111 of this surah ).
2:94 Say, "If the abode of the Hereafter is reserved for you at GOD, to the exclusion of all other people, then you should long for death, if you are truthful.",
2:94 Say, “If the Eternal Abode with God is especially reserved for you to the exclusion of the rest of mankind, then show your readiness for death, if you are truthful.”65
2:95 Walan yatamannawhu abadan bimaqaddamat aydeehim waAllahu AAaleemun bialththalimeena
2:95 They will never wish for it because of what their hands have done; and God is aware of the wicked.
2:95 They will never wish for it because of what their hands have delivered; and God is aware of the wicked.
2:95 But never will they long for it, because [they are aware] of what their hands have sent ahead in this world: and God has full knowledge of evildoers.
2:95 They never long for it, because of what their hands have sent forth. GOD is fully aware of the wicked.,
2:95 But they will never show their readiness for it due to the deeds their hands have sent forth. God is well Aware of the wrongdoers.66
See Zulm in 2:35 and in Preface
2:96 Walatajidannahum ahrasa alnnasiAAala hayatin wamina allatheenaashrakoo yawaddu ahaduhum law yuAAammaru alfa sanatin wamahuwa bimuzahzihihi mina alAAathabi anyuAAammara waAllahu baseerun bimayaAAmaloona
2:96 You will find them the most obsessive people regarding long life, as well as those who have set up partners. Each one of them wishes that he could live a thousand years. It will not change for him the retribution even if he lived that long; God is watchful over what you do.
2:96 And you will find them the most obsessive people regarding longevity; even more than the polytheists; each one of them wishes that he could live a thousand years. It will not change for him the retribution even if he lived so long, God is watchful over what you do.
2:96 And thou wilt most certainly find that they cling to life more eagerly than any other people, even more than those who are bent on ascribing divinity to other beings beside God: every one of them would love to live a thousand years, although the grant of long life could not save him from suffering [in the hereafter]: for God sees all that they do.
2:96 In fact, you will find them the most covetous of life; even more so than the idol worshipers. The one of them wishes to live a thousand years. But this will not spare him any retribution, no matter how long he lives. GOD is seer of everything they do.,
2:96 Of all mankind, you will find them the most ardently desirous of a long life; even more than the idolaters. Every one of them would love to live a thousand years. Yet, the grant of longevity will not save him from the dire consequences of his transgressions. God is Seer of all that they do.
2:97 Qul man kana AAaduwwan lijibreelafa-innahu nazzalahu AAala qalbika bi-ithni Allahimusaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi wahudan wabushralilmu/mineena
2:97 Say, "Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel," who has sent it down into your heart by God's permission, authenticating what is already present, and a guide and good news for those who acknowledge.
2:97 Say: "Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel, then know that he has sent it down into your heart with the permission of God, authenticating what is with him, and a guide and good news for the believers."
2:97 SAY [O Prophet]: "Whosoever is an enemy of Gabriel" -who,, verily, by God's leave, has brought down upon thy heart this [divine writ] which confirms the truth of whatever there still remains [of earlier revelations], and is a guidance and a glad tiding for the believers-:
Gabriel Mediates the Revelation2:97 Say, "Anyone who opposes Gabriel should know that he has brought down this (Quran) into your heart, in accordance with GOD's will, confirming previous scriptures, and providing guidance and good news for the believers.",
2:97 (They are displeased with Gabriel for bringing revelation to a gentile Prophet. 2:90.) Say, “Why should anyone bear a grudge against Gabriel? He has only revealed the Qur’an upon your heart by God’s leave confirming what was revealed before it. And it is a beacon of light and glad tiding for all those who accept it. [2:101]
2:98 Man kana AAaduwwan lillahiwamala-ikatihi warusulihi wajibreela wameekalafa-inna Allaha AAaduwwun lilkafireena
2:98 "Yes, whoever is an enemy to God and His controllers, and His messengers, and Gabriel, and Michael, then so God is the enemy of those who do not appreciate."
2:98 "Whoever is an enemy to God and His angels, and His messengers, and Gabriel, and Michael, then so God is the enemy to the disbelievers."
2:98 "whosover is an enemy of God and His angels and His message-bearers, including Gabriel and Michael, [should know that,] verily, God is the enemy of all who deny the truth."80
According to several authentic Traditions, some of the learned men from among the Jews of Medina described Gabriel as "the enemy of the Jews", and this for three reasons: firstly, all the prophecies of the misfortune which was to befall the Jews in the course of their early history were said to have been transmitted to them by Gabriel, who thus became in their eyes a "harbinger of evil" (in contrast to the angel Michael, whom they regarded as a bearer of happy predictions and, therefore, as their "friend"); secondly, because the Qur'an states repeatedly that it was Gabriel who conveyed its message to Muhammad, whereas the Jews were of the opinion that only a descendant of Israel could legitimately claim divine revelation; and, thirdly, because the Qur'an -revealed through Gabriel-abounds in criticism of certain Jewish beliefs and attitudes and describes them as opposed to the genuine message of Moses. (For details of these Traditions, see Tabari, Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi, Baydawi, Ibn Kathir.) As regards my rendering of ma bayna yadayhi in verse 97 as "whatever there still remains of earlier revelations", see surah 3, note 3.
2:98 Anyone who opposes GOD, and His angels, and His messengers, and Gabriel and Michael, should know that GOD opposes the disbelievers.,
2:98 Whoever bears a grudge against God, His angels, His Messengers, and Gabriel and Michael, must know that God opposes the deniers of truth.67
2:87, 2:2:98, 2:253, 5:110, 16:102, 26:193. The Divine law intervenes between obstinate rejection and true Success. ‘Adu and its derivatives = Enemy = Wedge = Opponent = Divider = Bearer of grudge. It must be noted that the Qur’anic terminology carries various shades of meanings according to the context, and whether the terms are referring to humans or to the Creator
2:99 Walaqad anzalna ilayka ayatinbayyinatin wama yakfuru biha illa alfasiqoona
2:99 We have sent down to you clear signs; only the evil ones would not appreciate them.
2:99 We have sent down to you clear revelations; only the wicked would disbelieve in them.
2:99 For, clear messages indeed have We bestowed upon thee from on high; and none denies their truth save the iniquitous.
2:99 We have sent down to you such clear revelations, and only the wicked will reject them.,
2:99 We have revealed to you clear verses, and none will deny them but those who drift away from reason.
2:100 Awa kullama AAahadoo AAahdannabathahu fareequn minhum bal aktharuhum layu/minoona
2:100 Whenever they make a pledge, does a group of them break it? Alas, most of them do not acknowledge.
2:100 Is it that each time they make a pledge, a group of them breaks it? Alas, most of them do not believe.
2:100 Is it not so that every time they made a promise [unto God], some of them cast it aside? Nay, indeed: most of them do not believe.
2:100 Is it not a fact that when they make a covenant and pledge to keep it, some of them always disregard it? In fact, most of them do not believe.,
2:100 (This reflects in their daily lives.) Is it not so that whenever they make a pledge with others, a party among them breaks it (and others feel liberated from their collective responsibility)? Nay, most of them choose to disbelieve.
2:101 Walamma jaahum rasoolun minAAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahum nabathafareequn mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba kitabaAllahi waraa thuhoorihim kaannahum layaAAlamoona
2:101 When a messenger came to them from God, authenticating what was with them, a group of those who had already received the book placed God's book behind their backs as if they did not know.
2:101 And when a messenger came to them from God, authenticating what was with them, a group of those who had already received the Book placed the Book of God behind their backs as if they did not know.
2:101 And [even now,] when there has come unto them an apostle from God, confirming the truth already in their possession, some of those who were granted revelation aforetime cast the divine writ behind their backs as though unaware [of what it says],81
The divine writ referred to here is the Torah. By disregarding the prophecies relating to the coming of the Arabian Prophet, contained in Deuteronomy xviii, 15, 18 (see note 33 above), the Jews rejected, as it were, the whole of the revelation granted to Moses (Zamakhshari; also `Abduh in Manar I, 397).
Disregarding God's Scripture2:101 Now that a messenger from GOD has come to them, and even though he proves and confirms their own scripture, some followers of the scripture (Jews, Christians, and Muslims) disregard GOD's scripture behind their backs, as if they never had any scripture.,18
2:101 And now that a Messenger has come to them from God confirming the truth in what they have, a party among those who were given the scripture before, cast the Book of God (the Bible) behind their backs as though they are unaware of what it says (concerning the advent of Prophet Muhammad).
2:102 واتبعوا ما تتلوا الشيطين على ملك سليمن وما كفر سليمن ولكن الشيطين كفروا يعلمون الناس السحر وما انزل على الملكين ببابل هروت ومروت وما يعلمان من احد حتى يقولا انما نحن فتنة فلا تكفر فيتعلمون منهما ما يفرقون به بين المرء وزوجه وما هم بضارين به من احد الا باذن الله ويتعلمون ما يضرهم ولا ينفعهم ولقد علموا لمن اشترىه ما له فى الءاخرة من خلق ولبئس ما شروا به انفسهم لو كانوا يعلمون
2:102 WaittabaAAoo ma tatloo alshshayateenuAAala mulki sulaymana wama kafara sulaymanuwalakinna alshshayateena kafarooyuAAallimoona alnnasa alssihra wamaonzila AAala almalakayni bibabila harootawamaroota wama yuAAallimani min ahadinhatta yaqoola innama nahnufitnatun fala takfur fayataAAallamoona minhuma mayufarriqoona bihi bayna almar-i wazawjihi wama hum bidarreenabihi min ahadin illa bi-ithni AllahiwayataAAallamoona ma yadurruhum walayanfaAAuhum walaqad AAalimoo lamani ishtarahu malahu fee al-akhirati min khalaqin walabi/sa masharaw bihi anfusahum law kanoo yaAAlamoona
Magic Condemned2:102 They followed what the devils recited regarding Solomon's kingship. Solomon did not reject, but it was the devils that rejected by teaching people magic and what was sent down on the two controllers in Babylon, Haroot and Maroot. They would not teach anyone until they would say, "We are a test, so do not be unappreciative!" Thus, they teach what can separate a person from his mate; but they cannot harm anyone except by God's permission. They learn what harms them and does not benefit them, and they have known that he who purchases such a thing has no place in the Hereafter. Miserable indeed is what they traded themselves with; if only they knew!
2:102 And they followed what the devils recited regarding the kingship of Solomon. Solomon did not reject, but it was the devils who rejected by teaching people magic, and teaching them what was sent down on the two angels in Babylon, Haroot and Maroot. They did not teach anyone until they would say: "We are a test, so do not lose faith!" Thus they teach what can separate between a person and his mate; but they cannot harm anyone except with the permission of God. And they learn what harms them and does not benefit them, and they have known that he who purchases such has no place in the Hereafter. Miserable indeed is what they purchased with their souls if only they knew!
2:102 and follow [instead] that which the evil ones used to practice during Solomon's reign - for it was not Solomon who denied the truth, but those evil ones denied it by teaching people sorcery82 -; and [they follow] that which has come down through the two angels in Babylon, Hurut and Marut-although these two never taught it to anyone without first declaring, "We are but a temptation to evil: do not, then, deny [God's] truth!"83 And they learn from these two how to create discord between a man and his wife; but whereas they can harm none thereby save by God's leave, they acquire a knowledge that only harms themselves and does not benefit them - although they know; indeed, that he who acquires this [knowledge] shall have no share in the good of the life to come.84 For, vile indeed is that [art] for which they have sold their own selves -had they but known it!
The expression ash-shayatin, here rendered as "the evil ones", apparently refers to human beings, as has been pointed out by Tabari, Razi, etc., but may also allude to the evil, immoral impulses within man's heart (see note 10 on verse 14 of this surah). The above parenthetic sentence constitutes the Qur'anic refutation of the Biblical statement that Solomon had been guilty of idolatrous practices (see I Kings xi, 1-10), as well as of the legend that he was the originator of the magic arts popularly associated with his name.
This "declaration" circumscribes, metonymically, man's moral duty to reject every attempt at "sorcery" inasmuch as - irrespective of whether it succeeds or fails - it aims at subverting the order of nature as instituted by God. - As regards the designation of Harut and Marut, most of the readings of the Qur'an give the spelling malakayn ("the two angels"); but it is authentically recorded (see Tabari, Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi, etc.) that the great Companion of the Prophet, Ibn `Abbas, as well as several learned men of the next generation - e.g., Al-Hasan al-Basri, Abu 'l-Aswad and Ad-Dahhak-read it as malikayn ("the two kings"). I myself incline to the latter reading; but since the other is more generally accepted, I have adopted it here. Some of the commentators are of the opinion that, whichever of the two readings is followed, it ought to be taken in a metaphorical sense, namely, "the two kingly persons", or "the two angelic persons": in this they rely on a saying of Ibn'Abbas to the effect that Harut and Marut were "two men who practiced sorcery in Babylon" (Baghawi; see also Manar I, 402). At any rate, it is certain that from very ancient times Babylon was reputed to be the home of magic arts, symbolized in the legendary persons - perhaps kings - Harut and Marut; and it is to this legend that the Qur'an refers with a view to condemning every attempt at magic and sorcery, as well as all preoccupation with occult sciences in general.
The above passage does not raise the question as to whether there is an objective truth in the occult phenomena loosely described as "magic", or whether they are based on self-deception: The intent here is no more and no less than to warn man that any attempt at influencing the course of events by means which-at least in the mind of the person responsible for it -have a "supernatural" connotation is a spiritual offence, and must inevitably result in a most serious damage to their author's spiritual status.
Witchcraft Condemned2:102 They pursued what the devils taught concerning Solomon's kingdom. Solomon, however, was not a disbeliever, but the devils were disbelievers. They taught the people sorcery, and that which was sent down through the two angels of Babel, Haroot and Maroot. These two did not divulge such knowledge without pointing out: "This is a test. You shall not abuse such knowledge." But the people used it in such evil schemes as the breaking up of marriages. They can never harm anyone against the will of GOD. They thus learn what hurts them, not what benefits them, and they know full well that whoever practices witchcraft will have no share in the Hereafter. Miserable indeed is what they sell their souls for, if they only knew.,
2:102 (Their clergy have been distorting the Scripture in the past as well.) They propagated a rumor that satanic people preached in the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon never disbelieved but the satanic people did. They taught people “magic” while nothing was revealed through the two angels “Haaroot and Maaroot” in Babylon. (The rumor further stated that) they used to warn people, “Both of us are only a temptation, therefore do not reject God.” And that the people learned from both of them how to create discord between a man and his wife. They could harm none against the Divine laws. And what people learned from them only harmed them instead of benefiting them. People must know that whoever indulges in this trade (the so-called occult sciences) will have no share in the Hereafter. Miserable indeed is what they sell their ‘self’ for. They would know only if they used their intellect.68
The entire story of Haaroot Maaroot was a fabrication. Magic, amulets, ghoul, demon-possession, exorcism, witchcraft, evil eye, fortune telling, astrology, palm reading, clairvoyance, knowledge of the future, Voodoo, are nothing but conjecture. These things can neither harm nor benefit anyone since nothing happens in the Universe contrary to the immutable Divine laws in nature. However, superstitions can harm people by becoming self-fulfilling prophecies. 3:123, JIBT 4:51, 6:73, 7:54, 45:22
2:103 Walaw annahum amanoo waittaqawlamathoobatun min AAindi Allahi khayrun law kanooyaAAlamoona
2:103 Had they acknowledged and been aware, it would have brought them a reward from God which is far better if they knew!
2:103 And had they believed and been righteous, it would have brought them a recompense with God which is far better if only they knew!
2:103 And had they but believed and been conscious of Him, reward from God would indeed have brought them good-had they but known it!
2:103 If they believe and lead a righteous life, the reward from GOD is far better, if they only knew.,
2:103 If they had believed (in the immutability of the Divine laws) and remained mindful (of this fact), the reward for their actions would have been far better from God’s Presence. This is so because they would have, then, used this knowledge.69
2:104 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqooloo raAAina waqooloo onthurnawaismaAAoo walilkafireena AAathabun aleemun
2:104 O you who acknowledge, do not say, "Shepherd us," but say, "Pay attention to us," and listen. For the ingrates is a painful retribution.30
The word raina (shepherd us) implies to be led like sheep. Muslims do not and should not follow anyone blindly, including prophets, without using their intelligence, reasoning and senses. However, the Bible uses the shepherd/sheep analogy to depict the relationship between people and their leaders. "And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd" Ezekiel 34:23 . Jesus Christ is likened to a good shepherd (John 10:14 ; Heb 13:20). Kings and leaders are compared to shepherds (Isaiah 44:28 ; Jeremiah 6:3 ; 49:19). Ministers of the gospel too are likened to shepherds (Isaiah 56:11 ; Jeremiah 50:6 ; Jeremiah 23:4 ; Ezekiel 34:2 , 10). Also, see Zechariah 10:2; Psalms 78:52; Psalms 119:176.
This metaphor would be abused to its full capacity by St. Paul, the dubious figure who distorted the monotheistic message of Jesus after his departure. St. Paul fabricated many stories and practices, including the justification of receiving money for preaching. When the true followers of the Injeel, that is, the Good News, criticized him, he defended his "milking" the congregation, thereby twisting the original purpose of this Biblical metaphor. See 1 Corinthians 9:7 .
2:104 O you who believe, do not say: "Shepherd us," but say: "Be patient with us," and listen. For the rejecters is a painful retribution.
2:104 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not say [to the Prophet], "Listen to us," but rather say, "Have patience with us," and hearken [unto him], since grievous suffering awaits those who deny the truth.85
This admonition, addressed in the first instance to the contemporaries of the Prophet, has - as so often in the Qur'an -a connotation that goes far beyond the historical circumstances that gave rise to it. The Companions were called upon to approach the Prophet with respect and to subordinate their personal desires and expectations to the commandments of the Faith revealed through him: and this injunction remains valid for every believer and for all times.
Twisting the Words of Supplication2:104 O you who believe, do not say, "Raa`ena" (be our shepherd). Instead, you should say, "Unzurna" (watch over us), and listen. The disbelievers have incurred a painful retribution.,19
The word "Raa`ena," was abused by some Hebrew-speaking people, and twisted to sound like a dirty word (see also 4:46).
2:104 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Never say to the Prophet, "Raa’ina - listen to us.” Instead, say, "Unzurna!” (Grant us attention). And then listen intently. There is a painful consequence for the rejecters of Divine Commands.70
Ya ayyuhallazeena aamanu is generally, but inaccurately, translated as “O You who believe!”, “O Believers!”, “O You of faith! O Faithful!” etc. - Firstly, aamanuis a verb. Secondly, attaining to belief must be an act consciously undertaken after due reflection and with free will. ‘Passive’ faith such as claiming to be a ‘believer by birth’ has no merit in the Sight of God. See 4:136, 12:108. Also, choosing to believe in truth is a great blessing of God. Hence, my rendition: O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Ra’inawith a slight twist of the tongue and in very similar Hebrew words has derogatory meanings to it, e.g. “Be our shepherd”, “O Our proud one!”, “May deafness befall you.” Some Jews resorted to these kinds of insults to the Prophet 4:46. The Lesson is this: Be not ambiguous and speak words straight to the point. 33:70
2:105 Ma yawaddu allatheena kafaroomin ahli alkitabi wala almushrikeena an yunazzalaAAalaykum min khayrin min rabbikum waAllahu yakhtassubirahmatihi man yashao waAllahu thooalfadli alAAatheemi
2:105 Neither do those who have not appreciated among the people of the book, nor from among those who have set up partners, wish that any good comes down to you from your Lord. Nevertheless, God chooses with His mercy whom/whomever He wishes; and from God is the greatest favor.
2:105 Neither do those who have rejected from among the people of the Book, nor from among the polytheists, wish that any good comes down to you from your Lord. But God chooses with His mercy whom He wishes; and from God is the greatest grace.
2:105 Neither those from among the followers of earlier revelation who are bent on denying the truth, nor those who ascribe divinity to other beings beside God, would like to see any good86 ever bestowed upon you from on high by your Sustainer; but God singles out for His grace whom He wills-for God is limitless in His great bounty.
I.e., revelation - which is the highest good. The allusion here is to 1he unwillingness of the Jews and the Christians to admit that revelation could have been bestowed on any community but their own.
Jealousy Condemned2:105 Neither the disbelievers among the followers of the scripture, nor the idol worshipers, wish to see any blessings come down to you from your Lord. However, GOD showers His blessings upon whomever He chooses. GOD possesses infinite grace.,
2:105 Neither the deniers from among the People of the Book nor the idolaters love that any good thing should be bestowed upon you from your Lord. But God chooses for His grace (of revelation) whom He wills. God is the (non-discriminating) Lord of Infinite bounty. [3:70-71, 16:30]
2:106 Ma nansakh min ayatin awnunsiha na/ti bikhayrin minha aw mithlihaalam taAAlam anna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
Signs and Miracles2:106 We do not duplicate a sign, or make it forgotten, unless We bring one which is like it or even greater. Did you not know that God is capable of all things?31
By declaring the word of God to be vague and ambiguous, early scholars opened the gate for unlimited abuse and distortion. Furthermore, by distorting the meaning of 2:106, they claimed that many verses of the Quran had been abrogated (amended) by other verses or hadiths. By this "abrogation theory," they amended verses which they did not understand, or which did not suit their interests, or which contradicted their hadiths. Repeating the same error committed by the Children of Israel (2:85), Muslims fulfilled the prophetic description of their action in 15:91. Some of them abrogated 5 Quranic verses, some 20 verses and some 50.
They support this claim by distorting the meaning of this verse. The Quran has a peculiar language. The word Aya in its singular form occurs 84 times in the Quran and in all cases, means miracle, evidence, or lesson. However, its plural form, Ayat, is used both for miracle, evidence, lesson, AND/OR for the language of the revelation that entails or leads to those miracles, evidences, and lessons. The fact that a verse of the Quran does not demonstrate the miraculous characteristics of the Quran supports this peculiar usage or vise versa. There are short verses that are comprised of only one or two words and they were most likely frequently used in daily conversation, letters and poetries. For instance, the verse "Where are you going?" cannot be called AYAT (signs) since it is one verse. This is very appropriate, since that expression was and is used by Arabic speaking people daily, even before the revelation of the Quran.
However, in its semantic and numerical context, that short question is one of the Ayat of the Quran. See 55:3; 69:1; 74; 4; 75:8; 80:28; 81:26. Furthermore, we are informed that the minimum unit that demonstrates the Quran's miraculous nature is a chapter (10:38) and the shortest chapter consists of three verses (chapters 103, 108, and 110). The first verse of the Quran, commonly known as Basmalah, though containing independent features, may not be considered a divine evidence/miracle on its own. However, it gains a miraculous nature with its numerical network with other letters, words, verses and chapters of the Quran. By not using the singular form Aya for the verses of the Quran, God also made it possible to distinguish the miracles shown in the language and prophecies of the scripture from the miracles shown in nature. See 4:82 and 16:101 for further evidence that the Quranic verses do not abrogate each other.
Since grammatically we can refer only to three verses with the plural word, ayat, and since we are not provided with a word to refer to a single or pair of verses, this unique use might have another implication: are we required to quote the Quranic verses in segments of at least three verses? Will this method eliminate the abuse of Quranic statements by taking them out of their context? I think this question needs to be studied and tested. If quoting verses of the Quran in minimums of three units reasonably eliminates the abuse, then we should adhere to such a rule.
For another example of different meanings assigned to singular and plural forms of the same word, see 4:3. For a detailed discussion of this verse, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction.
2:106 We do not duplicate a sign, or make it forgotten, unless We bring one which is like it or even greater. Did you not know that God is capable of all things?
2:106 Any message which, We annul or consign to oblivion We replace with a better or a similar one.87 Dost thou not know that God has the power to will anything?
The principle laid down in this passage - relating to the supersession of the Biblical dispensation by that of the Qur'an - has given rise to an erroneous interpretation by many Muslim theologians. The word ayah ("message") occurring in this, context is also used to denote a "verse;" of the Qur'an (because every one of these verses contains a message). Taking this restricted meaning of the term ayah, some scholars conclude from the above passage that certain verses of the Qur'an have been "abrogated" by God's command before the revelation of the Qur'an was completed. Apart from the fancifulness of this assertion-which calls to mind the image of a human author correcting, on second thought, the proofs of his manuscript. deleting one passage and replacing it with another-there does not exist a single reliable Tradition to the effect that the Prophet ever, declared a verse of the Qur'an to have been "abrogated". At the root of the so-called "doctrine of abrogation" may lie the inability of some of the early commentators to reconcile one Qur'anic passage with another: a difficulty which was overcome by declaring that one of the verses in question had been "abrogated". This arbitrary procedure explains also why there is no unanimity whatsoever among the upholders of the "doctrine of abrogation" as to which, and how many, Qur'an-verses have been affected by it; and, furthermore, as to whether this alleged abrogation implies a total elimination of the verse in question from the context of the Qur'an, or only a cancellation of the specific ordinance or statement contained in it. In short, the "doctrine of abrogation" has no basis whatever in historical fact, and must be rejected. On the other hand, the apparent difficulty in interpreting the above Qur'anic passage disappears -immediately if the temp ayah is understood, correctly, as "message", and if we read this verse in conjunction with the preceding one, which states that the Jews and the Christians refuse to accept any revelation which might supersede that of the Bible: for, if read in this way, the abrogation relates to the earlier divine messages and not to any part of the Qur'an itself.
The Ultimate Miracle: The Quran's Mathematical Code2:106 When we abrogate any miracle, or cause it to be forgotten, we produce a better miracle, or at least an equal one. Do you not recognize the fact that GOD is Omnipotent?20 ,
The Quran's mathematical miracle is perpetual
2:106 Any message that We revoke or cause to be lost to history, We replace it with a better or similar one. Do you not know that God is the Supreme Controller of all things and events?71
Some of the People of the Book question why a new revelation was necessary. The evolution of human civilization has now come to a point where the Final Message for all mankind can be given, widely distributed, implemented and preserved forever. So, the Qur’an is now the perfected Message for all mankind at all times; its exact preservation being guaranteed by none but the Almighty Himself. 5:48, 6:115, 15:9, 16:101, 22:52
2:107 Alam taAAlam anna Allaha lahu mulkualssamawati waal-ardi wamalakum min dooni Allahi min waliyyin wala naseerin
2:107 Did you not know that to God belongs the kingship of the heavens and earth, and that you do not have besides God any guardian or supporter?
2:107 Did you not know that to God is the kingship of the heavens and the earth, and that you do not have besides God any guardian or supporter?
2:107 Dost thou not know that God's is the dominion over the heavens and the earth, and that besides God you have none to protect you or bring you succour?
2:107 Do you not recognize the fact that GOD possesses the kingship of the heavens and the earth; that you have none besides GOD as your Lord and Master?,
2:107 Do you not know that to God belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and earth? And (if you defy His commands you will find that) you have no patron or helper besides God.72
He is fully Cognizant of your needs, and knows the messages and timings of His revelations
2:108 Am tureedoona an tas-aloo rasoolakum kamasu-ila moosa min qablu waman yatabaddali alkufra bial-eemanifaqad dalla sawaa alssabeeli
2:108 Or do you want to ask your messenger as Moses was asked before? Whoever replaces acknowledgement with rejection, has indeed strayed from the right path.
2:108 Or do you want to ask your messenger as Moses was asked before? Whoever replaces belief with rejection, he has indeed strayed from the right path.
2:108 Would you, perchance, ask of the Apostle who has been sent unto you what was asked aforetime of Moses? But whoever chooses to deny the [evidence of the] truth, instead of believing in it,88 has already strayed from the right path.
Lit.. "whoever takes a denial of the truth in exchange for belief"-i.e., whoever refuses to accept the internal evidence of the truth of the Qur'anic message and demands, instead, an "objective" proof of its divine origin (Manar I, 416f.).-That which was "asked of Moses aforetime" was the demand of the children of Israel to "see God face to face" (cf. 2:55 ). The expression rendered by me as "the Apostle who has been sent unto you" reads. literally, "your Apostle", and obviously refers to the Prophet Muhammad. whose message supersedes the earlier revelations.
2:108 Do you wish to demand of your messenger what was demanded of Moses in the past? Anyone who chooses disbelief, instead of belief, has truly strayed off the right path.,
2:108 Would you demand of your Messenger what was demanded of Moses in the past? But whoever chooses the darkness of Ignorance instead of the light of faith has already strayed from the right way.73
2:109 Wadda katheerun min ahli alkitabilaw yaruddoonakum min baAAdi eemanikum kuffaran hasadanmin AAindi anfusihim min baAAdi ma tabayyana lahumu alhaqqufaoAAfoo waisfahoo hattaya/tiya Allahu bi-amrihi inna Allaha AAalakulli shay-in qadeerun
2:109 Many of the people of the book have wished that they could return you to being unappreciative after your acknowledgement, out of envy from themselves after the truth was made clear to them. You shall forgive them and overlook it until God brings His will. God is capable of all things.
2:109 Many of the people of the Book have wished that they could return you to being rejecters after your believing, out of envy from their souls after the truth was made clear to them. You shall forgive them and overlook until God brings His will. God is capable of all things.
2:109 Out of their selfish envy, many among the followers of earlier revelation would like to bring you back to denying the truth after you have attained to faith - [even] after the truth has become clear unto them. None the less, forgive and forbear, until God shall make manifest His will: behold, God has the power to will anything.
2:109 Many followers of the scripture would rather see you revert to disbelief, now that you have believed. This is due to jealousy on their part, after the truth has become evident to them. You shall pardon them, and leave them alone, until GOD issues His judgment. GOD is Omnipotent.,
2:109 Out of envy, many among the People of the Book wish to make you revert back to denying the truth after you have attained belief; even though the truth has become clear to them. Pardon them, bear with them, and leave them with their ways until God issues His decision. God has power over all things, and all events take place within the framework of His laws.74
2:110 Waaqeemoo alssalata waatooalzzakata wama tuqaddimoo li-anfusikum minkhayrin tajidoohu AAinda Allahi inna Allaha bimataAAmaloona baseerun
2:110 Observe the Contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment, and what you bring forth of good for yourselves, you will find it with God. God sees what you do.
2:110 And hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification; and what you bring forth of good for your souls you will find it with God. God is watching what you do.
2:110 And be constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues; for, whatever good deed you send ahead for your own selves, you shall find it with God: behold, God sees all that you do.
2:110 You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat). Any good you send forth on behalf of your souls, you will find it at GOD. GOD is seer of everything you do.,
2:110 So, establish the Divine System, and set up the Economic Order of Zakaat in the society. Whatever good you send forth for yourselves you will find it with God. Remember, God is Seer of all that you do.75
2:3. Inn = Surely, Indeed, Note, Remember, Certainly, Recall, Verily, Ponder
2:111 Waqaloo lan yadkhula aljannata illaman kana hoodan aw nasara tilka amaniyyuhumqul hatoo burhanakum in kuntum sadiqeena
Eternal Salvation is not Exclusive to a Race or Sect2:111 They said, "None shall enter paradise except those who are Jewish or Nazarenes;" this is what they wish! say, "Bring forth your proof if you are truthful."32
2:111 And they said: "None shall enter the Paradise except those who are Jewish or Nazarenes;" this is what they wish! Say: "Bring forth your proof if you are truthful."
2:111 AND THEY claim,89 "None shall ever enter paradise unless he be a Jew" - or, "a Christian". Such are their wishful beliefs! Say: "Produce an evidence for what you are claiming,90 if what you say is true!"
This connects with verse 109 above: "Many among the followers of earlier revelation would like to bring you back to denying the truth", etc.
Lit., "produce your evidence" - i.e.. "from your own scriptures".
All Believers Are Redeemed, Regardless of the Name of Their Religion2:111 Some have said, "No one will enter Paradise except Jews or Christians!" Such is their wishful thinking. Say, "Show us your proof, if you are right.",21
2:111 And they claim, “None will enter Paradise unless he is a Jew or a Christian.” This is nothing but their wishful thinking. Say, “Bring your proof if you are truthful.”76
2:135. Burhan = Clear proof = Firm evidence = Indomitable argument = Strong logic
2:112 Bala man aslama wajhahu lillahiwahuwa muhsinun falahu ajruhu AAinda rabbihi walakhawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona
2:112 No, whosoever peacefully surrenders himself to God, while being a good-doer; he will have his reward with his Lord. There will be no fear over them, nor will they grieve.
2:112 No; whoever submits himself to God, while doing good, he will have his recompense with his Lord. There will be no fear over them, nor will they grieve.
2:112 Yea, indeed: everyone who surrenders his whole being unto God,91 and is a doer of good withal, shall have his reward with his Sustainer; and all such need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve.92
Lit., "who surrenders his face unto God". Since the face of a person is the most expressive part of his body, it is used in classical Arabic to denote one's whole personality, or whole being. This expression, repeated in the Qur'an several times, provides a perfect definition of islam, which derived from the root-verb aslama, "he surrendered himself" -means "self-surrender [to God]";: and it is in this sense that the terms islam and muslim are used throughout the Qurlan. (For a full discussion of this concept, see my note on 68:35, where the expression muslim occurs for the first time in the chronological order of revelation.)
Thus, according to the Qur'an, salvation is not reserved for any particular "denomination", but is open to everyone who consciously realizes the oneness of God, surrenders himself to His will and, by living righteously, gives practical effect to this spiritual attitude.
Submission: The Only Religion2:112 Indeed, those who submit themselves absolutely to GOD alone, while leading a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord; they have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.,
2:112 Nay, whoever submits his whole being to God, and he is a doer of good to humanity, his reward is with his Lord. Then, no fear shall come upon them nor shall they grieve.77
2:113 Waqalati alyahoodu laysati alnnasaraAAala shay-in waqalati alnnasaralaysati alyahoodu AAala shay-in wahum yatloona alkitabakathalika qala allatheena layaAAlamoona mithla qawlihim faAllahu yahkumubaynahum yawma alqiyamati feema kanoo feehiyakhtalifoona
2:113 The Jews said, "The Nazarenes have no basis," and the Nazarenes said, "The Jews have no basis," while they are both reciting the book! Similarly, those who do not know have said the same thing. God will judge between them on the day of Resurrection in what they disputed.
2:113 And the Jews say: "The Nazarenes have no basis," and the Nazarenes say: "The Jews have no basis," while they are both reciting the Book! Similarly, those who do not know have said the same thing. God will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection in what they dispute.
2:113 Furthermore, the Jews assert, "The Christians have no valid ground for their beliefs," while the Christians assert, "The Jews have no valid ground for their beliefs" - and both quote the divine writ! Even thus, like unto what they say, have [always] spoken those who were devoid of knowledge;"93 but it is God who will judge between them on Resurrection Day with regard to all on which they were wont to differ.94
An allusion to all who assert that only the followers of their own denomination shall partake of God's grace in the hereafter.
In other words, "God will confirm the truth of what was true [in their respective beliefs] and show the falseness of what was false [therein]" (Muhammad `Abduh in Manar I, 428). The Qur'an maintains throughout that there is a substantial element of truth in all faiths based on divine revelation, and that their subsequent divergencies are the result of "wishful beliefs" (2:111) and of a gradual corruption of the original teachings. (See also 22:67.)
2:113 The Jews said, "The Christians have no basis," while the Christians said, "The Jews have no basis." Yet, both of them read the scripture. Such are the utterances of those who possess no knowledge. GOD will judge them on the Day of Resurrection, regarding their disputes.,
2:113 Also, the Jews assert that the Christians have no basis, and the Christians assert that the Jews have no basis. Yet, both groups read the scripture! Such is the behavior of those who have no knowledge (or scripture). God will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they differ.78
2:114 Waman athlamu mimman manaAAamasajida Allahi an yuthkara feehaismuhu wasaAAa fee kharabiha ola-ikama kana lahum an yadkhulooha illa kha-ifeenalahum fee alddunya khizyun walahum fee al-akhiratiAAathabun AAatheemun
2:114 Who are more wicked than those who prohibit God's temples; so that His name not be mentioned in them; and they seek their destruction? It is they who should not be able to enter them except in fear; they will have humiliation in this world and in the Hereafter a painful retribution.
2:114 And who are more wicked than those who prevent the temples of God that His name be mentioned in them; and they seek their destruction? They will not be able to enter them except in fear; they will have humiliation in this world and in the Hereafter a painful retribution.
2:114 Hence, who could be more wicked than those who bar the mention of God's name from [any of] His houses of worship and strive for their ruin, [although] they have no right to enter them save in fear [of God]?95 For them, in this world, there is ignominy in store; and for them, in the life to come, awesome suffering.
It is one of the fundamental principles of Islam that every religion which has belief in God as its focal point must be accorded full respect, however much one may disagree with its particular tenets. Thus, the Muslims are under an obligation to honour and protect any house of worship dedicated to God, whether it be a mosque or a church or a synagogue (cf. the second paragraph of 22:40); and any attempt to prevent the followers of another faith from worshipping God according to their own lights is condemned by the Qur'an as a sacrilege. A striking illustration of this principle is forthcoming from the Prophet's treatment of the deputation from Christian Najran in the year 10 H. They were given free access to the Prophet's mosque, and with his full consent celebrated their religious rites there, although their adoration of Jesus as "the son of God" and of Mary as "the mother of God" was fundamentally at variance with Islamic beliefs (see Ibn Sa'd 1/1l, 84 f.).
You Shall Frequent the Masjid2:114 Who are more evil than those who boycott GOD's masjids, where His name is commemorated, and contribute to their desertion? These ought not to enter therein except fearfully. They will suffer in this life humiliation, and will suffer in the Hereafter a terrible retribution.,
2:114 Who could be a greater transgressor than those who bar the celebrating of God’s Name from His houses of submission and strive for ruining the System? They have no right to be part thereof except in awe and humility. (Otherwise) theirs is humiliation in this world and for them is a tremendous suffering in the Hereafter.79
9:17, 9:107, 72:18. Masajid = Mosques = Administration centers of the Divine System = Collective submission and consultation on how best to follow the Divine Commands = Centers that the Islamic government will establish to implement the Qur’anic Order in the society and manage social welfare. These are Centers where people have open access to their office bearers, where government decrees are announced and every member of the society can voice one’s opinion without fear. Masjid = Singular, Mosque = Sincere collective submission = Centers of Divine System. 7:29
2:115 Walillahi almashriqu waalmaghribufaaynama tuwalloo fathamma wajhu Allahi inna AllahawasiAAun AAaleemun
2:115 To God belongs the east and the west, so wherever you turn, there is God's presence. God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.
2:115 And to God belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn, there is the face of God. God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.
2:115 And God's is the east and the west: and wherever you turn, there is God's countenance. Behold, God is infinite, all-knowing.
2:115 To GOD belongs the east and the west; wherever you go there will be the presence of GOD. GOD is Omnipresent, Omniscient.,
2:115 Unto God belongs the East and the West. Wherever you go, whichever way you turn, there is God’s Countenance (Presence, and you remain in His Dominion). God is Infinite, Knowing.80
3:95. The benevolent Divinely Prescribed System of Life should be followed everywhere on earth. In the interim, any community may follow it
2:116 Waqaloo itakhatha Allahuwaladan subhanahu bal lahu ma fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi kullun lahu qanitoona
2:116 They said, "God has taken a son!" Be He glorified. To Him is all that is in the heavens and in the earth, all are humbled to Him.
2:116 And they said: "God has taken a son!" Be He glorified. To Him is all that is in the heavens and the earth, all are dutiful to Him.
2:116 And yet some people assert, "God has taken unto Himself a son!" Limitless is He in His glory!96 Nay, but His is all that is in the heavens and on earth; all things devoutly obey His will.
I.e., far from any imperfection such as would be implied in the necessity (or logical possibility) of having "progeny" either in a literal or a metaphorical sense. The expression subhana -applied exclusively to God-connotes His utter remoteness from any imperfection and any similarity, however tenuous, with any created being or thing.
Gross Blasphemy2:116 They said, "GOD has begotten a son!" Be He glorified; never! To Him belongs everything in the heavens and the earth; all are subservient to Him.,
2:116 But they say, “God has begotten a son!” Glorified is He! Never! Unto Him belongs all that is in the heavens and earth. All things and beings in the Universe are subservient to Him.81
He needs no helpers, associates or offspring to manifest His Magnificence, and there is none like unto Him. 112: 1-4
2:117 BadeeAAu alssamawatiwaal-ardi wa-itha qada amran fa-innamayaqoolu lahu kun fayakoonu
2:117 Initiator of heavens and earth, when He decrees a command, He merely says to it, "Be," and it is.
2:117 Initiator of the heavens and the earth, when He decrees a command, He merely says to it: 'Be,' and it is.
2:117 The Originator is He of the heavens and the earth: and when He wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, "Be" -and it is.
2:117 The Initiator of the heavens and the earth: to have anything done, He simply says to it, "Be," and it is.,
2:117 The Originator of the heavens and earth: when He wills a thing to be, He but says to it “Be” – and it is.82
Qaul = Saying = Thought. Badee’= Initiator = Originator = One Who creates from nothing = The Impeccable Creator
2:118 Waqala allatheena layaAAlamoona lawla yukallimuna Allahu awta/teena ayatun kathalika qala allatheenamin qablihim mithla qawlihim tashabahat quloobuhum qadbayyanna al-ayati liqawmin yooqinoona
2:118 Those who do not know said, "If only God would speak to us, or a sign would come to us!" The people before them have said similar things; their hearts are so similar! We have clarified the signs for a people who have conviction.33
Miracles or divine signs strengthen the faith of believers and do not guide the unappreciative. God's test is not designed to impose a particular faith. See 74:31.
2:118 And those who do not know said: "If only God would speak to us, or a sign would come to us." It is the same thing that the people before them have said, their hearts are so similar! We have clarified the signs for a people who comprehend.
2:118 AND [only] those who are devoid of knowledge say, "Why does God not speak unto us, nor is a [miraculous] sign shown to us?" Even thus, like unto what they, say, spoke those who lived before their time97 their hearts are all alike. Indeed, We have made all the signs manifest unto people who are endowed with inner certainty.
I.e., people who were not able to perceive the intrinsic truth of the messages conveyed to them by the prophets, but rather insisted on a miraculous "demonstration" that those messages really came from God, and thus failed to benefit from them. - This verse obviously connects with verse 108 above and, thus, refers to the objections of the Jews and the Christians to the message of the Qur'an. (See also note 29 on 74:52.)
2:118 Those who possess no knowledge say, "If only GOD could speak to us, or some miracle could come to us!" Others before them have uttered similar utterances; their minds are similar. We do manifest the miracles for those who have attained certainty.,
2:118 Only those who fail to explore the realm of knowledge say, “Why does God not speak to us directly, nor is a miracle shown to us?” Even thus, as they now speak, spoke those who lived before their times. Their ways of thinking, their hearts and minds are all alike (untouched by the passage of time). We have made clear all the Signs for those who wish to attain conviction83
2:119 Inna arsalnaka bialhaqqibasheeran wanatheeran wala tus-alu Aaan as-habialjaheemi
2:119 We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of good news and as a warner. You will not be questioned about the people of hell.
2:119 We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of good news and a warner. You will not be questioned about the people of Hell.
2:119 Verily, We have sent thee [O Prophet] with the truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: and thou shalt not be held accountable for those who are destined for the blazing fire.
2:119 We have sent you22 with the truth as a bearer of good news, as well as a warner. You are not answerable for those who incur Hell.,
It is my obligation to point out that the identity of this messenger is confirmed to be "Rashad Khalifa,"God's Messenger of the Covenant. By adding the gematricalvalue of "Rashad" (505), plus the gematrical value of "Khalifa" (725), plus the verse number (119), we get 1349, a multiple of 19. See 3:81 and Appendix Two.
2:119 We have sent you (O Prophet) with the Decisive Truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and as a warner. But you will not be questioned about the companions of the blazing fire.84
13:40. Jaheem = Blazing fire = Insurmountable Barrier to the development of the human ‘self’ = Figuratively, Hell. The human ‘self’ can make progress only by believing in the Divine System and accordingly helping God’s creations. Please see the author's note at the end of this rendition for an understanding of Self-actualization, Afterlife, Paradise and Hellfire
2:120 Walan tarda AAanka alyahoodu walaalnnasara hatta tattabiAAamillatahum qul inna huda Allahi huwa alhudawala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum baAAda allathee jaakamina alAAilmi ma laka mina Allahi min waliyyin walanaseerin
Bigots2:120 Neither the Jews nor the Nazarenes will be pleased with you until you follow their creed. Say, "The guidance is God's guidance." If you follow their wishes after the knowledge has come to you, then none can help or protect you against God.
2:120 Neither the Jews nor the Nazarenes will be pleased with you until you follow their creed. Say: "The guidance is the guidance of God." And if you follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, then there is none who can help or protect you against God.
2:120 For, never will the Jews be pleased with thee. nor yet the Christians, unless thou follow their own creeds. Say: "Behold, God's guidance is the only true guidance." And, indeed, if thou shouldst follow their errant views after all the knowledge that has come unto thee. thou wouldst have none to protect thee from God, and none to bring thee succour.
2:120 Neither the Jews, nor the Christians, will accept you, unless you follow their religion. Say, "GOD's guidance is the true guidance." If you acquiesce to their wishes, despite the knowledge you have received, you will find no ally or supporter to help you against GOD.,
2:120 Yet, never will the Jews be pleased with you, nor will the Christians, unless you follow their form of religion. Say, “God’s Guidance is the only true guidance.” And if you follow their wishes and errant views after all the knowledge that has come to you, then you will find no ally or helper from God.85
2:121 Allatheena ataynahumualkitaba yatloonahu haqqa tilawatihi ola-ikayu/minoona bihi waman yakfur bihi faola-ika humu alkhasiroona
2:121 Those whom We have given the book and they recite it truthfully the way it deserves to be recited; they acknowledge it. As for those who do not appreciate it, they are the losers.
2:121 Those to whom We gave the Book, they recite it as it truthfully deserves to be recited; they believe in it. As for those who disbelieve in it, they are the losers.
2:121 Those unto whom We have vouchsafed the divine writ [and who] follow it as it ought to be followed98 -it is they who [truly] believe in it; whereas all who choose to deny its truth -it is they, they who are the losers!
Or: "apply themselves to it with true application" -i.e.. try to absorb its meaning and to understand its spiritual design.
2:121 Those who received the scripture, and know it as it should be known, will believe in this. As for those who disbelieve, they are the losers.,
2:121 Those to whom We have given the Book, they do full justice to its reading. They fulfill the right of studying it as it should be studied. They are the ones who truly believe in it. As for those who disbelieve, it is those who are the losers (of a great treasure. 10:58).86
What a great laurel on the first recipients of the Book, the Sahaba Kiraam! Tilawah = Studying and following
2:122 Ya banee isra-eela othkurooniAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waannee faddaltukumAAala alAAalameena
2:122 O Children of Israel, remember My blessings that I have bestowed upon you, and that I have preferred you to all the worlds.
2:122 O Children of Israel, remember My blessings that I had blessed you with, and that I had preferred you over all the worlds.
2:122 O CHILDREN of Israel ! Remember those blessings of Mine with which I graced you, and how I favoured you above all other people;99
See 2:48 . In the above context, this refers, specifically, to the belief of the Jews that their descent from Abraham would "ransom" them on the Day of Judgment -a belief which is refuted in the next verse.
2:122 O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I blessed you more than any other people.,
2:122 (The Israelites can easily relate to what has just been said. 62:5.) O Children of Israel! Remember My blessings I graced you with and how I gave you distinction over all others (of the times when you followed the commandments).
2:123 Waittaqoo yawman la tajzeenafsun AAan nafsin shay-an wala yuqbalu minhaAAadlun wala tanfaAAuha shafaAAatun walahum yunsaroona
2:123 Beware of a day when no person can avail another person, nor will any amendment be accepted from it, nor will any intercession help it; they will not be supported.
2:123 And beware of a Day when no soul can avail another soul, nor will any amendment be accepted from it, nor will any intercession help it; they will not be supported.
2:123 and remain conscious of [the coming of] a Day when no human being shall in the least avail another, nor shall ransom be accepted from any of them, nor shall intercession be of any use to them, and none shall be succoured.*
2:123 Beware of the day when no soul will help another soul, no ransom will be accepted, no intercession will be useful, and no one will be helped.,
2:123 Remain conscious of a Day when no human being will avail another, no ransom will be taken from any of them, nor will intercession profit anyone, and none will be helped.87
2:124 Wa-ithi ibtala ibraheemarabbuhu bikalimatin faatammahunna qala innee jaAAilukalilnnasi imaman qala wamin thurriyyateeqala la yanalu AAahdee alththalimeena
Abraham, the Model Monotheist and Reformer2:124 Abraham was tested by commands from His Lord, which he completed. He said, "I will make you a leader for the people." He said, "Also from my progeny?" He said, "My pledge will not encompass the wicked."34
In the first verse, Abraham makes a wrong addition, and in the second one, he makes a wrong subtraction. This dialogue teaches two facts.
2:124 And Abraham was tested by words from His Lord, which he fulfilled. He said: "I will make you a leader for the people." He said: "And also from my progeny?" He said: "My pledge will not encompass the wicked."
2:124 And [remember this:] when his Sustainer tried Abraham by [His] commandments and the latter fulfilled them,100 He said: "Behold, I shall make thee a leader of men. "Abraham asked: "And [wilt Thou make leaders] of my offspring as well? "[God] answered: "My covenant does not embrace the evildoers."101
The classical commentators have indulged in much speculation as to what these commandments (kalimat, lit., "words") were. Since, however, the Qur'an does not specify them, it must be presumed that what is meant here is simply Abraham's complete submission to whatever commandments he received from God.
This passage, read in conjunction with the two preceding verses, refutes the contention of the children of Israel that by virtue of their descent from Abraham, whom God made "a leader of men", they are "God's chosen people". The Qur'an makes it clear that the exalted status of Abraham was not something that would automatically confer a comparable status on his physical descendants, and certainly not on the sinners among them.
Abraham2:124 Recall that Abraham was put to the test by his Lord, through certain commands, and he fulfilled them. (God) said, "I am appointing you an imam for the people." He said, "And also my descendants?" He said, "My covenant does not include the transgressors.",
2:124 And remember when his Lord had Abraham go through trying circumstances with His commands, and he fulfilled them. Then He said, “I have appointed you an exemplary leader for all mankind.” He asked, “And of my offspring (will there be exemplary leaders as well)?” He replied, “My Covenant does not include the wrongdoers.”88
Being the offspring of a great man avails none. Trying circumstances: Abraham stood up to the formidable challenge of a mighty priesthood, rampant idolatry and the tyrannical autocracy of King Nimrod Shaddad in Ur, Mesopotamia. Imam = Plumb line that ensures that the wall is vertical = An outstanding leader
2:125 Wa-ith jaAAalna albayta mathabatanlilnnasi waamnan waittakhithoo minmaqami ibraheema musallan waAAahidnaila ibraheema wa-ismaAAeela an tahhirabaytiya liltta-ifeena waalAAakifeenawaalrrukkaAAi alssujoodi
2:125 We have made the sanctuary to be a model for the people and a security. Utilize the place of Abraham to reach out. We had entrusted to Abraham and Ishmael, "You shall purify My sanctuary for those who visit, those who are devoted, and for those who kneel and prostrate."
2:125 And We have made the Sanctuary to be a model for the people and a security. And you shall take, from the station of Abraham, a place for making the contact. And We entrusted to Abraham and Ishmael: "You shall purify My Sanctuary for those who visit, and those who are devoted, and the kneeling, the prostrating."
2:125 AND LO! We made the Temple a goal to which people might repair again and again, and a sanctuary:102 take then, the place whereon Abraham once stood as your place of prayer."103 And thus did We command Abraham and Ishmael: "Purify My Temple for those who will walk around it,104 and those who will abide near it in meditation, and those who will bow down and prostrate themselves [in prayer]."
The Temple (al-bayt)-lit., "the House [of Worship]"'-mentioned here is the Ka`bah in Mecca . In other places the Qur'an speaks of it as "the Ancient Temple " (al-bayt al-'atiq), and frequently also as "the Inviolable House of Worship" (al-masjid al-haram ). Its prototype is said to have been built by Abraham as the first temple ever dedicated to the One God (see 3:96), and which for this reason has been instituted as the direction of prayer (giblah) for all Muslims, and as the goal of the annually recurring pilgrimage (hajj). It is to be noted that even in pre-Islamic times the Ka`bah was associated with the memory of Abraham, whose personality had always been in the foreground of Arabian thought. According to very ancient Arabian traditions, it was at the site of what later became Mecca that Abraham, in order to placate Sarah, abandoned his Egyptian bondwoman Hagar and their child Ishmael after he had brought them there from Canaan . This is by no means improbable if one bears in mind that for a camel-riding bedouin (and Abraham was certainly one) a journey of twenty or even thirty days has never been anything out of the ordinary. At first glance, the Biblical statement (Genesis xii, 14) that it was "in the wilderness of Beersheba " (i.e., in the southernmost tip of Palestine ) that Abraham left Hagar and Ishmael would seem to conflict with the Qur'anic account. This seeming contradiction, however, disappears as soon as we remember that to the ancient, town-dwelling Hebrews the term "wilderness of Beersheba " comprised all the desert regions south of Palestine , including the Hijaz. It was at the place where they had been abandoned that Hagar and Ishmael, after having discovered the spring which is now called the Well of Zamzam, eventually settled; and it may have been that very spring which in time induced a wandering group of bedouin families belonging to the South-Arabian (Qahtani) tribe of Jurhum to settle there. Ishmael later married a girl of this tribe, and so became the progenitor of the musta `ribah ("Arabianized") tribes -thus called on account of their descent from a Hebrew father and a Qahtani mother. As for Abraham, he is said to have often visited Hagar and Ishmael; and it was on the occasion of one of these periodic visits that he, aided by Ishmael, erected the original structure of the Ka`bah. (For more detailed accounts of the Abraham'c tradition, see Bukhari's Sahih, Kitab al- 'Ilm, Tabari 's Ta'rikh al-Umam, Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Hisham, Mas'udi's Muruj adh-Dhahab, Yaqut's Mu'jam al-Buldan, and other early Muslim historians.)
This may refer to the immediate vicinity of the Ka'bah or, more probably (Manar I, 461 f.), to the sacred precincts (haram) surrounding it. The word amn (lit., "safety") denotes in this context a sanctuary for all living beings.
The seven-fold circumambulation (tawaf) of the Ka'bah is one of the rites of the pilgrimage, symbolically indicating that all human actions and endeavours ought to have the idea of God and His oneness for their centre.
2:125 We have rendered the shrine (the Ka`aba) a focal point for the people, and a safe sanctuary. You may use Abraham's shrine as a prayer house. We commissioned Abraham and Ismail: "You shall purify My house for those who visit, those who live there, and those who bow and prostrate.",
2:125 Remember, We appointed the House (Ka’bah) a means to achieve unity among all mankind, and thus, a source of peace and security. So, attain the stature of Abraham recalling his firm stand (for Monotheism) and closely follow the Divine Commands. We did take a Covenant from Abraham and Ishmael, “Keep My House clean of all falsehood for those who rally around it and those who strive hard for the noble objectives, and for those who submit in humility to the Divine Commands."
2:126 Wa-ith qala ibraheemurabbi ijAAal hatha baladan aminan waorzuqahlahu mina alththamarati man amana minhumbiAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri qalawaman kafara faomattiAAuhu qaleelan thumma adtarruhu ilaAAathabi alnnari wabi/sa almaseeru
2:126 Abraham said, "My Lord, make this town secure, and provide for its inhabitants of the fruits for whoever acknowledges God and the Last day." He said, "As for he who does not appreciate, I will let him enjoy for a while, then I will force him to the retribution of the fire, what a miserable destiny!"
2:126 And Abraham said: "My Lord, make this a land of peace, and provide for its inhabitants of the fruits for whoever believes in God and the Last Day." He said: "As for he who rejects, I will let him enjoy for a while, then I will force him to the retribution of the Fire. What a miserable destiny!"
2:126 And, lo, Abraham prayed: "O my Sustainer! Make this a land secure, and grant its people fruitful sustenance - such of them as believe in God and the Last Day." [God] answered: "And whoever shall deny the truth, him will I let enjoy himself for a short while -but in the end I shall drive him to suffering through fire: and how vile a journey's end!"
2:126 Abraham prayed: "My Lord, make this a peaceful land, and provide its people with fruits. Provide for those who believe in GOD and the Last Day." (God) said, "I will also provide for those who disbelieve. I will let them enjoy, temporarily, then commit them to the retribution of Hell, and a miserable destiny.",
2:126 And Abraham prayed, “My Lord! Make this land a haven of peace and security, and provide its residents with plentiful sustenance; those who believe in God and the Last Day.” He answered, “I will also provide for those who disbelieve and let them enjoy for a short while, then I will commit them to the suffering of the fire, a miserable destiny!” [14:37, 17:18-20, 22:25, 95:3]
2:127 Wa-ith yarfaAAu ibraheemualqawaAAida mina albayti wa-ismaAAeelu rabbanataqabbal minna innaka anta alssameeAAu alAAaleemu
2:127 As Abraham raised the foundations for the sanctuary with Ishmael, "Our Lord accept this from us, You are the Hearer, the Knowledgeable."
2:127 And as Abraham raised from the Sanctuary its foundations, along with Ishmael: "Our Lord accept this from us, You are the Hearer, the Knowledgeable."
2:127 And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the Temple , [they prayed:] "O our Sustainer! Accept Thou this from us: for, verily, Thou alone art all-hearing, all-knowing!
Abraham Delivered All the Practices of Submission (Islam)2:127 As Abraham raised the foundations of the shrine, together with Ismail (they prayed): "Our Lord, accept this from us. You are the Hearer, the Omniscient.,
2:127 As Abraham raised the foundations of the House together with Ishmael, they prayed earnestly, “Our Lord! Accept this (service) from us. You are the Hearer, Knower.”
2:128 Rabbana waijAAalnamuslimayni laka wamin thurriyyatina ommatanmuslimatan laka waarina manasikana watubAAalayna innaka anta alttawwabu alrraheemu
2:128 "Our Lord, and let us peacefully surrender to You and from our progeny a nation peacefully surrendering to You, and show us our rites and forgive us; You are the Most Forgiving, the Compassionate."
2:128 "Our Lord, and let us submit to You and from our progeny a nation submitting to You, and show us our rites, and forgive us; You are the Forgiver, the Merciful."
2:128 "O our Sustainer! Make us surrender ourselves unto Thee, and make out of our offspring105 a community that shall surrender itself unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and accept our repentance: for, verily, Thou alone art the Acceptor of Repentance, the Dispenser of Grace!
The expression "our offspring" indicates Abraham's progeny through his first-born son, Ishmael, and is an indirect reference to the Prophet Muhammad. who descended from the latter.
2:128 "Our Lord, make us submitters to You, and from our descendants let there be a community of submitters to You. Teach us the rites of our religion, and redeem us. You are the Redeemer, Most Merciful.,
2:128 “Our Lord! Make both of us submissive to You and of our descendants, let there be a community submissive to You. Show us the best ways to serve You and enable us to make amends. You are the Absolver of imperfections, the Merciful.89
2:186, 2:286. ‘Manasik’ = Ways of service and devotion to God especially during Hajj with camel sacrifice by some as needed for the congregation to be self-sufficient in food resource. = Being of service to God by achieving human unity, and thus being of service to all mankind. Ref: Mufridaat e Raghib
2:129 Rabbana waibAAath feehimrasoolan minhum yatloo AAalayhim ayatikawayuAAallimuhumu alkitaba waalhikmatawayuzakkeehim innaka anta alAAazeezu alhakeemu
2:129 "Our Lord, and send amongst them a messenger from among themselves, that he may recite to them Your signs and teach them the book and the wisdom, and purify them. You are the Noble, the Wise."
2:129 "Our Lord, and send among them a messenger from among themselves, that he may recite to them Your revelations and teach them the Book and the wisdom, and purify them. You are the Noble, the Wise."
2:129 "O our Sustainer! Raise up from the midst of our off spring106 an apostle from among themselves, who shall convey unto them Thy messages, and impart unto them revelation as well as wisdom, and cause them to grow in purity: for, verily, Thou alone art almighty, truly wise!"
Lit., "within them".
2:129 "Our Lord, and raise among them a messenger to recite to them Your revelations, teach them the scripture and wisdom, and purify them. You are the Almighty, Most Wise.",
2:129 “Our Lord! Raise from among them a Messenger who will convey Your messages to them and instruct them in the scripture (by personal example) and the wisdom (behind each command). And also teach them how to grow in goodness. You are Almighty, the Wise.”90
Tazkiah from Zaku = Development of the ‘self’ = Personal development = Self-actualization. This teaching will not be mere lecturing, but it will entail the establishment of the Deen the Divinely Prescribed System of Life in the individuals and the society. A benevolent society helps the individuals to grow in goodness and attain self-actualization. 2:231, 17:39, 33:34, 57:25
2:130 Waman yarghabu AAan millati ibraheemailla man safiha nafsahu walaqadi istafaynahufee alddunya wa-innahu fee al-akhiratilamina alssaliheena
2:130 Who would abandon the creed of Abraham except one who fools himself? We have selected him in this world, and in the Hereafter, he is of the reformers.
2:130 And who would abandon the creed of Abraham except one who fools himself? We have selected him in this world, and in the Hereafter he is of the righteous.
2:130 And who, unless he be weak of mind, would want to abandon Abraham's creed, seeing that We have indeed raised him high in this world, and that, verily, in the life to come he shall be among the righteous?
2:130 Who would forsake the religion of Abraham, except one who fools his own soul? We have chosen him in this world, and in the Hereafter he will be with the righteous.,
2:130 Who would abandon the Creed of Abraham except the one who ridicules his own ‘self’ with folly? We elected him in this world for (his outstanding qualities stated in this Book). And in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have actualized their ‘self’.91
As-Saaliheen = The righteous ones = Those who have attained self-actualization = Perfected their personalities = Maximized their human potential = Who set things right = Help others = Create balance in the society = Fulfill others’ needs = Raise the community. 16:120
2:131 Ith qala lahu rabbuhu aslim qalaaslamtu lirabbi alAAalameena
2:131 When his Lord said to him, "Peacefully surrender," he said, "I peacefully surrender to the Lord of the worlds."
2:131 When his Lord said to him: "Submit," he said: "I submit to the Lord of the worlds."
2:131 When his Sustainer said to him, "Surrender thyself unto Me!" - he answered, "I have surrendered myself unto [Thee,] the Sustainer of all the worlds."
2:131 When his Lord said to him, "Submit," he said, "I submit to the Lord of the universe.",
2:131 When his Lord said to him, “Submit (your will) to Me!” - He said, “I submit to the Lord of the Worlds.”
2:132 Wawassa biha ibraheemubaneehi wayaAAqoobu ya baniyya inna Allaha istafalakumu alddeena fala tamootunna illa waantummuslimoona
2:132 Abraham enjoined his sons and Jacob, "O my sons, God has selected the system for you, so do not die except as ones who have peacefully surrendered."35
2:132 And Abraham enjoined his sons and Jacob: "O my sons, God has selected the system for you, so do not die except as ones who have submitted."
2:132 And this very thing did Abraham bequeath unto his children, and [so did] Jacob: "O my children! Behold, God has granted you the purest faith; so do not allow death to overtake you ere you have surrendered yourselves unto Him."
2:132 Moreover, Abraham exhorted his children to do the same, and so did Jacob: "O my children, GOD has pointed out the religion for you; do not die except as submitters.",
2:132 This very legacy Abraham left to his children, and so did Jacob, saying, “O My children! Indeed, God has chosen for you the Way of Life. Therefore, let not death overtake you except that you are Muslimoon” (Muslims = Submitters to God alone, guardians of peace. 2:236, 22:78).92
Deen = The Divinely Prescribed System of Life = Al-Islam. It has more to do with the collective life of humans and the science of sociology. It concerns itself with people living in this world collectively in peace according to a Code of permanent values that ensures success in both lives. Religion Mazhab is more of a generic term signifying a creed involving certain rites and rituals and seeking individual salvation. Islam being a Collective System of Life is, in fact, a challenge to religion
2:133 Am kuntum shuhadaa ith hadarayaAAqooba almawtu ith qala libaneehi mataAAbudoona min baAAdee qaloo naAAbudu ilahakawa-ilaha aba-ika ibraheema wa-ismaAAeelawa-ishaqa ilahan wahidan wanahnu lahumuslimoona
2:133 Or were you present when death came to Jacob and he told his sons, "Who shall you serve after I am gone?" They said, "Your god, and the god of your fathers Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac; One god and to Him we peacefully surrender."
2:133 Or were you present when death came to Jacob and he said to his sons: "Who shall you serve from after me?" They said: "Your god, and the god of your fathers Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac; One god and to Him we submit."
2:133 Nay, but you [yourselves, O children of Israel ,] bear witness107 that when death was approaching Jacob, he said unto his sons: "Whom will you worship after I am gone?" They answered: "We will worship thy God, the God of thy forefathers Abraham and Ishmael108 and Isaac, the One God; and unto Him w;1l we surrender ourselves."
I.e., "in the religious traditions to which you adhere". It is to be noted that the conjunction am which stands at the beginning of this sentence is not always used in the interrogative sense ("is it that ... ?"): sometimes -and especially when it is syntactically unconnected with the preceding sentence, as in this case - it is an equivalent of bal ("rather", or "nay, but"), and has no interrogative connotation.
In classical Arabic, as in ancient Hebrew usage, the term ab ("father") was applied not only to the direct male parent but also to grandfathers and even more distant ancestors, as well as to paternal uncles: which explains why Ishmael, who was Jacob's uncle, is mentioned in this context. Since he was the first-born of Abraham's sons, his name precedes that of Isaac.
2:133 Had you witnessed Jacob on his death bed; he said to his children, "What will you worship after I die?" They said, "We will worship your god; the god of your fathers Abraham, Ismail, and Isaac; the one god. To Him we are submitters.",
2:133 Were you present when death approached Jacob; and he asked his children, “Whom will you serve after me?” They answered, “We will serve your God, the God of your forefathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac - the One God. And to Him we surrender ourselves.”
2:134 Tilka ommatun qad khalat laha makasabat walakum ma kasabtum wala tus-aloona AAammakano yaAAmaloona
2:134 That was a nation that has passed away. To them is what they have earned, and to you is what you have earned; and you will not be asked regarding what they did.
2:134 That is a nation that has passed away; to them is what they have earned, and to you is what you have earned; and you will not be asked regarding what they did.
2:134 Now those people have passed away; unto them shall be accounted what they have earned, and unto you, what you have earned; and you will not be, judged on the strength of what they did.109
Lit., "you will not be asked about what they did". This verse, as well as verse 141 below, stresses the fundamental Islamic tenet of individual responsibility, and denies the Jewish idea of their being "the chosen people" by virtue of their descent, as well as-by implication-the Christian doctrine of an "original sin" with which all human beings are supposedly, burdened because of Adam's fall from grace.
2:134 Such is a community from the past. They are responsible for what they earned, and you are responsible for what you earned. You are not answerable for anything they have done.,
2:134 That was a community that has passed on. Theirs is what they earned, and yours is what you earn. And you will not be asked about what they did.93