9:1 Baraatun mina Allahiwarasoolihi ila allatheena AAahadtum minaalmushrikeena
9:1 This is an ultimatum from God and His messenger to those who set up partners with whom you had entered a treaty.1 2
The reason why this chapter does not contain Basmalah was questioned for centuries, and the conclusive answer came with the discovery of the code 19, prophesized in chapter 74. See 74:1; 1:1; 2:1; 13:38; 27:82; 38:1; 40:28; 46:10; 72:28.
Those who abuse the Quranic statement "obey God and His messenger," to mean obeying the Quran and numerous books of hearsay, are convicted by this verse. By claiming that God is represented by the Quran, but the messenger is represented by hearsay collections produced centuries after Muhammed, they separate God and messenger from each other (4:150). Verse 9:1 attributes the ultimatum issued in this chapter to "God and His messenger." Since, God did not author the Quran in consultation with Muhammed, the only reason why the messenger was mentioned after God, is that the messenger will deliver the ultimatum as it is, like a trustworthy mailman. Thus, we should use similar inferences when we see verses telling us to "obey God and His messenger." Those verses do not mean God and His messenger represent different authorities or sources, but simply mean, "Obey God by obeying the message brought to you through His messenger." In the Quran we do not see a single verse instructing us to "obey Muhammed" or "obey Moses;" the verses always refer to obeying the messenger, since messengers' sole mission is to deliver God's message without distorting, adding, or subtracting from it. The messenger, on the Day of Judgment (25:30), will reject those who distort, add to, and subtract from God's message by hearsay.
It is also noteworthy that the verb used for God and His messenger in 8:24 is in its singular form. Remind verse 6:114 to the polytheists who wish to raise Muhammed from the position of messengership to the position of legislator next to God. Also, see 49:1.
9:1 A revocation is made by God and His messenger to those with whom you have made a pledge from among the polytheists.
9:1 DISAVOWAL by God and His Apostle [is herewith announced] unto those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God, [and] with whom you [O: believers] have made a covenant.1
Sc., "which they (the unbelievers) have deliberately broken" (Tabari, Baghawi, Zamakhshari, Razi); see also verse 4, which relates to such of the unbelievers as remain faithful to their treaty obligations towards the believers. The above passage connects with verses 56-58 of the preceding surah (Al-Anfal). The noun bara'ah (derived from the verb barl'a, "he became free [of something]" or "quit of having any part [in something]") signifies a declaration of being free or quit of any bond, moral or contractual, with the person or persons concerned (see Lane I, 178); with reference to God - or the Apostle speaking in God's name - it is best rendered as "disavowal-
9:1 An ultimatum is herein issued from GOD and His messenger to the idol worshipers who enter into a treaty with you.,1
9:1 Freedom from obligation is proclaimed from God and His Messenger towards those of the Pagans with whom you had made a treaty.1
This is the 9th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 129 verses. Humanity must abstain from associating others with God -- the One True God. This injunction applies to matters of worship, obedience and law-giving. Ascribing partners to God does not upset Him. He is too High and Glorious to feel offended. Idolatry in any form only harms us by dragging down the honor granted to humans by the Sublime Creator. And it divides mankind into castes and sects. The idolaters, and others who associate gods besides the One True God, are the believers’ brothers and sisters once they embrace the truth. And eventually humankind will become one community.
It is customary to omit Bismillah before this Surah as it is considered to be a continuation of the last Surah, Al-Anfal. However, the matter is absolutely insignificant and proper references are imperative to ‘The Qur’an As It Explains Itself’. Al-Anfal is the 8th and this is the 9th Chapter of the Qur’an.
(With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness)
The treaties that the believers had signed with the idolaters of the Arabian Peninsula, no longer remain valid, since they have repeatedly violated them. 9:4
9:2 Faseehoo fee al-ardi arbaAAataashhurin waiAAlamoo annakum ghayru muAAjizee Allahiwaanna Allaha mukhzee alkafireena
9:2 Therefore, roam the land for four months and know that you will not escape God, and that God will humiliate the ingrates.
9:2 "Therefore, roam the land for four months and know that you will not escape God, and that God will humiliate the rejecters."
9:2 [Announce unto them:] "Go, then, [freely] about the earth for four months2 -but know that you can never elude God, and that, verily, God shall bring disgrace upon all who refuse to acknowledge the truth!"
These words, addressed to the mushrikin ("those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God") who have deliberately broken the treaties in force between them and the believers, indicate a cancellation of all treaty obligations on the latters' part. The period of four months which is to elapse between this announcement and the beginning (or resumption) of hostilities is a further elaboration of the injunction "cast it [i.e., the treaty] back at them in an equitable manner", given in 8:58 with reference to a breach of covenant by hostile unbelievers (see also note 62 on verse 58 of surah 8).
9:2 Therefore, roam the earth freely for four months, and know that you cannot escape from GOD, and that GOD humiliates the disbelievers.,
9:2 (O Idolaters, who have repeatedly violated the peace treaties!) Travel freely in the land for four months, and know that you cannot escape God, and that God will bring disgrace to the rejecters of the truth.2
Four months of peacetime, see 9:36. The Central Authority will subdue the aggressors
9:3 Waathanun mina Allahiwarasoolihi ila alnnasi yawma alhajjial-akbari anna Allaha baree-on mina almushrikeenawarasooluhu fa-in tubtum fahuwa khayrun lakum wa-in tawallaytumfaiAAlamoo annakum ghayru muAAjizee Allahiwabashshiri allatheena kafaroo biAAathabin aleemin
9:3 A declaration from God and His messenger to the people, on this, the peak day of the Pilgrimage: "That God and His messenger are free from obligation to those who set up partners." If you repent, then it is better for you, but if you turn away, then know that you will not escape God. Promise those who have rejected of a painful retribution;3
The verse 9:5 does not encourage muslims to attack those who associate partners to God, but to attack those who have violated the peace treaty and killed and terrorized people because of their belief and way of life.
According to verses 9:5 and 9:11, the aggressive party has two ways to stop the war: reinstate the treaty for peace (silm), which is limited in scope; or accept the system of peace and submission to God (islam), which is comprehensive in scope; it includes observation of sala and purification through sharing one's blessings. These two verses refer to the second alternative. When, accepting islam (system of peace and submission) as the second equally acceptable alternative and when the first alternative involves only making a temporary peace, then none can argue for coercion in promoting the Din.
The Quran does not promote war, but encourages us to stand against aggressors on the side of peace and justice. War is permitted only in self-defense (See 2:190; 4:91; 5:32; 8:19; 60:7). We are encouraged to work hard to establish peace (47:35; 8:56; 2:208). The Quranic precept promoting peace and justice is so fundamental that a peace treaty with the enemy is preferred to religious ties (8:72).
Please note that the context of the verse is about the War of Hunain, which was provoked by the enemy. The verse 9:29 is mistranslated by almost every translator.
Furthermore, note that we suggest "reparation," which is the legal word for compensation for damages done by the aggressing party during the war, instead of the Arabic word jizya. The meaning of jizya has been distorted as a perpetual tax on non-Muslims, which was invented long after Muhammed to further the imperialistic agenda of Sultans or Kings. The origin of the word that we translated as Compensation is JaZaYa, which simply means compensation, not tax. Because of their aggression and initiation of a war against muslims and their allies, after the war, the allied community should require their enemies to compensate for the damage they inflicted on the peaceful community. Various derivatives of this word are used in the Quran frequently, and they are translated as "compensation" for a particular deed.
Unfortunately, the distortion in the meaning of the verse above and the practice of collecting a special tax from Christians and Jews, contradicts the basic principle of the Quran that there should not be compulsion in religion and that there should be freedom of belief and expression (2:256; 4:90; 4:137, 140; 10:99; 18:29; 88:21). Since taxation based on religion creates financial duress on people to convert to the privileged religion, it violates this important Quranic principle. Dividing a population that is united under a social contract (constitution) into privileged groups based on their religion contradicts many principles of the Quran, including justice, peace, and brotherhood/sisterhood of all humanity. See 2:256. For a comparative discussion of this verse, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction.
Moral rules involving retaliation can be classified under several titles:
The Golden Rule: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
The Silver Rule: Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you.
The Golden-plated Brazen Rule: Do unto others as they do unto you; and occasionally forgive them.
The Brazen Rule: Do unto others as they do unto you.
The Iron Rule: Do unto others as you like, before they do it unto you.
Empirical studies on groups have shown that the golden-plated brazen rule is the most efficient in reducing negative behaviors in a community abiding by the rule, since the rule has both deterrence and guiding components. Game theorists call this rule "Generous Tit-For-Tat" (GTFT), a rule that leads one party to cooperate as long as the other party does too. If the other party cheats or hurts the party adopting GTFT, then the GTFT-adopting party stops cooperation and retaliates, while demonstrating willingness to forgive the wrongdoing and start a new stage of cooperation. This positive tilt successfully leads the other party to seek cooperation of the GTF party and ultimately adopt the same rule of engagement. The Golden rule, on the other hand, does not correspond to the reality of human nature; it rewards those who wish to take advantage of the other party's niceness. Therefore, though the golden rule is the most popular rule on the lips of people, it is the least used rule in world affairs. It might have some merits in small groups with intimate relations, but we do not have evidence for that.
The Quran is a book of reality, and its instructions involving social issues consider the side effects of freedom. Thus, the Quran recommends us to employ the golden-plated brazen rule. "If the enemy inclines toward peace, do you also incline toward peace" (8:61; 4:90; 41:34). Other verses encouraging forgiveness and patience in the practice of retaliation (2:178; 16:126, etc.), make the Quranic rule a "Golden-plated Brazen Rule," the most efficient rule in promoting goodness and discouraging crimes.
Sunni and Shiite mushriks inherited many vicious laws and instructions of violence through hadith books, most of which scholars trace their roots to the influence of Jewish Rabbis and Christian priests who supposedly converted to Islam. Here are some samples of terrifying and bloody instructions found in The Old Testament. We recommend the reader to study them in their context:
"The Lord said to Moses: 'Take the blasphemer outside the camp. All those who heard him are to lay their hands on his head, and the entire assembly is to stone him. Say to the Israelites: If anyone curses his God, he will be held responsible; anyone who blasphemes the name of the Lord must be put to death. The entire assembly must stone him. Whether an alien or native-born, when he blasphemes the Name, he must be put to death.... Then Moses spoke to the Israelites, and they took the blasphemer outside the camp and stoned him. The Israelites did as the Lord commanded Moses" (Leviticus 24:13-16 ).
"Now kill all the boys. And kill every woman who has slept with a man. But save for yourselves every girl who has never slept with a man" (Numbers 31:18 ).
"And they utterly destroyed all that was in the city, both man and woman, young and old, and ox, and sheep, and ass, with the edge of the sword" (Joshua 6:21).
"Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass" (1 Samuel 15:3).
"And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand" (1 Samuel 17:57).
"Thus the Jews smote all their enemies with the stroke of the sword, and slaughter, and destruction, and did what they would unto those that hated them" (Esther 9:5 ).
"Why do the wicked prosper and the treacherous all live at ease?... But you know me, Lord, you see me; you test my devotion to you. Drag them away like sheep to the shambles; set them apart for the day of slaughter" (Jeremiah 12:1-3 ).
"A curse on all who are slack in doing the Lord's work! A curse on all who withhold their swords from bloodshed!" (Jeremiah 48:10 ).
Chapter 20 of Leviticus contains a list of very severe punishments for various sins. For instance, cursing one's own father or mother would prompt the death penalty. A man marrying a woman together with her daughter must be burned in the fire. Homosexual men must be put to death. Those who commit bestiality must be put to death together with the animals. And many more deaths, and burning penalties.
9:3 And a proclamation from God and His messenger to the people, on the greater Pilgrimage day: "That God and His messenger are innocent from the polytheists." If you repent, then it is better for you, and if you turn away, then know that you will not escape God. And give news to those who have rejected of a painful retribution.
9:3 And a proclamation from God and His Apostle [is herewith made] unto all mankind on this day of the Greatest Pilgrimage:3 "God disavows all who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him, and [so does] His Apostle. Hence, if you repent, it shall be for your own good; and if you turn away, then know that you can never elude God!" And unto those who are bent on denying the truth give thou [O Prophet] the tiding of grievous chastisement.
There is no unanimity among the commentators as to what is meant by "the day of the Greatest Pilgrimage". Most of them assume that it refers to the pilgrimage in the year 9H., in which the Prophet himself did not participate, having entrusted Abu Bakr with the office of amir al-hajj. This very fact, however, makes it improbable that the designation "the Greatest Pilgrimage" should have been given in the Qur'an to this particular pilgrimage. On the other hand, there exists a Tradition on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn `Umar to the effect that the Prophet described in these very words the last pilgrimage led by himself in 10 H. and known to history as the Farewell Pilgrimage (Zamakhshari, Razi); one may, therefore, assume that it is this which is alluded to here. If this assumption is correct, it would justify the conclusion that verses 3 and 4 of this surah were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, i.e., shortly before the Prophet's death. This might explain the-otherwise perplexing-statement, reliably attributed to the Prophet's Companion Al-Bara' (Bukhari, Kitab at-Tafsir), that At-Tawbah was the last surah revealed to the Prophet: for, although it is established beyond any doubt that the surah as a whole was revealed in 9 H. and was followed by several other parts of the Qur'an, e.g., Al-Ma'idah, it is possible that what Al-Bard' had in mind were only these two key-verses (3 and 4) of At-Tawbah, which conceivably were revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage.
9:3 A proclamation is herein issued from GOD and His messenger to all the people on the great day of pilgrimage, that GOD has disowned the idol worshipers, and so did His messenger. Thus, if you repent, it would be better for you. But if you turn away, then know that you can never escape from GOD. Promise those who disbelieve a painful retribution.,
9:3 And a proclamation from God and His Messenger is herewith made to all mankind on this day of the Greatest Pilgrimage (9th day of the 12th lunar month, Zil-Hajjah). God disowns the idolaters, and so does His Messenger. So, if you repent, it will be better for you. But if you turn away from repentance, then know that you cannot escape God. (O Messenger) give tiding of an awful retribution to those who are bent upon opposing the truth,
9:4 Illa allatheena AAahadtummina almushrikeena thumma lam yanqusookum shay-an walam yuthahirooAAalaykum ahadan faatimmoo ilayhim AAahdahum ilamuddatihim inna Allaha yuhibbu almuttaqeena
9:4 Except for those with whom you had a treaty from among those who have set up partners if they did not reduce anything from it nor did they plan to attack you; you shall fulfill their terms until they expire. God loves the righteous.
9:4 Except for those with whom you had made a pledge from among the polytheists if they did not reduce anything from it nor did they support anyone against you; you shall continue the pledge with them until its expiry. God loves the righteous.
9:4 But excepted shall be4 -from among those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God - [people] with whom you [O believers] have made a covenant and who thereafter have in no wise failed to fulfil their obligations towards you, and neither have aided anyone against you: observe, then, your covenant with them until the end of the term agreed with them.5 Verily, God loves those who are conscious of Him.
I.e., from the cancellation, explained in note 2 above, of the treaties which they have concluded with the believers.
Lit., "until their term".
9:4 If the idol worshipers sign a peace treaty with you, and do not violate it, nor band together with others against you, you shall fulfill your treaty with them until the expiration date. GOD loves the righteous.,
9:4 Except those idolaters with whom you have a treaty and they have not subsequently failed you, nor have they helped others against you. You shall fulfill your treaty with them until their term. God loves those who are mindful of His laws.
9:5 Fa-itha insalakha al-ashhuru alhurumufaoqtuloo almushrikeena haythu wajadtumoohum wakhuthoohumwaohsuroohum waoqAAudoo lahum kulla marsadinfa-in taboo waaqamoo alssalatawaatawoo alzzakata fakhalloo sabeelahum innaAllaha ghafoorun raheemun
9:5 So when the restricted months have passed, then you may kill those who have set up partners wherever you find them, take them, surround them, and stand against them at every point. If they repent, hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment, then you shall leave them alone. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
9:5 So when the restricted months have passed, then you may kill the polytheists wherever you find them, and take them, and surround them, and stand against them at every point. If they repent, and they hold the contact prayer, and they contribute towards purification, then you shall leave them alone. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:5 And so, when the sacred months are over6 , slay those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God wherever you may come upon them,7 and take them captive, and besiege them, and lie in wait for them at every conceivable place8 ! Yet if they repent, and take to prayer, and render the purifying dues, let them go their way: for, behold, God is much forgiving, a dispenser of grace.9
According to a pre-Islamic custom prevalent in Arabia , the months of Muharram, Rajab, Dhu 'l-Qa'dah and Dhu 'l-Hiijah were considered "sacred" in the sense that all tribal warfare had to cease during those months. It was with a view to preserving these periods of truce and thus to promoting peace among the frequently warring tribes that the Qur'an did not revoke, but rather confirmed, this ancient custom. See also 2:194 and 217.
Read in conjunction with the two preceding verses, as well as with 2:190, the above verse relates to warfare already in progress with people who have become guilty of a breach of treaty obligations and of aggression.
I.e., "do everything that may be necessary and advisable in denotes "any place from which it is possible to perceive The term marsad enemy and to observe his the movements" (Manar X, 199). warfare".
As I have pointed out on more than one occasion, every verse of the Qur'an must be read and interpreted against the background of the Qur'an as a whole. The above verse, which speaks of a possible conversion to Islam on the part of "those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God" with whom the believers are at war, must, therefore, be considered in conjunction with several fundamental Qur'anic ordinances. One of them, "There shall be no coercion in matters of faith" (2:256), lays down categorically that any attempt at a forcible conversion of unbelievers is prohibited - which precludes the possibility of the Muslims' demanding or expecting that a defeated enemy should embrace Islam as the price of immunity. Secondly, the Qur'an ordains, "Fight in God's cause against those who wage war against you; but do not commit aggression, for, verily, God does not love aggressors" (2:190); and, "if they do not let you be, and do not offer you peace, and do not stay their hands, seize them and slay them whenever you come upon them: and it is against these that We have clearly empowered you [to make war]" (4:91). Thus, war is permissible only in self-defence (see surah 2, notes 167 and 168), with the further proviso that "if they desist-behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace" (2:192), and "if they desist, then all hostility shall cease" (2:193). Now the enemy's conversion to Islam - expressed in the words, "if they repent, and take to prayer [lit., "establish prayer"] and render the purifying dues (zakah)"-is no more than one, and by no means the only, way of their "desisting from hostility"; and the reference to it in verses 5 and 11 of this surah certainly does not imply an alternative of "conversion or death", as some unfriendly critics of Islam choose to assume. Verses 4 and 6 give a further elucidation of the attitude which the believers are enjoined to adopt towards such of the unbelievers as are not hostile to them. (In this connection, see also 60:8).
9:5 Once the Sacred Months are past, (and they refuse to make peace) you may kill the idol worshipers when you encounter them, punish them, and resist every move they make. If they repent and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), you shall let them go. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
9:5 When the four Sacred Months are over, subdue them wherever they come from. Take them captive, and besiege them, and prepare for them ambush. But if they repent from aggression, and help in the consolidation of the Divine System and in setting up the Economic Order of Zakaat, then leave their way free. Surely, God is Forgiving Merciful (so shall you be).3
This verse applies to idolaters who were committing aggression instead of becoming law abiding citizens or emigrating. The four Sacred Months forbidden for any warfare: From the 12th month, Zil-Hajjahup to the 3rd month,Rabi'ul Awwal2:193-195, 9:36. Some critics of Islam call this verse as the “Verse of Sword” presenting it out of context. Also, they present it as applicable for all times while it refers only to the aggressors against the Prophet and his companions in Makkah. See 9:1
9:6 Wa-in ahadun mina almushrikeena istajarakafaajirhu hatta yasmaAAa kalama Allahithumma ablighhu ma/manahu thalika bi-annahum qawmun layaAAlamoona
Do Not Let Those Who Violate the Peace Treaty Succeed9:6 If any of those who have set up partners seeks your protection, then you may protect him so that he may hear the words of God, then let him reach his sanctuary. This is because they are a people who do not know.
9:6 And if any of the polytheists seeks your protection, then you may protect him so that he may hear the words of God, then let him reach his sanctity. This is because they are a people who do not know.
9:6 And if any of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God seeks thy protection,10 grant him protection, so that he might [be able to] hear the word of God [from thee]; and thereupon convey him to a place where he can feel secure:11 this, because they [may be] people who [sin only because they] do not know [the truth].
Lit., "seeks to become thy neighbour": a metaphorical expression denoting a demand for protection, based on the ancient Arabian custom (strongly affirmed by Islam) of honouring and protecting a neighbour to the best of one's ability.
Lit., "his place of security" (ma'manahu)-i.e., "let him rejoin his homeland" (Razi), which implies that he is free to accept or not to accept the message of the Qur'an: a further re-affirmation of the Qur'anic injunction that "there shall be no coercion in matters of faith" (2:256).
9:6 If one of the idol worshipers sought safe passage with you, you shall grant him safe passage, so that he can hear the word of GOD, then send him back to his place of security. That is because they are people who do not know.,
9:6 If anyone of the idolaters seeks your protection or a safe passage, grant him state protection. Convey to him the Word of God, and then escort him to his destiny where he feels safe and secure. This kindness on your part is mandatory since they are a people unaware (of the beauty of Islam).
9:7 Kayfa yakoonu lilmushrikeena AAahdun AAindaAllahi waAAinda rasoolihi illa allatheena AAahadtumAAinda almasjidi alharami fama istaqamoolakum faistaqeemoo lahum inna Allaha yuhibbualmuttaqeena
9:7 How can those who have set up partners have a pledge with God and with His messenger? Except for those with whom you made a pledge near the Restricted Temple, as long as they are upright with you, then you are upright with them. God loves the righteous.
9:7 How can the polytheists have a pledge with God and with His messenger? Except for those with whom you made a pledge near the Restricted Temple, as long as they are upright with you, then you are upright with them. God loves the righteous.
9:7 HOW COULD they who ascribe divinity to aught beside God be granted a covenant by God and His Apostle,12 unless it be those [of them] with whom you [O believers] have made a covenant in the vicinity of the Inviolable House of Worship?13 [As for the latter,] so long as they remain true to you, be true to them: for, verily, God loves those who are conscious of Him.
Lit., "have a covenant before [or "in the sight of"] God and His Apostle": i.e., be protected by those who believe in God and His Apostle. The specific reference to the latter is meant to stress the fact that he speaks and acts in the name of God.
Cf. verse 4 above. The "covenant" alluded to is the truce-agreement concluded in 6 H. at Hudaybiyyah, in the vicinity of Mecca, between the Prophet and the pagan Quraysh, which was (and was obviously intended to remain) a model of the self-restraint and the tolerance expected of true believers with regard to such of the unbelievers as are not openly hostile to them.
9:7 How can the idol worshipers demand any pledge from GOD and from His messenger? Exempted are those who have signed a peace treaty with you at the Sacred Masjid. If they honor and uphold such a treaty, you shall uphold it as well. GOD loves the righteous.,
9:7 How can there be a treaty with God and His Messenger for the idolaters (when they have repeatedly violated it)? Exempted are those with whom you make a treaty at the Sacred Masjid. If they honor and uphold such a treaty, so shall you. God loves those who live upright.
9:8 Kayfa wa-in yathharoo AAalaykumla yarquboo feekum illan wala thimmatan yurdoonakumbi-afwahihim wata/ba quloobuhum waaktharuhum fasiqoona
9:8 How is it that if they ever defeated you they would neither respect neither any rights of kinship nor any pledge. They seek to please you with their words, but their hearts deny, and most of them are wicked.
9:8 How is it that when they come upon you they disregard all ties, either those of kinship or of pledge. They seek to please you with their words, but their hearts deny, and the majority of them are wicked.
9:8 How [else could it be]?14 -since, if they [who are hostile to you] were to overcome you, they would not respect any tie [with you,] nor any obligation to protect [you].15 They seek to please you with their mouths, the while their hearts remain averse [to you]; and most of them are iniquitous.
This connects with the opening clause of the preceding verse, and relates to the hostile among "those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God".
The term ill signifies any tie that arises from a compact or from blood relationship, and which imposes on both parties the obligation to protect each other (cf. Lane 1, 75); the latter implication is expressed in the word dhimmah, which literally denotes a "covenant of protection".
9:8 How can they (demand a pledge) when they never observed any rights of kinship between you and them, nor any covenant, if they ever had a chance to prevail. They pacified you with lip service, while their hearts were in opposition, and most of them are wicked.,
9:8 How can there be a treaty seeing that if they get the upper hand against you, they would respect no ties and no pacts with you? They pleased you with their speech but their hearts opposed you. Most of them defy their pledges.4
Faasiqeen = Those who drift away
9:9 Ishtaraw bi-ayati Allahithamanan qaleelan fasaddoo AAan sabeelihi innahum saama kanoo yaAAmaloona
9:9 They purchased with God's signs a small price, so they turn others from His path. Evil indeed is what they used to do.
9:9 They purchased with the revelations of God a cheap price, so they repel others from His path. Evil indeed is what they used to do.
9:9 God's messages have they bartered away for a trifling gain, and have thus turned away from His path: evil, behold, is all that they are wont to do,
9:9 They traded away GOD's revelations for a cheap price. Consequently, they repulsed the people from His path. Miserable indeed is what they did!,
9:9 They trade away God’s revelations for petty gains and hinder people from His path. Their deeds spread inequity and confusion in the society.5
This trade, frequently mentioned in the Qur’an, indicates: Fulfilling selfish desires for instant gains at the cost of disregarding Permanent Moral Values
9:10 La yarquboona fee mu/minin illan walathimmatan waola-ika humu almuAAtadoona
9:10 They neither respect the ties of kinship nor a pledge for any those who acknowledge. These are the transgressors.
9:10 They do not respect those who are believers, nor a kinship, nor a pledge. These are the transgressors.
9:10 respecting no tie and no protective obligation with regard to a believer; and it is they, they who transgress the bounds of what is right!16
Or: "who are the aggressors" - the two expressions being, in this context, synonymous.
9:10 They never observe any rights of kinship towards any believer, nor do they uphold their covenants; these are the real transgressors.,
9:10 They respect no tie and no pact regarding a believer. They are the ones given to excesses.
9:11 Fa-in taboo waaqamoo alssalatawaatawoo alzzakata fa-ikhwanukum feealddeeni wanufassilu al-ayatiliqawmin yaAAlamoona
9:11 If they repent, and they observe the support activities, and they contribute towards betterment, then they are your brothers in the system. We explain the signs for a people who know.
9:11 If they repent, and they hold the contact prayer, and they contribute towards purification, then they are your brothers in the system. We explain the revelations for a people who know.
9:11 Yet if they repent, and take to prayer, and render the purifying dues, they become your brethren in faith:17 and clearly do We spell out these messages unto people of [innate] knowledge!
See note 9 above.
Repentance: Cleaning the Slate9:11 If they repent and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), then they are your brethren in religion. We thus explain the revelations for people who know.,
9:11 If they mend their ways, (and as law-abiding citizens), help consolidate the Divine System, and the Economic Order of Zakaat, then they are your brothers in the System of Life. We explain Our messages for those who wish to learn.6
The usual translation of this verse conveys the meaning that if they start praying five times a day and give 2.5% poor-due per year, then they are your brothers in religion. This interpretation goes directly against the all-encompassing Ordinance of God that there is no compulsion or coercion in Deen Islam. 2:256
9:12 Wa-in nakathoo aymanahum min baAAdiAAahdihim wataAAanoo fee deenikum faqatilooa-immata alkufri innahum la aymana lahumlaAAallahum yantahoona
9:12 If they break their oaths after their pledge, and they taunt and attack your system; then you may kill the chiefs of rejection. Their oaths are nothing to them, perhaps they will then cease.
9:12 And if they break their oaths after making their pledge, and they challenge the authority of your system; then you may kill the leaders of rejection. Their oaths are nothing to them, perhaps they will then cease.
9:12 But if they break their solemn pledges after having concluded a covenant,18 and revile your religion, then fight against these archetypes of faithlessness19 who, behold, have no [regard for their own] pledges, so that they might desist [from aggression].
Lit., "if they break their oaths after their covenant". This obviously refers to unbelievers who, without having renounced their own beliefs, have concluded treaties of friendship with the Muslims. Their subsequent "breaking of the solemn pledges" is an allusion to the breach of the truce of Hudaybiyyah by the pagan Quraysh, which, in turn, led to the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims in the year 8 H.
The word imam (of which a'immah is the plural) denotes not merely a "leader" but also - and primarily - "a person who is an object of imitation by his followers" (Taj al-'Arus): hence, a "model", or "exemplar", or "archetype". The term kufr, which usually signifies a "denial of [or "refusal to acknowledge"] the truth", is rendered here as "faithlessness" because it refers, specifically, to a deliberate breaking of solemn engagements.
9:12 If they violate their oaths after pledging to keep their covenants, and attack your religion, you may fight the leaders of paganism - you are no longer bound by your covenant with them - that they may refrain.,
9:12 If they keep breaking their pledges after their treaty, and assail your System, then fight the chiefs of the disbelievers. They have no respect for their binding oaths. This action will help restrain them from aggression.
9:13 Ala tuqatiloona qawmannakathoo aymanahum wahammoo bi-ikhraji alrrasooliwahum badaookum awwala marratin atakhshawnahum faAllahuahaqqu an takhshawhu in kuntum mu/mineena
9:13 Would you not fight a people who broke their oaths and intended to expel the messenger, especially while they were the ones who attacked you first? Do you fear them? It is God who is more worthy to be feared if you are those who acknowledge.
9:13 Would you not fight a people who broke their oaths, and obsessed to expel the messenger, especially while they were the ones who attacked you first? Are you concerned about them? It is God who is more deserving that you be concerned with if you are believers.
9:13 Would you, perchance, fail to fight against people who have broken their solemn pledges, and have done all that they could to drive the Apostle away,20 and have been first to attack you? Do you hold them in awe? Nay, it is God alone of whom you ought to stand in awe,21 if you are [truly] believers!
I.e., from Mecca, thus bringing about his and his followers' exodus (hijrah) to Medina.
Lit., "God is more worthy (ahaqq) that you should stand in awe of Him".
9:13 Would you not fight people who violated their treaties, tried to banish the messenger, and they are the ones who started the war in the first place? Are you afraid of them? GOD is the One you are supposed to fear, if you are believers.,
9:13 Will you not fight a people who keep breaking their solemn pledges and did everything to drive out the Messenger, and did attack you first? What! Do you fear them? Nay, it is God alone Whom you should more justly fear, if you are truly believers.
9:14 Qatiloohum yuAAaththibhumu Allahubi-aydeekum wayukhzihim wayansurkum AAalayhim wayashfi sudooraqawmin mu/mineena
9:14 Fight them; perhaps God will punish them by your hands, humiliate them, grant you victory over them and heal the chests of an acknowledging people,
9:14 Fight them; perhaps God will punish them by your hands and humiliate them and grant you victory over them and heal the chests of the believing people.
9:14 Fight against them! God will chastise them by your hands, and will bring disgrace upon them, and will succour you against them; and He will soothe the bosoms of those who believe,
9:14 You shall fight them, for GOD will punish them at your hands, humiliate them, grant you victory over them, and cool the chests of the believers.,
9:14 Fight them! God will punish them at your hands, and He will humiliate them, and give you victory over them, and He will soothe the bosoms of those who believe. (Soothe from the persecution they have undergone).
9:15 Wayuthhib ghaythaquloobihim wayatoobu Allahu AAala man yashaowaAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
9:15 To remove the anger from their hearts; God pardons whom he pleases. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:15 And to remove the anger from their hearts; God pardons whom he pleases. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:15 and will remove the wrath that is in their hearts. And God will turn in His mercy unto whom He wills:22 for, God is all-knowing, wise.
This relates to the unbelievers with whom the Muslims are at war: for God may, if He so wills, bring about a change of heart in them and guide them to a realization of the truth (Baghawi and Zamakhshari; see also Manar X, 236).
9:15 He will also remove the rage from the believers' hearts. GOD redeems whomever He wills. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
9:15 He will remove the rage from their hearts. (The invitation is always open.) God accepts corrective action according to His law. For God is All Knower, All Wise.
9:16 Am hasibtum an tutrakoo walammayaAAlami Allahu allatheena jahadoo minkumwalam yattakhithoo min dooni Allahi walarasoolihi wala almu/mineena waleejatan waAllahukhabeerun bima taAAmaloona
9:16 Or did you think that you would be left alone? God will come to know those of you who strived and did not take other than God and His messenger and those who acknowledge as helpers. God is Ever-aware in what you do.
9:16 Or did you think that you would be left alone? God will come to distinguish those of you who strived and did not take other than God and His messenger and the believers as helpers. God is Expert in what you do.
9:16 Do you [O believers] think that you will be spared23 unless God takes cognizance of your having striven hard [in His cause]24 without seeking help from any but God and His Apostle and those who believe in Him?25 For, God is aware of all that you do.
Lit., "left [alone]", i.e., without being tried by means of suffering and hardship.
Lit., "while God has not yet taken cognizance of those of you who have striven hard". For an explanation of God's "taking cognizance", see 3:142 and the corresponding note.
Lit., "without having taken any intimate helper (walijah) other thanGod and His Apostle and the believers".
The Inevitable Test9:16 Did you think that you will be left alone without GOD distinguishing those among you who strive, and never ally themselves with GOD's enemies, or the enemies of His messenger, or the enemies of the believers? GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.,
9:16 Do you think that you will be left alone without God distinguishing those among you who strive in His cause, and take none for ally except God, His Messenger, and the believers? And God is Aware of what you do.
9:17 Ma kana lilmushrikeena anyaAAmuroo masajida Allahi shahideena AAalaanfusihim bialkufri ola-ika habitataAAmaluhum wafee alnnari hum khalidoona
9:17 It was not for those who have set up partners to maintain God's temples while they bear witness over their own rejection. For these, their works have fallen, and in the fire they will abide.
9:17 It was not for the polytheists to maintain the temples of God while they bear witness over their own rejection. For these, their works have fallen, and in the Fire they will abide.
9:17 IT IS NOT for those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God to visit or tend26 God's houses of worship, the while [by their beliefs] they bear witness against themselves that they are denying the truth. It is they whose works shall come to nought, and they who in the fire shall abide27
In its transitive form, the verb `amara comprises the meanings of both visiting and maintaining a place; hence my rendering of an ya'muru as "that they should visit or tend".
Some of the commentators conclude from this verse that "those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God" are not allowed to enter mosques ("God's houses of worship"). This conclusion, however, is entirely untenable in view of the fact that in 9 H. -that is, after the revelation of this surah -the Prophet himself lodged a deputation of the pagan Banu Thaqif in the mosque at Medina (Razi). Thus, the above verse expresses no more than the moral incongruity of the unbelievers' "visiting or tending God's houses of worship". As regards their exclusion from the central mosque of Islam at Mecca ("the Inviolable House of Worship"), see verse 28 of this surah.
9:17 The idol worshipers are not to frequent the masjids of GOD, while confessing their disbelief. These have nullified their works, and they will abide forever in Hell.,
9:17 Those who associate others with God, (whether idols, dead saints, religious or temporal leaders), shall not administer God’s Masjids, the Centers of the Divine System – while they witness against their own ‘self’ - denial of truth. All their works are in vain and they will abide in the fire.7
9:18 Innama yaAAmuru masajida Allahiman amana biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwaaqama alssalata waataalzzakata walam yakhsha illa AllahafaAAasa ola-ika an yakoonoo mina almuhtadeena
9:18 Rather, the temples of God are maintained by the one who acknowledges God and the Last day, holds the contact prayer, contributes towards betterment, and he does not fear except God. It is these that will be of the guided ones.
9:18 Rather, the temples of God are maintained by he who believes in God and the Last Day, and he upholds the contact prayer, and he contributes towards purification, and is only concerned by God. It is these that will be of the guided ones.
9:18 Only he should visit or tend God's houses of worship who believes in God and the Last Day, and is constant in prayer, and spends in charity, and stands in awe of none but God: for [only such as] these may hope to be among the right-guided!28 29
Lit., "it may well be that these will be among the right-guided". However, according to Abu Muslim (as quoted by Razi), as well as the great grammarian Sibawayh (see Manar X, 253); the word `asa, usually signifying "it may well be", is here indicative of the hope which the above-mentioned believers may entertain.
Many commentators see in this verse an allusion to the boast of the pagan Quraysh, before the Muslim conquest of Mecca, that they were superior to all other people on account of their guardianship of the Ka'bah and their providing water (siqavah) to pilgrims; and on being taken prisoner by the Muslims in the battle of Badr, Al-`Abbas, the Prophet's uncle, excused on these very grounds his failure to accompany the Muslims on their exodus from Mecca to Medina (Tabari). It is probable, however, that this verse has yet another, deeper import. According to an authentic Tradition quoted by Muslim, Abu Da'ud and Ibn Hibban (as well as by Tabari), one of the Prophet's Companions stated in the mosque of Medina, "I would not care, after having accepted Islam, to do any good deed beyond providing water to the pilgrims!" -whereupon another of the Companions declared, "Nay, [I would rather take charge of] the maintenance of the Inviolable House of Worship." But yet another Companion declared, "Nay, struggle (iihad) in God's cause is far better than what you have mentioned!" A short time afterwards the above Qur'an-verse was revealed to the Prophet. It would, therefore, appear that what is meant here is the superior value of faith in God and struggle in His cause as compared with acts which, however meritorious, are concerned only with outward forms: in brief, the immense superiority of real self-surrender to God over mere ritual.
9:18 The only people to frequent GOD's masjids are those who believe in GOD and the Last Day, and observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and do not fear except GOD. These will surely be among the guided ones.,
9:18 Only those people are fit to administer or maintain the Masjids (the Centers of the Divine Order), who have unwavering belief in God and the Last Day. They strive to establish the Divine System, and to set up the Just Economic Order of Zakaatand stand in awe of none but God. They are the ones who are rightly guided.8
Ya’mur = Maintains or administers. Yousuf Ali, Pickthall and Muhammad Asad correctly translate the word as maintaining or tending
9:19 AjaAAaltum siqayata alhajjiwaAAimarata almasjidi alharami kaman amanabiAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri wajahadafee sabeeli Allahi la yastawoona AAinda AllahiwaAllahu la yahdee alqawma alththalimeena
9:19 Have you made serving drink to the pilgrims and the maintenance of the Restricted Temple the same as one who acknowledges God and the Last day, who strives in the cause of God? They are not the same with God. God does not guide the wicked people.
9:19 Have you made the watering of the pilgrim and the maintenance of the Restricted Temple the same as one who believes in God and the Last Day and he strives in the cause of God? They are not the same with God. And God does not guide the wicked people.
9:19 Do you, perchance, regard the [mere] giving of water to pilgrims and the tending of the Inviolable House of Worship as being equal to [the works of] one who believes in God and the Last Day and strives hard in God's cause? These [things] are not equal in the sight of God.* And God does not grace with His guidance people who [deliberately] do wrong.
Question to the Arabs9:19 Have you considered the watering of the pilgrims and caring for the Sacred Masjid a substitute for believing in GOD and the Last Day, and striving in the cause of GOD? They are not equal in the sight of GOD. GOD does not guide the wicked people.,
9:19 Do you consider providing water to pilgrims and caring for the Sacred Masjid (inMakkah) equal to the work of him who has conviction in God and the Last Day and then strives in the cause of God? They are not equal in the Sight of God. God does not guide those who displace action with ritual.9
Zaalim = One who displaces something from its rightful place = Choosing to do wrong
9:20 Allatheena amanoo wahajaroowajahadoo fee sabeeli Allahi bi-amwalihimwaanfusihim aAAthamu darajatan AAinda Allahiwaola-ika humu alfa-izoona
9:20 Those who acknowledged, emigrated, strived in the cause of God with their wealth and their lives are in a greater degree with God. These are the winners.
9:20 Those who believed and emigrated and strived in the cause of God with their money and their lives are in a greater degree with God. These are the winners.
9:20 Those who believe, and who have forsaken the domain of evil30 and have striven hard in God's cause with their possessions and their lives have the highest rank in the sight of God; and it is they, they who shall triumph [in the end]!
See surah 2, note 203, and surah 4, note 124.
Good News9:20 Those who believe, and emigrate, and strive in the cause of GOD with their money and their lives, are far greater in rank in the sight of GOD. These are the winners.,
9:20 Those who attained belief, and left the domain of evil, and strove in the cause of God with their wealth and their lives, have a much greater rank with God. They are the ones who are truly triumphant.
9:21 Yubashshiruhum rabbuhum birahmatinminhu waridwanin wajannatin lahum feehanaAAeemun muqeemun
9:21 Their Lord gives them good news of a Mercy from Him, acceptance, and gardens that are for them in which there is permanent bliss.
9:21 Their Lord gives them good news of a mercy from Him, and acceptance, and gardens that are for them in which there is permanent bliss.
9:21 Their Sustainer gives them the glad tiding of the grace [that flows] from Him, and of [His] goodly acceptance, and of the gardens which await them, full of lasting bliss,
9:21 Their Lord gives them good news: mercy and approval from Him, and gardens where they rejoice in everlasting bliss.,
9:21 Their Lord gives them good news of His grace, His approval, and the Gardens with lasting delight and bliss.
9:22 Khalideena feeha abadan innaAllaha AAindahu ajrun AAatheemun
9:22 They will abide in it eternally. God has a great reward.
9:22 Abiding therein eternally. With God there is a great reward.
9:22 therein to abide beyond the count of time. Verily, with God is a mighty reward!
9:22 Eternally they abide therein. GOD possesses a great recompense.,
9:22 They will live there forever. Surely, with God is immense reward.
9:23 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tattakhithoo abaakum wa-ikhwanakumawliyaa ini istahabboo alkufra AAala al-eemaniwaman yatawallahum minkum faola-ika humu alththalimoona
9:23 O you who acknowledge, do not take your fathers nor brothers as allies if they prefer rejection to acknowledgement. Whoever of you takes them as such, then these are the wicked.
9:23 O you who believe, do not take your fathers nor brothers as allies if they prefer rejection to belief. And whoever of you takes them as such, then these are the wicked.
9:23 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not take your fathers and your brothers for allies if a denial of the truth is dearer to them than faith: for those of you who ally themselves with them-it is they, they who are evildoers!31
The term walayah ("alliance" or "friendship") is used in this context in the sense of an alliance against other believers, as in 3:28. (Regarding the wider, spiritual implications of this expression, see surah 4, note 154.) That it does not refer to "friendship" in the sense of normal human affection is obvious from the many exhortations in the Qur'an to be good to one's parents and kinsfolk; and, more explicitly, from 60:8, where the believers are reminded that friendly relations with unbelievers who are not hostile to the Muslim community are permissible, and even desirable. (See also Manar X, 269 ff., where a similar interpretation is advanced.)
If You Have to Make a Choice9:23 O you who believe, do not ally yourselves even with your parents and your siblings, if they prefer disbelieving over believing. Those among you who ally themselves with them are transgressing.,
9:23 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Even if your parents and siblings take pleasure in disbelief rather than faith, do not take them as allies. For, those of you who ally themselves with them, it is those who are wrongdoers. (The Divine Ideology shall take precedence over all other bonds.)
9:24 قل ان كان ءاباؤكم وابناؤكم واخونكم وازوجكم وعشيرتكم وامول اقترفتموها وتجرة تخشون كسادها ومسكن ترضونها احب اليكم من الله ورسوله وجهاد فى سبيله فتربصوا حتى ياتى الله بامره والله لا يهدى القوم الفسقين
9:24 Qul in kana abaokumwaabnaokum wa-ikhwanukum waazwajukumwaAAasheeratukum waamwalun iqtaraftumooha watijaratuntakhshawna kasadaha wamasakinu tardawnahaahabba ilaykum mina Allahi warasoolihi wajihadinfee sabeelihi fatarabbasoo hatta ya/tiya Allahubi-amrihi waAllahu la yahdee alqawma alfasiqeena
Dedicate Yourself to Establish Peace and Liberty9:24 Say, "If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your spouses, your clan, and money which you have gathered, a trade in which you fear a decline, and homes which you enjoy; if these are dearer to you than God and His messenger and striving in His cause, then wait until God brings His decision. God does not guide the wicked people."4
Most of the world's organized religious institutions collect money from their people. Most of that money is wasted through promotion of lies and ridiculous beliefs. In 2007, the approximately nineteen thousands of Catholic parishes raised about 6 billion dollars. Every year, millions of dollars, a great percentage of that money, is stolen by thief priests. See 57:27; 3:71; 4:161; 9:24; 2:42; 2:188.
9:24 Say: "If your fathers, and your sons, and your brothers, and your wives, and your kin, and money which you have gathered, and a trade which you would be concerned over its decline, and homes which you find pleasing; if these are dearer to you than God and His messenger and striving in His cause, then wait until God brings His decision. And God does not guide the wicked people."
9:24 Say: "If your fathers and your sons and your brothers and your spouses and your clan, and the worldly goods which you have acquired, and the commerce whereof you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you take pleasure - [if all these] are dearer to you than God and His Apostle and the struggle in His cause, then wait until God makes manifest His will;32 and [know that] God does not grace iniquitous folk with His guidance."
Or: "brings about [the fulfilment of) His command". This may be an allusion to the Day of Judgment or - more probably - to the inevitable degeneration and decline of communities which place narrow self-interest above ethical values. In particular, this passage rejects the tendency to regard ties of kinship and national affiliation (expressed in the term "your clan") as the decisive factors of social behaviour, and postulates ideology ("God and His Apostle and the struggle in His cause") as the only valid basis on which a believer's life - individually and socially - should rest.
Important Criterion9:24 Proclaim: "If your parents, your children, your siblings, your spouses, your family, the money you have earned, a business you worry about, and the homes you cherish are more beloved to you than GOD and His messenger, and the striving in His cause, then just wait until GOD brings His judgment." GOD does not guide the wicked people.2 ,
The Quranic, mathematical evidence points specifically to God's Messenger of the Covenant. By adding the gematrical value of "Rashad" (505), plus thevalue of "Khalifa" (725), plus the verse number (24), we get505+725+24=1254=19x66
9:24 Say, “If your parents, your children, and your siblings, and your spouses, and your tribe, and the wealth you have acquired, and the business in which you fear a decline, and the houses you love, are dearer to you than God and His Messenger and striving in His cause, then wait until God brings His command to pass.” (Systems based on other than the Supreme Divine Ideology are destined to collapse.) God does not guide those who drift away from Divine laws.10
Faasiq = One who drifts away
9:25 Laqad nasarakumu Allahu feemawatina katheeratin wayawma hunaynin ithaAAjabatkum kathratukum falam tughni AAankum shay-an wadaqatAAalaykumu al-ardu bima rahubat thummawallaytum mudbireena
9:25 God has granted you victory in many battlefields. On the day of Hunayn, when you were pleased with your great numbers but it did not help you at all, and the land became tight around you for what it held, then you turned to flee.
9:25 God has granted you victory in many battlefields. And on the day of Hunayn when you were pleased with your great numbers but it did not help you at all, and the land became tight around you for what it held, then you turned to flee.
9:25 Indeed, God has succoured you on many battlefields, [when you were few;] and [He did so, too,] on the Day of Hunayn, when you took pride in your great numbers and they proved of no avail whatever to you -for the earth, despite all its vastness, became [too] narrow for you and you turned back, retreating:33
The battle of Hunayn, a valley situated on one of the roads leading from Mecca to Ta'if, took place in the year 8 H., shortly after the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims. The tatters' opponents were the pagan tribes of Hawazin (in whose territory the valley lay) and their allies, the Banu Thaqif. The Muslim army - reinforced by many newly-converted Meccans - comprised about twelve thousand men, whereas the Hawazin and Thaqif had only one-third of that number at their disposal. Relying on their great numerical superiority, the Muslims were over-confident and, apparently, careless. In the narrow defiles beyond the oasis of Hunayn they fell into an ambush prepared by the tribesmen and began to retreat in disorder after heavy losses had been inflicted on them by the bedouin archers. It was only the example of the Prophet and his early adherents (the Meccan muhajirun and the ansar from Medina) that saved the day and turned the initial rout of the Muslims into a decisive victory. It is to this battle that verses 25 and 26 refer, pointing out that true succour can come only from God, and that great numbers, ties of kinship and worldly wealth are of no avail if they are "dearer to you than God and His Apostle and the struggle in His cause" (see preceding verse).
9:25 GOD has granted you victory in many situations. But on the day of Hunayn, you became too proud of your great number. Consequently, it did not help you at all, and the spacious earth became so straitened around you, that you turned around and fled.,
9:25 God has granted you victory in many battle-fields. And on the Day of Hunain, when you marveled at your great numbers, they did not avail you in the least. The earth, despite all its vastness, became constrained for you and you turned back, retreating.
9:26 Thumma anzala Allahu sakeenatahu AAalarasoolihi waAAala almu/mineena waanzala junoodan lamtarawha waAAaththaba allatheena kafaroo wathalikajazao alkafireena
9:26 Then God sent down tranquility upon His messenger and those who acknowledge, and He sent down soldiers which you did not see. He thus punished those who rejected. Such is the recompense of the ingrates.
9:26 Then God sent down His tranquility upon His messenger and the believers, and He sent down soldiers which you did not see, and He punished those who rejected. Such is the recompense of the rejecters.
9:26 whereupon God bestowed from on high His [gift of] inner peace upon His Apostle and upon the believers, and bestowed [upon you] from on high forces which you could not see,34 and chastised those who were bent on denying the truth: for such is the recompense of all who deny the truth!
9:26 Then GOD sent down contentment upon His messenger and upon the believers. And He sent down invisible soldiers; He thus punished those who disbelieved. This is the requital for the disbelievers.,
9:26 Then God sent His reassuring peace upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and sent down armies you could not see, and punished the rejecters. Such is the reward of the deniers of the truth.11
9:27 Thumma yatoobu Allahu min baAAdi thalikaAAala man yashao waAllahu ghafoorunraheemun
9:27 Then God will accept the repentance of whom He pleases after that. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
9:27 Then God will accept the repentance of whom He pleases after that. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:27 But with all this ,35 God will turn in His mercy unto whom He wills: for God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.36
Lit., "then, after this".
Most of the commentators (e.g., Tabari, Baghawi. Zamakhshari, Ibn Kathir) understand this verse as relating to the unbelievers and having a general import; Razi, however, thinks that it refers to the believers who behaved badly at the opening stage of the battle of Hunayn. In my opinion, the former interpretation is preferable. (See also last sentence of verse 15 and note 22 above.)
9:27 Ultimately, GOD redeems whomever He wills. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
9:27 God will shower mercy on the worthy according to His laws. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:28 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooinnama almushrikoona najasun fala yaqrabooalmasjida alharama baAAda AAamihim hathawa-in khiftum AAaylatan fasawfa yughneekumu Allahu min fadlihiin shaa inna Allaha AAaleemun hakeemun
9:28 O you who acknowledge, those who have set up partners are impure, so let them not approach the Restricted Temple after this calendar year of theirs. If you fear poverty, then God will enrich you from His blessings if He wills. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:28 O you who believe, the polytheists are impure, so let them not approach the Restricted Temple after this year of theirs; and if you fear poverty, then God will enrich you from His blessings if He wills. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:28 O YOU who have attained to faith! Those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God are nothing but impure:37 and so they shall not approach the Inviolable House of Worship from this year onwards38 And should you fear poverty, then [know that] in time God will enrich you out of His bounty, if He so wills:39 for, verily, God is all-knowing, wise!
The term najas ("impure") occurs in the Qur'an only in this one instance, and carries an exclusively spiritual meaning (see Manar X, 322 ff.). To this day, the bedouin of Central and Eastern Arabia-who, contrary to the modern town-dwellers, have preserved the purity of the Arabic idiom to a high degree-describe a person who is immoral, faithless or wicked as najas. "The Inviolable House of Worship" (al-masjid al-haram) is, of course, the Ka`bah and, by implication, the whole of the territory of Mecca: which explains the next sentence.
Lit., "after this their year" -i.e., after the year 9 H., in which this surah was revealed.
This is an allusion to the apprehension on the part of some Muslims (and not only at the time of the revelation of this verse) that an exclusion of unbelievers from living in or visiting Mecca might lead to a loss of its position as a centre of trade and commerce, and thus to an impoverishment of its inhabitants.
9:28 O you who believe, the idol worshipers are polluted; they shall not be permitted to approach the Sacred Masjid after this year. If you fear loss of income, GOD will shower you with His provisions, in accordance with His will. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
9:28 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! The idolaters are polluted (with false beliefs) and so they shall not approach the Sacred Masjid from this year onward. If you fear poverty, then in time God will enrich you with His bounty according to His laws. Certainly, God is Knower, Wise.12
9:29 Qatiloo allatheena layu/minoona biAllahi wala bialyawmial-akhiri wala yuharrimoona ma harramaAllahu warasooluhu wala yadeenoona deena alhaqqimina allatheena ootoo alkitaba hattayuAAtoo aljizyata AAan yadin wahum saghiroona
9:29 Fight those who do not acknowledge God nor the Last day among the people who received the book; they do not forbid what God and His messenger have forbidden, and they do not uphold the system of truth; until they pay the reparation, in humility.*
9:29 Fight those who do not believe in God or the Last Day, nor do they restrict what God and His messenger have restricted, nor do they uphold the system of truth; from among the people who have been given the Book; until they pay the reparation, willingly or unwillingly, and they are subdued.
9:29 [And] fight against those who - despite having been vouchsafed revelation [aforetime]40 -do not [truly] believe either in God or the Last Day, and do not consider forbidden that which God and His Apostle have forbidden,41 and do not follow the religion of truth [which God has enjoined upon them]42 till they [agree to] pay the exemption tax with a willing hand, after having been humbled [in war].43
Lit., "such of those who were vouchsafed revelation [aforetime] as do not believe...", etc. In accordance with the fundamental principle-observed throughout my interpretation of the Qur'an -that all of its statements and ordinances are mutually complementary and cannot, therefore, be correctly understood unless they are considered as parts of one integral whole, this verse, too must be read in the context of the clear-cut Qur'anic rule that war is permitted only in self-defence (see 2:190, and the corresponding notes). In other words, the above injunction to fight is relevant only in the event of aggression committed against the Muslim community or state, or in the presence of an unmistakable threat to its security: a view which has been shared by that great Islamic thinker, Muhammad `Abduh. Commenting on this verse, he declared: "Fighting has been made obligatory in Islam only for the sake of defending the truth and its followers.... All the campaigns of the Prophet were defensive in character; and so were the wars undertaken by the Companions in the earliest period [of Islam]" (Manar X, 332).
This, to my mind, is the key-phrase of the above ordinance. The term "apostle" is obviously used here in its generic sense and applies to all the prophets on whose teachings the beliefs of the Jews and the Christians are supposed to be based - in particular, to Moses and (in the case of the Christians) to Jesus as well (Manar X, 333 and 337). Since, earlier in this sentence, the people alluded to are accused of so grave a sin as wilfully refusing to believe in God and the Last Day (i.e., in life after death and man's individual responsibility for his doings on earth), it is inconceivable that they should subsequently be blamed for comparatively minor offences against their religious law: consequently, the stress on their "not forbidding that which God and His apostle have forbidden" must refer to something which is as grave, or almost as grave, as disbelief in God. In the context of an ordinance enjoining war against them. this "something" can mean only one thing-namely, unprovoked aggression: for it is this that has been forbidden by God through all the apostles who were entrusted with conveying His message to man. Thus, the above verse must be understood as a call to the believers to fight against such-and only such-of the nominal followers of earlier revelation as deny their own professed beliefs by committing aggression against the followers of the Qur'an (cf. Manar X, 338).
See in this connection the statement (in 5:13) that the Jews and the Christians "have forgotten much of what they had been told to bear in mind".
Sc., "and having become incorporated in the Islamic state". The term jizyah, rendered by me as "exemption tax", occurs in the Qur'an only once, but its meaning and purpose have been fully explained in many authentic Traditions. It is intimately bound up with the concept of the Islamic state as an ideological organization: and this is a point which must always be borne in mind if the real purport of this tax is to be understood. In the Islamic state, every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to take up arms in jihad (i.e., in a just war in God's cause) whenever the freedom of his faith or the political safety of his community is imperilled: in other words, every able-bodied Muslim is liable to compulsory military service. Since this is, primarily, a religious obligation, non-Muslim citizens, who do not subscribe to the ideology of Islam, cannot in fairness be expected to assume a similar burden. On the other hand, they must be accorded full protection of all their civic rights and of their religious freedom: and it is in order to compensate the Muslim community for this unequal distribution of civic burdens that a special tax is levied on non-Muslim citizens (ahl adh-dhimmah, lit., "covenanted" [or "protected"] people", i.e., non-Muslims whose safety is statutorily assured by the Muslim community). Thus, jizyah is no more and no less than an exemption tax in lieu of military service and in compensation for the "covenant of protection" (dhimmah) accorded to such citizens by the Islamic state. (The term itself is derived from the verb jaza, "he rendered [something] as a satisfaction", or "as a compensation [in lieu of something else]" - cf. Lane II, 422.) No fixed rate has been set either by the Qur'an or by the Prophet for this tax; but from all available Traditions it is evident that it is to be considerably lower than the tax called zakah ("the purifying dues") to which Muslims are liable and which - because it is a specifically Islamic religious duty-is naturally not to be levied on non-Muslims. Only such of the non-Muslim citizens who, if they were Muslims, would be expected to serve in the armed forces of the state are liable to the payment of jizyah, provided that they can easily afford it. Accordingly, all non-Muslim citizens whose personal status or condition would automatically free them from the obligation to render military service are statutorily - that is, on the basis of clear-cut ordinances promulgated by the Prophet-exempted from the payment of jizyah: (a) all women, (b) males who have not yet reached full maturity, (c) old men, (d) all sick or crippled men, (e) priests and monks. All non-Muslim citizens who volunteer for military service are obviously exempted from the payment of jizyah. My rendering of the expression `an yad (lit., "out of hand") as "with a willing hand", that is, without reluctance, is based on one of several explanations offered by Zamakhshari in his commentary on the above verse. Rashid Rida', taking the word yad in its metaphorical significance of "power" or "ability", relates the phrase can yad to the financial ability of the person liable to the payment of jizyah (see Manar X, 342): an interpretation which is undoubtedly justified in view of the accepted definition of this tax.
9:29 You shall fight back against those who do not believe in GOD, nor in the Last Day, nor do they prohibit what GOD and His messenger have prohibited, nor do they abide by the religion of truth - among those who received the scripture - until they pay the due tax, willingly or unwillingly.,
9:29 Fight back against those (who keep violating peace treaties and commit aggression 9:1-10) and do not believe in God, nor in the Last Day, nor do they accept what God and His Messenger have made mandatory (being law abiding citizens), nor do they acknowledge the True Religion - among those who were given the scripture, until they pay war reparations in humility.13
9:30 Waqalati alyahoodu AAuzayrun ibnu Allahiwaqalati alnnasara almaseehuibnu Allahi thalika qawluhum bi-afwahihim yudahi-oonaqawla allatheena kafaroo min qablu qatalahumu Allahuanna yu/fakoona
Do Not Accept Religious Leaders As Authorities Besides God9:30 The Jews said, "Ezra is God's son," and the Nazarenes said, "The Messiah is God's son." Such is their utterances with their mouths; they imitate the sayings of those who rejected before them. God's curse be on them. How deviated are their minds!5
9:30 The Jews said: "Ezra is the son of God," and the Nazarenes said: "The Messiah is the son of God." Such is their utterances with their mouths, they imitate the sayings of those who rejected before them. God will fight them. They are deluded from the truth!
9:30 AND THE JEWS say, "Ezra is God's son," while the Christians say, "The Christ is God's son." Such are the sayings which they utter with their mouths, following in spirit assertions made in earlier times by people who denied the truth!44 [They deserve the imprecation:] "May God destroy them!"45 How perverted are their minds!46
This statement is connected with the preceding verse, which speaks of the erring followers of earlier revelation. The charge of shirk ("the ascribing of divinity [or "divine qualities"] to aught beside God") is levelled against both the Jews and the Christians in amplification, as it were, of the statement that they "do not follow the religion of truth [which God has enjoined upon them]". As regards the belief attributed to the Jews that Ezra (or, in the Arabicized form of this name, `Uzayr) was "God's son", it is to be noted that almost all classical commentators of the Qur'an agree in that only the Jews of Arabia, and not all Jews, have been thus accused. (According to a Tradition on the authority of Ibn `Abbas - quoted by Tabari in his commentary on this verse - some of the Jews of Medina once said to Muhammad, "How could we follow thee when thou hast forsaken our qiblah and dost not consider Ezra a son of God?") On the other hand, Ezra occupies a unique position in the esteem of all Jews, and has always been praised by them in the most extravagant terms. It was he who restored and codified the Torah after it had been lost during the Babylonian Exile, and "edited" it in more or less the form which it has today; and thus "he promoted the establishment of an exclusive, legalistic type of religion that became dominant in later Judaism" (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1963, vol. IX, p. 15). Ever since then he has been venerated to such a degree that his verdicts on the Law of Moses have come to be regarded by the Talmudists as being practically equivalent to the Law itself: which, in Qur'anic ideology, amounts to the unforgivable sin of shirk, inasmuch as it implies the elevation of a human being to the status of a quasi-divine law-giver and the blasphemous attribution to him - albeit metaphorically - of the quality of "sonship" in relation to God. Cf. in this connection Exodus iv, 22-23 ("Israel is My son") or Jeremiah xxxi, 9 ("I am a father to Israel"): expressions to which, because of their idolatrous implications, the Qur'an takes strong exception.
My interpolation, between brackets, of the words "they deserve the imprecation" is based on Zamakhshari's and Rizi's convincing interpretation of this phrase. Originally, the Arabs used the expression "may God destroy him" in the sense of a direct imprecation; but already in pre-Qur'anic Arabic it had assumed the character of an idiomatic device meant to circumscribe anything that is extremely strange or horrifying: and, according to many philologists, "this, rather than its literal meaning, is the purport [of this phrase] here" (Manar X, 399).
See surah 5, note 90.
Blasphemies9:30 The Jews said, "Ezra is the son of GOD," while the Christians said, "Jesus is the son of GOD!" These are blasphemies uttered by their mouths. They thus match the blasphemies of those who have disbelieved in the past. GOD condemns them. They have surely deviated.,
9:30 The Jews say, “Uzayr (Osiris) is God’s son,” while the Christians say, “The Messiah is God’s son.” They only utter baseless themes with their mouths, following the assertions made in earlier times by people who denied the truth. God condemns them. They are deluded.14
Many Jews in the Arabian Peninsula used to believe that Osiris, the Egyptian idol, was God’s Son while others thought of Ezra, who restored the Torah after it had been lost in the Babylonian Exile, as God’s Son. Uzayr applies to Ezra as well as Osiris. See 20:88
9:31 Ittakhathoo ahbarahumwaruhbanahum arbaban min dooni Allahi waalmaseehaibna maryama wama omiroo illa liyaAAbudoo ilahanwahidan la ilaha illa huwa subhanahuAAamma yushrikoona
9:31 They took their scholars and priests to be lords besides God, and the Messiah son of Mary, while they were only commanded to serve One god, there is no god but He, be He glorified for what they set up.
9:31 They have taken their Priests and Monks to be patrons besides God, and the Messiah, son of Mary, while they were only commanded to serve One god, there is no god except He, be He glorified against what they set up.
9:31 They have taken their rabbis and their monks-as well as the Christ, son of Mary-for their lords beside God,47 although they had been bidden to worship none but the One God, save whom there is no deity: the One who is utterly remote, in His limitless glory, from anything to which they may ascribe a share in His divinity!
Upholding the Teachings of Religious Leaders Instead of9:31 They have set up their religious leaders and scholars as lords, instead of GOD. Others deified the Messiah, son of Mary. They were all commanded to worship only one god. There is no god except He. Be He glorified, high above having any partners.,3
If you consult the "Muslim scholars" about worshiping God alone, and upholding the word of God alone, as taught in this proven scripture,they will advise you against it. If you consult the Pope about the identityof Jesus, he will advise you to uphold a trinity. If you obey the "Muslimscholars" whose advice is contrary to God's teachings, or if you take thePope's advice instead of God's, you have set up these religious leaders asgods instead of God.
9:31 They take their rabbis, priests and monks to be their Lords15 besides God. And they take as their Lord, the Messiah son of Mary. Yet they were commanded to worship but One God. There is no god but He. Glorified is He from all that they ascribe to Him as partners.
*Talmud shows the Jewish superstition of ascribing divinity to Ezra, rabbis, saints, doctors of law and learned men. And the doctrine of Papal infallibility, divinity of saints and praying to them are common in the Roman Catholic Church
9:32 Yureedoona an yutfi-oo noora Allahibi-afwahihim waya/ba Allahu illa anyutimma noorahu walaw kariha alkafiroona
9:32 They want to extinguish God's light with their mouths, but God refuses such and lets His light continue, even if the ingrates hate it.
9:32 They want to extinguish the light of God with their mouths, but God refuses such and lets His light continue, even if the rejecters hate it.
9:32 They want to extinguish God's [guiding] light with their utterances:48 but God will not allow [this to pass], for He has willed to spread His light in all its fullness,49 however hateful this may be to all who deny the truth.
Lit., "with their mouths" -an allusion to the "sayings" (i.e., beliefs) mentioned in verse 30.
Lit., "except (illa) that He bring His light to completion", or "to perfection". The expression "for He has willed" (i.e., contrary to what the erring ones want), is here elliptically implied by means of the particle illa.
9:32 They want to put out GOD's light with their mouths, but GOD insists upon perfecting His light, in spite of the disbelievers.,
9:32 They seek to extinguish God’s light (the Qur’an) by their utterances. But God will not allow this to pass, for He has willed to spread His light in all its fullness even though the deniers may detest it.
9:33 Huwa allathee arsala rasoolahu bialhudawadeeni alhaqqi liyuthhirahu AAala alddeenikullihi walaw kariha almushrikoona
9:33 He is the One who sent His messenger with guidance and the system of truth, to make it manifest above all other systems, even if those who set up partners hate it.6
Islam, which has been subjected to a terrible deformation and transformation process for centuries, has long ceased being islam (peacefully surrendering in and with peace), but rather became a man-made doctrine attributed to scholars, such as Shafii, Hanbali, Maliki, Hanafi, Jafari, Vahhabi, Naqshi, Qadiri, Alawi, Muhammedi, etc. By God's will, the fulfillment of the great prophecy (74:1) and the unfolding global events are signs that God has started a new era in which Islam will again provide humanity with a chance to reform their minds, their actions, and their world. See Chapter 110.
9:33 He is the One who has sent His messenger with the guidance and the system of truth, so that it will expose all other systems, even if the polytheists hate it.
9:33 He it is who has sent forth His Apostle with the [task of spreading] guidance and the religion of truth, to the end that He may cause it to prevail over all [false] religion50 -however hateful this may be to those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God.
Cf. 3:19-"the only [true] religion in the sight of God is [man's] self-surrender unto Him". See also 61 : 8-9.
"Submission" Destined to Prevail9:33 He is the One who sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, and will make it dominate all religions, in spite of the idol worshipers.4 ,
This statement, letter for letter, occurs here and in 61:9. If we write down the gematrical value of "Rashad " (505), followed by the value of "Khalifa" (725), followed by the sura and verse numbers where this statement occurs(9:33 & 61:9), we get 505 725 9 33 61 9, a multiple of 19. This confirms that the messengerhere is Rashad Khalifa. Additionally, the number of versesfrom 9:33 to 61:9 (3902)+9+33+61+9+the value of "Rashad Khalifa" (1230)gives 5244, also a multiple of 19. The gematrical value of 9:33 & 61:9,calculated by adding the values of everyletter, is 7858. By adding this number, plus the number of letters in thetwo verses (120), plus the number of verses from9:33 to 61:9 (3902), plus the value of "Rashad Khalifa" (1230), we get 858+120+3902+1230=13110=19x690.See Appendices 1, 2, and 26.
9:33 He is the One Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the True Religion (The Divinely Prescribed System of Life), that He may cause it to prevail over all religions and systems of life, even though the idolaters may detest it.16
5:3, 9:31, 13:31, 14:48, 18:48, 41:53, 48:28, 51:20, 61:8. The Qur’anic Deen will prevail over all religions. This refers to Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zoroastrianism and all other forms of ‘Isms’ and religion, including the sects that are now present in the name of Islam. Please remember that no sect can be considered Islamic. DEEN in the Sight of God is nothing but Al-Islam 5:3. But next to religions, the Qur’anic System of Life will also dominate and prevail over all manmade political and social systems such as Communism, Atheism, Secularism, Secular Democracy, Despotism, Theocracy, Monarchy, all “isms” such as “Humanism” Socialism, Idol worship in any form, Sufism and Capitalism. This will happen as humanity, after the centuries old, protracted toil of trial and error will come to intellectually realize, and accept the Supremacy of the Final Testament, Al-Qur’an
9:34 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooinna katheeran mina al-ahbari waalrruhbanilaya/kuloona amwala alnnasi bialbatiliwayasuddoona AAan sabeeli Allahi waallatheenayaknizoona alththahaba waalfiddatawala yunfiqoonaha fee sabeeli Allahifabashshirhum biAAathabin aleemin
Beware of Religious Scholars and Leaders Who Exploit In God's Name9:34 O you who acknowledge, many of the scholars and priests consume people's money in falsehood, and they turn away from the path of God. Those who hoard gold and silver, and do not spend it in the cause of God, give them news of a painful retribution.
9:34 O you who believe, many of the Priests and Monks consume the money of the people in falsehood, and they repel from the path of God. And those who hoard gold and silver, and do not spend it in the cause of God, give them news of a painful retribution.
9:34 O you who have attained to faith! Behold, many of the rabbis and monks do indeed wrongfully devour men's possessions and turn [others] away from the path of God. But as for all who lay up treasures of gold and silver and do not spend them for the sake of Gods51 - give them the tiding of grievous suffering [in the life to come]:
Most probably this is, in the first instance, an allusion to the wealth of the Jewish and Christian communities, and their misuse of this wealth. Some of the commentators, however, are of the opinion that the reference is wider, comprising all people, including Muslims, who hoard their wealth without spending anything thereof on righteous causes.
Beware of Professional Religionists9:34 O you who believe, many religious leaders and preachers take the people's money illicitly, and repel from the path of GOD. Those who hoard the gold and silver, and do not spend them in the cause of GOD, promise them a painful retribution.,
9:34 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! A great many religious leaders, rabbis, priests, monks, mullahs, yogis, and sufis devour the wealth of people in falsehood, and bar them from the path of God. All those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in the cause of God, give them tidings of a painful doom.17
Ahbaar = Clergy of any religion. Ruhbaan = Monks, Yogis and Sufis
9:35 Yawma yuhma AAalayhafee nari jahannama fatukwa biha jibahuhumwajunoobuhum wathuhooruhum hatha makanaztum li-anfusikum fathooqoo ma kuntum taknizoona
9:35 On the day when they will be seared in the fires of hell, their foreheads, sides and backs will be branded with it: "This is what you have hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you have hoarded!"
9:35 On the Day when they will be seared in the fires of Hell, and their foreheads and sides and backs will be branded with it: "This is what you have hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you have hoarded!"
9:35 on the Day when that [hoarded wealth] shall be heated in the fire of hell and their foreheads and their sides and their backs branded therewith52 , [those sinners shall be told:] "These are the treasures which you have laid up for yourselves! Taste, then, [the evil of] your hoarded treasures!"
Cf. the parallel allegory, in 3:180, of the suffering which will befall the avaricious and the niggardly in the life to come. Regarding the eschatological implications of this and similar allegories, see Appendix I.
9:35 The day will come when their gold and silver will be heated in the fire of Hell, then used to burn their foreheads, their sides, and their backs: "This is what you hoarded for yourselves, so taste what you have hoarded.",
9:35 On the Day when it will all be heated in the fire of Hell and their foreheads, flanks and backs will be branded with it. “Here is what you hoarded for yourselves, now taste what you had hoarded.”
9:36 Inna AAiddata alshshuhoori AAinda Allahiithna AAashara shahran fee kitabi Allahiyawma khalaqa alssamawati waal-ardaminha arbaAAatun hurumun thalika alddeenualqayyimu fala tathlimoo feehinna anfusakumwaqatiloo almushrikeena kaffatan kama yuqatiloonakumkaffatan waiAAlamoo anna Allaha maAAaalmuttaqeena
9:36 The count of the months with God is twelve months in God's book the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are restricted. This is the correct system; so do not wrong yourselves in them. Fight those who set up partners collectively as they fight you collectively. Know that God is with the righteous.7
Verse 9:36 relates the number of months to the day of the creation of the earth. Perhaps in early days of the creation, the rotation of the Moon and Earth were synchronized and there were exactly 12 lunar months in a solar year. The increase in the length of the year or the decelerating earth is causing problems for modern technology which is very sensitive to small changes in the measurement of time, such as computers, electric grids, GPS systems, and missiles. In mid 20th century, scientists learned that the rotation of Earth was not sufficiently uniform as a standard of time. Besides solar gravity, there are many factors influencing the rotation of the earth. For instance, though in minor way, the Moon's gravity through tides causes deceleration, and melting of ice in the North Pole causes little acceleration. To compensate this net deceleration, almost every year we are adding one second to our atomic clocks, which defines and measures a second as 9,192,631,770 electromagnetic radiation or oscillation of Cesium 133. Since 1972 we added 23 leap seconds until 2006. However, the rate of the deceleration does not show a pattern. In recent years, the earth's rotation has been on schedule. See. 9:122
9:36 The count of the months with God is twelve months in the book of God the day He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are restricted. This is the correct system; so do not wrong yourselves in them; and fight the polytheists collectively as they fight you collectively. And know that God is with the righteous.
9:36 BEHOLD, the number of months, in the sight of God, is twelve months, [laid down] in God's decree on the day when He created the heavens and the earth; [and] out of these, four are sacred:53 this is the ever-true law [of God]. Do not, then, sin against54 yourselves with regard to these [months]. And fight against those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God, all together-just as they fight against you, [O believers,] all together55 -and know that God is with those who are conscious of Him.
This connects with the subsequent reference to fighting against "those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God" (see next note). The months spoken of here are lunar months, progressively rotating through the seasons of the solar year (see surah 2, note 165). Since reckoning by the easily observable lunar months is more natural than by the arbitrarily fixed months of the solar year, it is described in this passage as "the ever-true law (din) [of God]". The four "sacred months" during which warfare was considered blasphemous in pre-Islamic Arabia-a view which has been confirmed by Islam (see note 6 above) -are Muharram, Rajab, Dhu 'l-Qa`dah and Dhu 'l-Hijjah.
In their endeavour to obviate certain disadvantages for their trade caused by the seasonal rotation of the lunar months, the pagan Arabs used to intercalate a thirteenth month in the third, sixth and eighth year of every eight-year period, with a view to making the lunar calendar more or less stationary, and thus roughly corresponding to the solar year. An acceptance of this unwarranted intercalation by the Muslims would have tied the-Mecca pilgrimage as *ell as the fast of Ramadan to fixed seasons, and would thus have made, permanently, the performance of these religious duties either too exacting or too easy; and in either case the believers would have been offending against the spiritual purpose underlying these duties -which is the meaning of the words "do not sin against yourselves with regard to these [months]": i.e., by following, without any warrant from God, a custom devised by "those who ascribe divinity to aught beside Him", to whom the sequence refers.
I.e., "just as all of them are, as it were, united against you in their rejection of the truth, be united against them in your readiness for self-sacrifice". As regards the circumstances in which the Muslims are authorized to make war against unbelievers, see the earlier parts of this surah, and especially verses 12-13, as well as 2:190, where the general principles relating to war are laid down.
God's System: Twelve Months Per Year9:36 The count of months, as far as GOD is concerned, is twelve. This has been GOD's law, since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Four of them are sacred. This is the perfect religion; you shall not wrong your souls (by fighting) during the Sacred Months. However, you may declare all-out war against the idol worshipers (even during the Sacred Months), when they declare all-out war against you, and know that GOD is on the side of the righteous.5 ,
The word "month" is mentioned in the Quran 12 times, and "day" 365 times.
9:36 God has ordained twelve months in one year. This has been God’s Ordinance since the day He created the heavens and earth. Four of these Months are Sacred, forbidden for all warfare. This is the Firm Religion, the right way. So, do not wrong yourselves by fighting during the Sacred Months. However, you may fight the idolaters in any or all these months if they fight against you in any or all of them (2:193-195). And know that God is with those who restrain themselves.18
9:37 Innama alnnasee-o ziyadatunfee alkufri yudallu bihi allatheena kafaroo yuhilloonahuAAaman wayuharrimoonahu AAaman liyuwati-ooAAiddata ma harrama Allahu fayuhillooma harrama Allahu zuyyina lahum soo-o aAAmalihimwaAllahu la yahdee alqawma alkafireena
9:37 Know that accelerating the intercalary is an addition in rejection; that those who have rejected may misguide with it. They make it lawful one calendar year, and they forbid it one calendar year, so as to circumvent the count that God has made restricted; thus they make lawful what God made forbidden! Their evil works have been adorned for them, and God does not guide the rejecting people.8
Today's Sunni and Shiite mushriks consider Rajab, Zul-Qada, Zul-Hijja, and Muharram to be the Restricted Months (the 7th, 11th, 12th, and 1st months of lunar calendar). However, when we study 2:197; 9:2 and the names of known months, we will discover that real Restricted Months must be four consecutive months and they are Zul-Hijja, Muharram, Safar, Rabi ul-Awal (12th, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd months). The very name of the 12th month, Zul-Hijja (Contains Haj), gives us a clue that it is the first month of haj pilgrimage. When we start from the 12th month, the last of the Restricted Months becomes the 3rd month, Rabi ul-Awal (First Fourth), and the very name of this month also is revealing; it suggests that it is the fourth month of the Restricted Months. Then, why the qualification "First"? Well, the name of the following month provides an explanation: Rabi ul-Akhir (Second Fourth), which is the fourth month from the beginning of the year. In other words we have two months called "Fourth," the first one referring to the fourth restricted moth, with the second fourth referring to the fourth month of the lunar year. The word rabi (fourth) is used for seasons because each season is one fourth of a year. It is interesting that many of the crimes and distortions mentioned in the Quran have been committed by those who have abandoned the Quran for the sake of hadith and sunna; they repeated the same blunder of their polytheist ancestors.
9:37 Know that the use of the additional month causes an increase in rejection, for it is used by those who have rejected that they may misguide with it by making it lawful one year, and forbidden one year, so as to circumvent the count of what God has made restricted; thus they make lawful what God has made forbidden. Their evil works have been adorned for them, and God does not guide the rejecting people.
9:37 The intercalation [of months] is but one more instance of [their] refusal to acknowledge the truth-56 [a means] by which those who are bent on denying the truth are led astray. They declare this [intercalation] to be permissible in one year and forbidden in [another] year,57 in order to conform [outwardly] to the number of months which God has hallowed: and thus they make allowable what God has forbidden.58 Goodly seems unto them the evil of their own doings, since God does not grace with His guidance people who refuse to acknowledge the truth.
Lit., "is but an increase in denying the truth (kufr)". The term nasi', rendered by me as "intercalation", may also be translated as "postponement" -i.e., the postponement of lunar months by means of the periodical intercalation of a thirteenth month, as practiced by the pre-Islamic Arabs with a view to bringing the traditional lunar calendar, for purely worldly reasons, into accord with the solar year (see note 54 above). The Qur'an describes this practice as an additional instance of kufr because it contravenes God's declared will as regards the observance of the lunar calendar in respect of various religious duties (cf. the preceding verse, as well as 2:189 and the corresponding note 165).
An allusion to the arbitrary manner in which the pre-Islamic Arabs intercalated a thirteenth month in the third, sixth and eighth year of every eight-year period.
By means of the intercalation spoken of above, the pagan Arabs did in most years keep the number of months to twelve; but by divorcing the four "sacred months" (Muharram, Rajab, Dhu 'l-Qa'dah and Dhu 'l-Hijjah), from their proper lunar context they obviously profaned and perverted the natural law.
Altering the Sacred Months9:37 Altering the Sacred Months is a sign of excessive disbelief; it augments the straying of those who have disbelieved. They alternate the Sacred Months and the regular months, while preserving the number of months consecrated by GOD. They thus violate what GOD has consecrated. Their evil works are adorned in their eyes. GOD does not guide the disbelieving people.6 ,
The Sacred Months according to the corrupted Muslim World are Rajab, Zul-Qe`dah, Zul-Hijjah, and Muharram (7th, 11th, 12th and 1st months of theIslamic Calendar). A careful study of the Quran, however, reveals that theyshould be Zul-Hijjah, Muharram, Safar, and Rabi I (12th, 1st, 2nd, and 3rdmonths). See Appendix 15.
9:37 Altering the Sacred Months is only an addition to disbelief. It increases the straying of the disbelievers. They keep the total count of the Sacred Months as four, but keep shifting them within the same year or from year to year. Thus they allow what God has forbidden. Their evil actions seem pleasing to them. God does not guide those who choose to reject the truth.
9:38 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooma lakum itha qeela lakumu infiroo fee sabeeli Allahiiththaqaltum ila al-ardi aradeetum bialhayatialddunya mina al-akhirati fama mataAAualhayati alddunya fee al-akhiratiilla qaleelun
Do Not Accept Aggression and Oppression9:38 O you who acknowledge, what is wrong with you when you are told: "March forth in the cause of God," you become heavy on earth. Have you become content with this worldly life over the Hereafter? The enjoyment of this worldly life compared to the Hereafter is nothing.
9:38 O you who believe, what is wrong with you when you are told: "Mobilize in the cause of God," you become heavy on the earth. Have you become content with this worldly life over the Hereafter? The enjoyment of this worldly life compared to the Hereafter is nothing.
9:38 O YOU who have attained to faith! What is amiss with you that, when you are called upon, "Go forth to war in God's cause," you cling heavily to the earth?59 Would you content yourselves with [the comforts of] this worldly life in preference to [the good of] the life to come? But the enjoyment of life in this world is but a paltry thing when compared with the life to come!
I.e., "you are sluggish in your response, clinging to the life of this world". This verse - as well as most of this surah from here onward - alludes to the campaign of Tabuk, in the year 9 H. The immediate reason for this expedition was the information which the Prophet received to the effect that the Byzantines, made apprehensive by the rapid growth of Islam in Arabia and incited by the Prophet's enemy Abu `Amir (see note 142 on verse 107 of this surah), were assembling large forces on the confines of the Peninsula with a view to marching against Medina and overthrowing the Muslims. To guard against such an assault, the Prophet assembled the strongest force the Muslims were capable of, and set out in the month of Rajab, 9 H., towards the frontier. On reaching Tabuk, about half-way between Medina and Damascus, the Prophet ascertained that the Byzantines were either not yet ready to invade Arabia or had entirely given up the idea for the time being; and so - in accordance with the Islamic principle that war may be waged only in self-defence - he returned with his followers to Medina without engaging in hostilities. At the time of the preparation for this expedition, the hypocrites and a minority among the believers displayed an extreme reluctance (referred to in this and the following verses) to embark on a war with Byzantium: and it is this minority that the above verse reproaches for "clinging heavily to the earth" (Manar X, 493).
9:38 O you who believe, when you are told, "Mobilize in the cause of GOD," why do you become heavily attached to the ground? Have you chosen this worldly life in place of the Hereafter? The materials of this world, compared to the Hereafter, are nil.,
9:38 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! What is amiss with you that, when called upon, “Go forth in the cause of God,” you cling heavily to the ground? Do you choose pleasure in the life of this world rather than in the life to come? The enjoyment of this life is but a paltry thing compared to the Hereafter.
9:39 Illa tanfiroo yuAAaththibkumAAathaban aleeman wayastabdil qawman ghayrakum walatadurroohu shay-an waAllahu AAalakulli shay-in qadeerun
9:39 If you do not march forth, then He will punish you with a painful retribution, He will replace you with another people, and you do not bother Him in the least. God is capable of all things.
9:39 If you do not mobilize, then He will punish you with a painful retribution, and He will replace you with another people, and you do not bother Him in the least. God is capable of all things.
9:39 If you do not go forth to war [in God's cause], He will chastise you with grievous chastisement, and will place another people in your stead - whereas you shall in no wise harm Him: for, God has the power to will anything.
9:39 Unless you mobilize, He will commit you to painful retribution and substitute other people in your place; you can never hurt Him in the least. GOD is Omnipotent.,
9:39 If you did not go forth in God’s cause, He (His law) will afflict you with a painful doom. He will replace you with another nation. You cannot harm Him in the least. All things transpire according to the laws appointed by God.19
9:40 الا تنصروه فقد نصره الله اذ اخرجه الذين كفروا ثانى اثنين اذ هما فى الغار اذ يقول لصحبه لا تحزن ان الله معنا فانزل الله سكينته عليه وايده بجنود لم تروها وجعل كلمة الذين كفروا السفلى وكلمة الله هى العليا والله عزيز حكيم
9:40 Illa tansuroohu faqad nasarahuAllahu ith akhrajahu allatheena kafaroo thaniyaithnayni ith huma fee alghari ithyaqoolu lisahibihi la tahzan inna AllahamaAAana faanzala Allahu sakeenatahu AAalayhiwaayyadahu bijunoodin lam tarawha wajaAAala kalimata allatheenakafaroo alssufla wakalimatu Allahi hiyaalAAulya waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun
9:40 If you do not help him, then God has helped him. When those who rejected expelled him, he was one of only two, and when both were in the cave, he said to his friend: "Do not grieve, for God is with us." So God sent down tranquility over him and He supported him with soldiers that you did not see, and He made the word of those who rejected be the lowest, and God's word be the highest. God is Noble, Wise.
9:40 If you do not help him, then God has helped him. When those who rejected expelled him, he was one of only two, and when they were in the cave, he said to his friend: "Do not grieve, for God is with us." So God sent down His tranquility over him and He supported him with soldiers that you did not see, and He made the word of those who rejected be the lowest, and the word of God be the highest. God is Noble, Wise.
9:40 If you do not succour the Apostle,60 then [know that God will do so -just as] God succoured him at the time when those who were bent on denying the truth drove him away, [and he was but] one of two:61 when these two were [hiding] in the cave, [and] the Apostle said to his companion, "Grieve not: verily, God is with us."62 And thereupon God bestowed upon him from on high His (gift of] inner peace,63 and brought utterly low the cause of those who were bent on denying the truth, whereas the cause of God remained supreme:64 for God is almighty, wise.
Lit., "him", i.e., Muhammad.
Lit., "the second of two": an allusion to the Prophet's flight, in the company of Abu Bakr, from Mecca to Medina in the year 622 of the Christian era. The expression "the second of two" does not imply any order of precedence but is synonymous with "one of two": cf. the Prophet's saying to Abu Bakr, on that very occasion, "What [could], in thy opinion, [happen] to two [men] who have God as the third with them?" (Bukhari, in the chapter Fada'il Ashab an-Nabi)
When the Prophet and Abu Bakr left on their hijrah to Medina, they first hid for three nights in a cave on Mount Thawr, in the vicinity of Mecca, where they were almost discovered and apprehended by the pagan Quraysh who were pursuing them (Bukhari, loc. cit.).
Cf. verse 26 above.
Lit., "is the highest". The expression rendered by me as "cause", which occurs twice in this sentence, reads, literally, "word" (kalimah).
God's Invisible Soldiers9:40 If you fail to support him (the messenger), GOD has already supported him. Thus, when the disbelievers chased him, and he was one of two in the cave, he said to his friend, "Do not worry; GOD is with us." GOD then sent down contentment and security upon him, and supported him with invisible soldiers. He made the word of the disbelievers lowly. GOD's word reigns supreme. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
9:40 If you do not help the Messenger, God will help him, as always. When the disbelievers drove him out of his home, they were just two men. They had to seek refuge in a cave. The Messenger said to his companion, “Grieve not. God is with us.” Then God sent His reassuring peace upon him, and supported him with invisible forces of faith and courage (9:26). He made the word of the disbelievers utterly low. God’s Word remains Supreme. God is Mighty, Wise.
9:41 Infiroo khifafan wathiqalanwajahidoo bi-amwalikum waanfusikum fee sabeeli Allahithalikum khayrun lakum in kuntum taAAlamoona
9:41 March forth in light gear or heavy gear, and strive with your money and lives in the cause of God. That is best if you knew.
9:41 Mobilize in light gear or heavy gear, and strive with your money and lives in the cause of God. That is best if only you knew.
9:41 Go forth to war, whether it be easy or difficult [for you],65 and strive hard in God's cause with your possessions and your lives: this is for your own good -if you but knew it!
Lit., "lightly or heavily". The rendering adopted by me corresponds to the interpretation given to this expression by most of the classical commentators (e.g., Zamakhshari and Razi).
Better Believers Strive in the Cause of God9:41 You shall readily mobilize, light or heavy, and strive with your money and your lives in the cause of GOD. This is better for you, if you only knew.,
9:41 Go forth lightly armed, or heavily armed and strive with your wealth and persons in the cause of God. This is best for you if you but knew.
9:42 Law kana AAaradan qareebanwasafaran qasidan laittabaAAooka walakinbaAAudat AAalayhimu alshshuqqatu wasayahlifoona biAllahilawi istataAAna lakharajna maAAakumyuhlikoona anfusahum waAllahu yaAAlamu innahum lakathiboona
9:42 If it were a near gain, or an easy journey, they would have followed you; but the distance was too much for them. They will swear by God: "If we could have, we would have come with you." They destroy themselves, and God knows they are liars.
9:42 If it were a near gain, or an easy journey, they would have followed you; but the distance was too much for them. And they will swear by God: "If we could have, we would have gone with you." They destroy themselves, and God knows they are liars.
9:42 Had there been [a prospect of] immediate gain, and an easy journey, they would certainly have followed thee, [O Prophet:] but the distance was too great for them66 . And yet, [after your return, O believers,] they will swear by God, "Had we been able to do so, we would certainly have set out with you!" - [and by thus falsely swearing] they will be destroying their own selves: for God knows indeed that they are lying!
A reference to the unwillingness of some of the Muslims to follow the Prophet's call and to set out on the expedition to the frontier (see last paragraph of note 59 above). A strenuous march of about fourteen days was needed to reach Tabuk, the goal of this expedition; and the uncertainty of its outcome, as well as the hardships involved, gave rise to all manner of spurious excuses on the part of the half-hearted believers and hypocrites. As the next verse shows, the Prophet accepted these excuses in many cases, and allowed the men concerned to remain at Medina.
The Sedentary9:42 If there were a quick material gain, and a short journey, they would have followed you. But the striving is just too much for them. They will swear by GOD: "If we could, we would have mobilized with you." They thus hurt themselves, and GOD knows that they are liars.,
9:42 There are people among you that if it were a quick material gain and a short easy journey, they would follow you. But the strife and the distance seem heavy and long to them. They will swear by God, “If we could, we would have gone along with you.” They destroy their own ‘self’. God knows that they are liars.
9:43 AAafa Allahu AAanka lima athintalahum hatta yatabayyana laka allatheena sadaqoowataAAlama alkathibeena
9:43 God pardons you; why did you grant them leave before it became clear to you who are truthful, and who are lying?
9:43 God pardons you; why did you give them leave before it became clear to you who are truthful, and who are lying?
9:43 May God pardon thee [O Prophet] !67 Why didst thou grant them permission [to stay at home] ere it had become obvious to thee as to who was speaking the truth, and [ere] thou camest to know. [who were] the liars?
All the commentators agree in that this phrase, although expressed in the form of an invocation, has the meaning of a statement - "God pardons thee" or "has pardoned thee" - absolving the Prophet of any moral responsibility for his mistaken, but humanly understandable, acceptance of equivocal pleas on the part of those who wished to be excused from participating in the campaign. To me it seems that this statement of "absolution" was primarily intended to free the Prophet from any self-reproach for his too-great liberality in this respect. (It should be borne in mind that this part of At-Tawbah was revealed during or immediately after the expedition.)
9:43 GOD has pardoned you: why did you give them permission (to stay behind), before you could distinguish those who are truthful from the liars?,
9:43 God pardons you (O Messenger) that you gave them permission to stay behind, before you could distinguish the truthful from the liars.20
The permission gave the hypocrites an excuse to stay back
9:44 La yasta/thinuka allatheenayu/minoona biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhirian yujahidoo bi-amwalihim waanfusihim waAllahuAAaleemun bialmuttaqeena
9:44 Those who acknowledge God and the Last day will not ask leave. They strive with their money and their lives. God is aware of the righteous.
9:44 Those who believe in God and the Last Day will not ask leave. They strive with their money and their lives. And God is aware of the righteous.
9:44 Those who [truly] believe in God and the Last Day do not ask thee for exemption from struggling with their possessions and their lives [in God's cause]-and God has full knowledge as to who is conscious of Him-:68
Lit., "has full knowledge of the God-conscious (bi'l-muttagin)".
9:44 Those who truly believe in GOD and the Last Day do not ask your permission to evade the opportunity to strive with their money and their lives. GOD is fully aware of the righteous.,
9:44 Those who have conviction in God and the Last Day, do not ask you for exemption from striving with their wealth and persons. God is Aware of those who live upright.
9:45 Innama yasta/thinuka allatheenala yu/minoona biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwairtabat quloobuhum fahum fee raybihimyataraddadoona
9:45 Those who ask leave are the ones who do not acknowledge God and the Last day, and their hearts are in doubt. In their doubts they are wavering.9
Hypocrites and polytheists claim that they believe in God (23:84). Indeed, with their faith in the intercession of prophets and saints, they profess faith in the hereafter (10:18). Nevertheless, they have doubts in their compromised faith, which is the result of joining the bandwagon or wishful thinking (9:45; 11:110; 14:9; 34:21; 41:45; 44:9). We are told that a conviction/acknowledgement based on knowledge is not contaminated with doubts (49:15). Ironically, many polytheists are in denial of their polytheism (6:23).
9:45 Those who ask leave are the ones who do not believe in God and the Last Day, and their hearts are in doubt. In their doubts they are wavering.
9:45 only those ask thee for exemption who do not [truly] believe in God and the Last Day and whose hearts have become a prey to doubt, so that in their doubting they waver between one thing and another.
9:45 The only people who wish to be excused are those who do not really believe in GOD and the Last Day. Their hearts are full of doubt, and their doubts cause them to waver.,
9:45 Only those ask your leave (O Prophet) who do not truly believe in God and the Last Day. Their hearts feel doubt, and in their doubt they waver.
9:46 Walaw aradoo alkhurooja laaAAaddoolahu AAuddatan walakin kariha Allahu inbiAAathahumfathabbatahum waqeela oqAAudoo maAAa alqaAAideena
9:46 If they had gone with you then they would have taken all preparation for it, but God disliked their being sent forth, so He hindered them, and they were told: "Stay with those who have stayed."
9:46 And if they had wanted to go then they would have taken all precautions for it, but God disliked them coming forth, so He made them lag behind, and they were told: "Stay with those who have stayed."
9:46 For, had they been [truly] desirous of setting out [with thee], they would surely have made some preparation therefor: but God was averse to their taking the field, and so He caused them to hold back when it was said, "[You may] stay at home with all [the others] who stay at home."69
This may refer to the permission granted by the Prophet (see verse 43) to certain of his followers who, for apparently legitimate reasons, were unable to take part in the campaign (Tabari, Zamakhshari, Razi) - a permission of which the hypocrites only too readily availed themselves. As regards God's "causing" those hypocrites to sin in this way, see 2:7 and the corresponding note 7, as well as surah 3, note 117.
9:46 Had they really wanted to mobilize, they would have prepared for it thoroughly. But GOD disliked their participation, so He discouraged them; they were told, "Stay behind with those who are staying behind.",
9:46 If they wanted to go forth, they would have made necessary preparation. God disliked their participation for their reluctance, and held them back. (The Prophet had) said to them, “Stay behind with those who are sitting back.”
9:47 Law kharajoo feekum ma zadookumilla khabalan walaawdaAAoo khilalakumyabghoonakumu alfitnata wafeekum sammaAAoona lahum waAllahuAAaleemun bialththalimeena
9:47 Had they come out with you they would have added nothing but disorder, and they would have hurried about seeking a test among you. There are some amongst you who listen to them. God is aware of the wicked.
9:47 Had they gone with you they would have added nothing except disruption, and they would have hurried about seeking to cause for you an ordeal; and there are some among you who listen to them. God is aware of the wicked.
9:47 Had these [hypocrites] set out with_ you, [O believers,] they would have added nothing to you save the evil of corruption, and would surely have scurried to and fro in your midst, seeking to stir up discord among you, seeing that there are in your midst such as would have lent them ear: but God has full knowledge of the evildoers.
9:47 Had they mobilized with you, they would have created confusion, and would have caused disputes and divisions among you. Some of you were apt to listen to them. GOD is fully aware of the transgressors.,
9:47 Even if they had gone forth they would have only caused trouble and run to and fro seeking sedition among you. In your ranks some are apt to listen to them and in your ranks are spies of the enemy. God knows the wrongdoers.
9:48 Laqadi ibtaghawoo alfitnata min qabluwaqallaboo laka al-omoora hatta jaa alhaqquwathahara amru Allahi wahum karihoona
9:48 They wanted to test from before, and they turned matters upside down for you until the truth came and God's command was revealed, while they hated it.
9:48 They wanted to cause an ordeal from before, and they turned matters upside down for you until the truth came and the command of God was revealed, while they hated it.
9:48 Indeed, even before this time70 have they tried to stir up discord and devised all manner of plots against thee, [O Prophet,] until the truth was revealed and God's will became manifest, however hateful this may have been to them.
I.e., before the expedition to Tabuk, during which these passages were revealed.
9:48 They sought to spread confusion among you in the past, and confounded matters for you. However, the truth ultimately prevails, and GOD's plan is carried out, in spite of them.,
9:48 They sought to create dissension among you before, and raised difficulties for you (O Prophet). They did that until the truth came and the decree of God prevailed, though they detested it.
9:49 Waminhum man yaqoolu i/than lee walataftinnee ala fee alfitnati saqatoo wa-innajahannama lamuheetatun bialkafireena
9:49 Some of them say, "Grant me leave, and do not test me." But it is in the test that they have indeed fallen, and hell is surrounding the ingrates.
9:49 And from them are those who say: "Grant me leave, and do not test me." But it is in the test that they have indeed fallen, and Hell is surrounding the rejecters.
9:49 And among them there was [many a one] who said,"71 Grant me permission [to remain at home], and do not put me to too hard a test!" Oh, verily, [by making such a request] they had [already failed in their test and] succumbed to a temptation to evil:72 and, behold, hell will indeed encompass all who refuse to acknowledge the truth!
I.e., at the time when the Prophet was making preparations for the campaign.
See verses 44 and 45 above. It is to be noted that both the verbal form la taftinni (rendered by me as "do not put me to too hard a test") and the noun fitnah have the same root, comprising a great complex of meanings: e.g., test, trial, affliction. temptation to evil, seduction, persecution, oppression, discord, civil strife, etc. (cf. surah 8, note 25). Since it is impossible in any language but Arabic to reproduce all these many shades of meaning in a single expression, the rendering of the term fitnah must necessarily vary in accordance with the context in which it is used.
9:49 Some of them would say, "Give me permission (to stay behind); do not impose such a hardship on me." In fact, they have thus incurred a terrible hardship; Hell is surrounding the disbelievers.,
9:49 Of them is he who says, “Grant me leave, and do not draw me into trial.” Have they not fallen into trial already? In fact, Hell is all around the disbelievers.
9:50 In tusibka hasanatun tasu/humwa-in tusibka museebatun yaqooloo qad akhathnaamrana min qablu wayatawallaw wahum farihoona
9:50 When any good befalls you, it upsets them, and if any bad befalls you, they say, "We have taken our precautions beforehand," and they turn away rejoicing.
9:50 When any good befalls you, it upsets them, and if any bad befalls you, they say: "We have taken our precaution beforehand," and they turn away happy.
9:50 Should good fortune alight on thee,73 [O Prophet,] it will grieve them; and should misfortune befall thee, they will say [to themselves], "We have already taken our precautions beforehand!" - and will turn away, and will rejoice.
I.e., in the course of the expedition to Tabuk, during which most of this surah was revealed. One should, however, bear in mind that these verses have not merely a historical connotation but, rather, aim at depicting hypocrisy as such.
9:50 If something good happens to you, they hurt, and if an affliction befalls you, they say, "We told you so," as they turn away rejoicing.,
9:50 If some good comes to you (O Prophet) it grieves them. And if calamity befalls you, they say, “We took our precautions beforehand.” And they turn away rejoicing.
9:51 Qul lan yuseebana illama kataba Allahu lana huwa mawlanawaAAala Allahi falyatawakkali almu/minoona
9:51 Say, "Nothing will befall us except what God has decreed for us; He is our Patron." In God those who acknowledge shall put their trust.10
9:51 Say: "Nothing will befall us except what God has decreed for us, He is our Patron." And in God the believers shall put their trust.
9:51 Say: "Never can anything befall us save what God has decreed! He is our Lord Supreme; and in God let the believers place their trust!"
9:51 Say, "Nothing happens to us, except what GOD has decreed for us. He is our Lord and Master. In GOD the believers shall trust.",
9:51 Say, “No calamity befalls us except within the bounds of God’s laws. Only He is our Lord Supreme (Maulana).” In God let the believers put their trust!21
Calling religious men asMaulana is a very common but dangerous practice involving Shirk
9:52 Qul hal tarabbasoona bina illaihda alhusnayayni wanahnu natarabbasubikum an yuseebakumu Allahu biAAathabin minAAindihi aw bi-aydeena fatarabbasoo innamaAAakum mutarabbisoona
9:52 Say, "While we wait for you to be afflicted by God with retribution from Him, or at our hands you can only expect for us one of two good things. So wait, we are with you waiting."
9:52 Say: "You can only expect for us one of two good things; while we wait for you to be afflicted by God with a retribution from Him, or by our hands. So wait, we are with you waiting."
9:52 Say: "Are you, perchance, hopefully waiting for something [bad] to happen to us-[the while nothing can happen to us] save one of the two best things?74 But as far as you are concerned, we are hopefully waiting for God to inflict chastisement upon you, [either] from Himself75 or by our hands! Wait, then, hopefully; behold, we shall hopefully wait with you!"
Le., either victory or martyrdom in God's cause. The verb tarabbasa has usually the connotation of waiting with expectancy, and is, therefore, most suitably rendered as "he hopefully waited".
Sc., in the life to come.
9:52 Say, "You can only expect for us one of two good things (victory or martyrdom), while we expect for you condemnation from GOD and retribution from Him, or at our hands. Therefore, wait, and we will wait along with you.",
9:52 Say, "Can you expect for us other than one of two things" - (victory or martyrdom)? We expect for you that God will send His retribution from Himself, or by our hands. Wait then expectant, and we shall hopefully wait with you.”
9:53 Qul anfiqoo tawAAan aw karhan lanyutaqabbala minkum innakum kuntum qawman fasiqeena
9:53 Say, "Spend willingly or unwillingly, it will not be accepted from you. You are a wicked people."
9:53 Say: "Spend willingly or unwillingly, it will not be accepted from you. You are a wicked people."
9:53 Say: "You may spend [anything], willingly-or unwillingly, [pretending that you do it for the sake of God:] it shall never be accepted from you76 -for, verily, you are people bent on iniquity!"
9:53 Say, "Spend, willingly or unwillingly. Nothing will be accepted from you, for you are evil people.",
9:53 (Some hypocrites want to make financial contributions.) Tell them, "Your contribution is not accepted whether you pay willingly or unwillingly. You are a people who drift away from the System at the first opportune time."
9:54 Wama manaAAahum an tuqbala minhumnafaqatuhum illa annahum kafaroo biAllahiwabirasoolihi wala ya/toona alssalatailla wahum kusala wala yunfiqoona illawahum karihoona
9:54 What prevented the acceptance of their spending was that they rejected God and His messenger, and they do not attend to the contact prayer except lazily, and they do not spend except unwillingly.11
This verse is another piece of evidence that sala prayers were known since Abraham and were practiced by Meccan polytheists (8:35; 21:73). This is another answer for those who reject Quran's assertion that it is complete, perfect, and sufficiently detailed, and then ask, "Where can we find the details of sala prayers in the Quran?" (6:19, 38,114). One can find the details of sala prayer for themselves by just studying the sixty plus verses that mention sala prayer.
9:54 And what prevented what they would spend from being accepted from them except that they rejected God and His messenger, and they do not attend the contact prayer except lazily, and they do not spend except unwillingly.
9:54 For, only this prevents their spending from being accepted from them:77 they are bent on refusing to acknowledge God and His Apostle, and never pray without reluctance ,78 and never spend [on righteous causes] without resentment.
Lit., "nothing prevents their spending from being accepted from them except that. ..", etc.
Lit., "and they do not approach prayer without being reluctant" -i.e., when they participate in acts of worship they do it only for the sake of outward conformity, and not out of inner conviction.
The Contact Prayer Existed Before Muhammad9:54 What prevented the acceptance of their spending is that they disbelieved in GOD and His messenger, and when they observed the Contact Prayers (Salat)7 , they observed them lazily, and when they gave to charity, they did so grudgingly.*,
This is another proof that the Contact Prayers (Salat) existed before the Quran, and were handed down from Abraham (see 21:73). Also, it stumpsthose who challenge God's assertion that the Quran is complete and fullydetailed when they ask, "Where can we find the details of the Contact Prayersin the Quran" ( 6:19 , 38, 114).
9:54 What prevents their contributions from being accepted is this: They do not truly believe in God and His Messenger. They only claim to believe. They join you in Salaat congregations only half-heartedly and just to be seen of men. And they contribute only with great reluctance in their hearts. [2:8, 4:142, 107:5, 2:256]
9:55 Fala tuAAjibka amwaluhum walaawladuhum innama yureedu Allahu liyuAAaththibahumbiha fee alhayati alddunyawatazhaqa anfusuhum wahum kafiroona
Worldly Gains9:55 So do not be impressed by their wealth or children; God only wishes to punish them with it in the worldly life, and so that their lives will end while they are ingrates.
9:55 So do not be impressed by their wealth or children; God only wishes to punish them with it in the worldly life, and so that their souls will be taken while they are rejecters.
9:55 Let not, then, their worldly goods or [the happiness which they may derive from] their children excite thy admiration: God but wants to chastise them by these means in this worldly life, and [to cause] their souls to depart while they are [still] denying the truth.*
Apparent Worldly Success9:55 Do not be impressed by their money, or their children. GOD causes these to be sources of retribution for them in this life, and (when they die) their souls depart while they are disbelievers.,
9:55 Let not their riches or their children and party astonish you (O Prophet). God causes them to suffer retribution through these in the life of this world and they depart in sorrow while they are in denial (9:85).22
9:56 Wayahlifoona biAllahiinnahum laminkum wama hum minkum walakinnahumqawmun yafraqoona
9:56 They swear by God that they are with you, while they are not with you; but they are timid and divisive people.
9:56 And they swear by God that they are with you, while they are not with you; but they are a people who are indecisive.
9:56 And they swear by God that they do indeed belong to you -the while they do not belong to you, but are [only] people ridden by fear:79
9:56 They swear by GOD that they belong with you, while they do not belong with you; they are divisive people.,
9:56 And they swear by God that they are of you. In fact, they are not of you, they are people ridden with fear.
9:57 Law yajidoona maljaan aw magharatinaw muddakhalan lawallaw ilayhi wahum yajmahoona
9:57 If they could find a refuge, a cave, or any place to enter, then they would have run to it, rushing.
9:57 If they find a refuge, or cave, or any place to enter, they will run to it while they are in haste.
9:57 if they could but find a place of refuge, or any cavern, or a crevice [in the earth], they would turn towards it in headlong haste.80
Thus the Qur'an shows that the innermost cause of all hypocrisy is fear-fear of a moral commitment and, at the same time, fear of an open breach with one's social environment. In their overriding, immoral desire for social conformity, "the hypocrites seek to deceive God-the while it is He who causes them to be deceived [by themselves]" (4:142); and as "they are oblivious of God, so He is oblivious of them" (9:67). One should note, in this connection, that the Arabic term munafiq - which, for want of a better word, is rendered as "hypocrite" - applies both to conscious dissemblers bent on deceiving their fellow-men, as well as to people who, out of an inner uncertainty, are deceiving themselves. For a fuller discussion of this term, see note 7 on 29:11, which probably represents the earliest instance of its use in the Qur'an.
9:57 If they could find a refuge, or caves, or a hiding place, they would go to it, rushing.,
9:57 If they could find a refuge or a cave or a hiding place, they would rush to it like runaway horses.
9:58 Waminhum man yalmizuka fee alssadaqatifa-in oAAtoo minha radoo wa-in lam yuAAtawminha itha hum yaskhatoona
9:58 Some of them are those who criticize you regarding the charities. If they are given from it, they are content; but if they are not given from it, they become enraged!
9:58 And from them are those who criticize you regarding the charities. If they are given from it, they are content; and if they are not given from it, they become enraged!
9:58 And among them are such as find fault with thee [O Prophet] concerning [the distribution of] the offerings given for the sake of God:81 if they are given something thereof, they are well-pleased; but if they are not given anything thereof, lo! they are consumed with anger.
Since there is no English equivalent for the term sadaqat (sing. sadagah), I am rendering it here as "offerings given for the sake of God". This comprises everything that a believer freely gives to another person, out of love or compassion, as well as what he is morally or legally obliged to give, without expecting any worldly return: that is, charitable gifts and deeds of every description (which is the primary meaning of sadaqat -e.g., in 2:263 and 264), as well as the obligatory tax called zakah ("the purifying dues", because its payment purifies, as it were, a person's property from the taint of selfishness). In the context of the above verse, this term refers to the funds thus collected and administered by the Muslim community or state. When these funds are disbursed for the purposes stipulated in verse 60, they assume once more - this time in relation to the recipients-the aspect of "charitable gifts".
9:58 Some of them criticize your distribution of the charities; if they are given therefrom, they become satisfied, but if they are not given therefrom, they become objectors.,
9:58 Some of them try to find fault with you (O Prophet) in the distribution of charity. If they are given plenty, they are pleased, but if they receive little share, they get enraged.
9:59 Walaw annahum radoo ma atahumuAllahu warasooluhu waqaloo hasbunaAllahu sayu/teena Allahu min fadlihiwarasooluhu inna ila Allahi raghiboona
9:59 If only they were content with what God and His messenger had given them, and had said, "God suffices us; God will give us from His bounty, and so His messenger; it is to God that we desire."
9:59 And if they had only been content with what God and His messenger had given them, and they had said: "God suffices; God will give us from His bounty, and His messenger; it is towards God that we desire."
9:59 And yet, [it would be but for their own good] if they were to content themselves with what God has given them and [caused] His Apostle [to give them],82 and would say, "God is enough for us! God will give us [whatever He wills] out of His bounty, and [will cause] His Apostle [to give us, too]: verily, unto God alone do we turn with hope!"
Lit., "what God has given them, and His Apostle": a typically Qur'anic construction meant to bring out the fact that the real giver is God, and that the Apostle is His instrument. Although this passage relates, primarily, to the hypocrites at Medina and the historical situation obtaining at the time of the expedition to Tabuk, the import of these verses goes beyond the historical occasion of their revelation, describing as it does "the attitude and mentality of hypocrites of all times, and everywhere" (Manar X, 567). Consequently, we may assume that the reference, in this context, to "God's Apostle" is not confined to the person of the Prophet Muhammad but implies, metonymically, the Law of Islam as revealed through him - and, thus, to every government that holds authority by virtue of that Law and rules in accordance with it.
9:59 They should be satisfied with what GOD and His messenger have given them. They should have said, "GOD suffices us. GOD will provide for us from His bounties, and so will His messenger. We are seeking only GOD.",
9:59 It would have been enormously good for them if they were content with what God and His Messenger had given them. And if they had said, "God suffices us. God will give us of His bounty, and the Messenger will distribute in kindness and equity. We turn to God with all our hopes.”23
59:7. The Central Authority will be just to all
9:60 Innama alssadaqatulilfuqara-i waalmasakeeni waalAAamileenaAAalayha waalmu-allafati quloobuhum wafee alrriqabiwaalgharimeena wafee sabeeli Allahi waibnialssabeeli fareedatan mina Allahi waAllahuAAaleemun hakeemun
Distribution of Charities9:60 The charities are to go to the poor, the needy, those who work on their collection, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, free the slaves, those in debt, in the cause of God, and to the wayfarer. A duty from God; God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:60 Indeed, the charities are for the poor, and the needy, and those who work to collect them, and those whose hearts have been united, and to free the slaves, and those in debt, and in the cause of God, and the wayfarer. A duty from God, and God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:60 The offerings given for the sake of God83 are [meant] only for the poor and the needy, and those who are in charge thereof,84 and those whose hearts are to be won over, and for the freeing of human beings from bondage, and [for] those who are over burdened with debts, and [for every struggle] in God's cause, and [for] the wayfarer: [this is] an ordinance from God - and God is all-knowing, wise.85
See note 81 above.
I.e., the officials entrusted with the collection and administration of zakah funds.
These eight categories circumscribe all the purposes for which zakah funds may be expended. By "those whose hearts are to be won over" are apparently meant such non-Muslims as are close to understanding and, perhaps, accepting Islam, and for whose conversion every effort should be made, either directly or indirectly (i.e., by means of the widest possible propagation of the teachings of Islam). As regards the expression fi 'r-rigab ("for the freeing of human beings from bondage"), which relates both to the ransoming of prisoners of war and to the freeing of slaves, see surah 2, note 146. The term al-gharimun describes people who are overburdened with debts contracted in good faith. which - through no fault of their own - they are subsequently unable to redeem. The expression "in God's cause" embraces every kind of struggle in righteous causes, both in war and in peace, including expenditure for the propagation of Islam and for all charitable purposes. Regarding the meaning of ibn as-sabil ("wayfarer"), see surah 2, note 145.
Distribution System for Charities9:60 Charities shall go to the poor, the needy, the workers who collect them, the new converts, to free the slaves, to those burdened by sudden expenses, in the cause of GOD, and to the traveling alien. Such is GOD's commandment. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
9:60 (The funds that the Central Authority receives as) Alms and Charity (Sadaqaat) belong to the following eight categories: 1- The poor, those who are not able to earn sufficient living to meet their essential needs. 2- Those whose running businesses have stalled or the ones who have lost their jobs or those who have become needy for any reason. 3- Officials who have been appointed by the government to collect alms and charity. 4- Those who deserve financial help to heal any sufferings. 5- For those in bondage of any kind: physical slavery, unjust captivity, and oppression. 6- Those in heavy debt. 7- Defense of the Ideological State, in the cause of God. 8- The wayfarer who becomes needy, or travels to the believers in destitute condition, and the homeless son of the street. This is a Duty from God. For, God is Knower, Wise (and His commands are based on knowledge and wisdom).24
It is important to bear in mind an almost universal misconception among Muslim scholars and the masses about Sadaqaat alms and charity. They think that the above eight categories are Zakaat. But Zakaat indicates the Just Economic Order where everyone in the society receives a decent provision. The cornerstone of Zakaat is spending whatever is surplus 2:219, 6:141. In other words, it means turning the extra income voluntarily to the Central Authority who, in turn, will establish a Welfare State where everyone works according to his capacity and is paid according to his needs. The Central Authority can set up a mandatory percentage of income as taxes on its citizens. The taxes will vary according to the needs of the time, be it 2.5%, 5% or more or less. Verse 9:60 is talking about Sadaqaat alms and charity and not Zakaat. Sadaqaat are meant to be only an interim arrangement applicable at any time until the Divinely Ordained System is established and the Just Economic Order is set up in the society
9:61 Waminhumu allatheena yu/thoonaalnnabiyya wayaqooloona huwa othunun qul othunukhayrin lakum yu/minu biAllahi wayu/minulilmu/mineena warahmatun lillatheena amanoominkum waallatheena yu/thoona rasoola Allahilahum AAathabun aleemun
9:61 Among them are those who hurt the prophet, and they say, "He only listens!" Say, "What he listens to is best for you. He acknowledges God, he trusts those who acknowledge, and he is a mercy to those who acknowledge among you." Those who hurt God's messenger will have a painful retribution.
9:61 And from them are those who harm the prophet, and they say: "He only listens!" Say: "What he listens to is best for you. He believes in God, and he has trust for the believers, and he is a mercy to those who believe among you." And those who harm the messenger of God will have a painful retribution.
9:61 AND AMONG those [enemies of the truth] there are such as malign the Prophet by saying, "He is all ear."86 Say: "[Yes,] he is all ear, [listening] to what is good for you!87 He believes in God, and trusts the believers, and is [a manifestation of God's] grace towards such of you as have [truly] attained to faith. And as for those who malign God's Apostle - grievous suffering awaits them [in the life to come]!"
I.e., "he believes everything that he hears". Most of the commentators assume that the hypocrites were thus alluding to the Prophet's alleged propensity to believe everything-good or bad-that he was told about other people (cf. Manar X, 600). Since, however, there is no historical evidence of such a "propensity" on his part, it seems to me that what the hypocrites referred to was the Prophet's readiness to listen to what they-in common with many other unbelievers regarded as mere hallucinatory sounds, and to interpret them "mistakenly" as revelations. This would explain the statement that "they malign the Prophet" -namely, by attributing to him self-deception-and that this saying of theirs "amounts to a denial of the truth" (see verse 74 of this surah).-The verb adha signifies primarily "he molested" or "annoyed [another]", i.e., in a manner not amounting to actual harm (darar). Since in the above context this verb is used in the sense of making a derogatory remark, yu'dhun is best rendered as "they malign".
I.e., to divine revelation.
9:61 Some of them hurt the prophet by saying, "He is all ears!" Say, "It is better for you that he listens to you. He believes in GOD, and trusts the believers. He is a mercy for those among you who believe." Those who hurt GOD's messenger have incurred a painful retribution.,
9:61 And among those (enemies of the truth) are some who hurt the Prophet and say, “He is only a hearer.” Say, “A listener, that is good for you.” He believes in God, has faith in the believers, and is a mercy to those of you who believe.” Those who vex and hurt the Messenger of God, for them is an awful punishment.25
The Messenger is not an emperor or a king who keep guards around them. He is accessible to all at all time and it is good for you that he pays attention to everyone
9:62 Yahlifoona biAllahilakum liyurdookum waAllahu warasooluhu ahaqquan yurdoohu in kanoo mu/mineena
9:62 They swear to you by God in order to please you; while God and His messenger is more worthy to be pleased if they were those who acknowledge.
9:62 They swear to you by God in order to please you; while God and His messenger are more worthy to be pleased if they are believers.
9:62 [The hypocrites] swear to you by God [that they are acting in good faith], with a view to pleasing you [O believers] - the while it is God and His Apostle whose pleasure they should seek above all else, if indeed they are believers!88
Lit., "the while God and His Apostle are most entitled that they should seek His pleasure. ..", etc. As has been pointed out by many of the commentators (and most succinctly by Rashid Rida' in Manar X, 607 f.), there is no question of any juxtaposition of God and His Apostle in this phrase. This is made clear by the use of the singular pronoun in an yurduhu ("that they should seek His pleasure"), which is meant to bring out-in the inimitable elliptic form so characteristic of the Qur'an-the idea that God's pleasure is the only worthwhile goal of all human endeavour, and that a believer's duty to surrender to the Prophet's guidance is but an outcome of the fact that he is the bearer of God's message to man. Cf. in this connection, "Whoever pays heed unto the Apostle pays heed unto God thereby" (4:80), or, "Say [O Prophet]: 'If you love God, follow me, [and] God will love you"' (3:31).
9:62 They swear by GOD to you, to please you, when GOD and His messenger are more worthy of pleasing, if they are really believers.,
9:62 (O You who believe) People swear by God to you in order to please you (and improve personal relations). But it is more fitting that they should please God and His Messenger, if they really believe (in the Divine Ideology).
9:63 Alam yaAAlamoo annahu man yuhadidiAllaha warasoolahu faanna lahu nara jahannama khalidanfeeha thalika alkhizyu alAAatheemu
Hypocrites and Opponents9:63 Did they not know that whoever is hostile towards God and His messenger, he will have the fire of hell to abide in. Such is the greatest humiliation.
9:63 Did they not know that whoever is hostile towards God and His messenger, he will have the fire of Hell, abiding therein. Such is the greatest humiliation.
9:63 Do they not know that for him who sets himself against God and His Apostle there is in store the fire of hell, therein to abide -that most awesome disgrace?
Retribution for Opposing God and His Messenger9:63 Did they not know that anyone who opposes GOD and His messenger has incurred the fire of Hell forever? This is the worst humiliation.,
9:63 Do they not know that one who opposes God and His Messenger, for him is Hellfire, to abide therein? That is the supreme disgrace.
9:64 Yahtharu almunafiqoona antunazzala AAalayhim sooratun tunabbi-ohum bima feequloobihim quli istahzi-oo inna Allaha mukhrijun matahtharoona
9:64 The hypocrites fear that a chapter will be sent down against them exposing what is in their hearts. Say, "Mock, for God will bring out what you fear."
9:64 The hypocrites fear that a chapter will be sent down which will expose what is in their hearts. Say: "Mock, for God will bring out what you fear."
9:64 [Some of] the hypocrites dread lest a [new] surah be revealed [in evidence] against them, making them understand what is [really] in their hearts.89 Say: "Go on mocking! Behold, God will bring to light the very thing that you are dreading!"90
This refers to a particular type of hypocrite: namely, to the doubter who, not having any real convictions on this score, leaves the question of God's existence and/or Muhammad's prophethood open (Manar X, 610), but nevertheless, for the sake of worldly advantage, would like to` be regarded as a believer. (Since, obviously, not all hypocrites belong to this category. my interpolation of the words "some of" at the beginning of this verse would seem to be justified.) The ambivalent attitude of mind alluded to here implies hypocrisy not merely with regard to one's social environment but also with regard to oneself: an unwillingness-or, rather, fear-on the part of such people to admit to themselves "what is really going on in their hearts" (cf. verses 56-57 and note 80 above), and the dim realization that this ambivalence is only a cover for their desire to escape from all spiritual commitment (cf. 2,:9-"they would deceive God and those who have attained to faith - the while they deceive none but themselves").
Namely, self-knowledge. The accusation of "mocking" refers to their frivolous allusion to the Prophet, "He is all ear" (see verse 61 and note 86 above).
The Hypocrites9:64 The hypocrites worry that a sura may be revealed exposing what is inside their hearts. Say, "Go ahead and mock. GOD will expose exactly what you are afraid of.",
9:64 The hypocrites fear that a Surah might be revealed concerning them, exposing what is in their hearts. Say, “Go on mocking! God will bring to light exactly what you are dreading.”26
It was indeed revealed. 47:30. The exalted Prophet came to know the hypocrites of his times
9:65 Wala-in saaltahum layaqoolunna innamakunna nakhoodu wanalAAabu qul abiAllahiwaayatihi warasoolihi kuntum tastahzi-oona
9:65 If you ask them they say, "We were only jesting and playing." Say, "Is it God and His signs and His messenger you were mocking?"
9:65 And if you ask them they say: "We were only jesting and playing." Say: "In God and His revelations and His messenger you were mocking?"
9:65 Yet, indeed, if thou wert to question them. they would surely answer, "We were only indulging in idle talk, and were playing [with words].91 Say: "Were you, then. mocking at God and His messages and His Apostle?
Most of the classical commentators assume that this refers to the derisive remarks made by some of the hypocrites about the alleged futility of the expedition to Tabuk. In view of the sequence, however. I am of the opinion that this is a further reference to those who "malign the Prophet by saying, 'He is all ear"' (verse 61)-i.e., accuse him of self-deception-and thus, by implication, "mock at God and His messages" (see next sentence).
9:65 If you ask them, they would say, "We were only mocking and kidding." Say, "Do you realize that you are mocking GOD, and His revelations, and His messenger?",
9:65 If you ask them (O Messenger), they will say, “We only talk in jest.” Say, “Do you realize that you are mocking God, His revelations and His Messenger?”
9:66 La taAAtathiroo qad kafartumbaAAda eemanikum in naAAfu AAan ta-ifatin minkumnuAAaththib ta-ifatan bi-annahum kanoomujrimeena
9:66 Do not apologize, for you have rejected after your acknowledgement. Even if We pardon one group from you, We will punish another group, because they were criminals.
9:66 Do not apologize, for you have rejected after your belief. If We pardon one group from you, We will punish another group. That is because they were criminals.
9:66 Do not offer [empty] excuses! You have indeed denied the truth after [having professed] your belief [in it] -92 Though We may efface the sin of some of you, We shall chastise others - seeing that they were lost in sin.93
See note 89 above.
I.e., consciously persevered in hypocrisy (Zamakhshari). The above Qur'anic sentence expresses the doctrine that in His final judgment God will take into account all that is in a sinner's heart, and will not indiscriminately condemn everyone who has been sinning out of weakness or out of an inner inability to resolve his doubts. and not out of a conscious inclination to evil (cf. 4:98 - "excepted shall be the [truly] helpless - be they men or women or children - who cannot bring forth any strength and have not been shown [or "cannot find"] the right way").
9:66 Do not apologize. You have disbelieved after having believed. If we pardon some of you, we will punish others among you, as a consequence of their wickedness.,
9:66 “Make no excuses. You have disbelieved after your confession of belief.” If We forgive a group of you, there is another group whom We shall punish since they have violated human rights by stealing the fruit of others’ labor.” (Unless they restore their rights 4:17, 9:102, 25:70, 27:11).
9:67 Almunafiqoona waalmunafiqatubaAAduhum min baAAdin ya/muroona bialmunkariwayanhawna AAani almaAAroofi wayaqbidoona aydiyahum nasooAllaha fanasiyahum inna almunafiqeena humu alfasiqoona
9:67 The hypocrite men and the hypocrite women, they are the same. They order evil, deter from good, and they are tightfisted. They ignored God, so He ignored them; the hypocrites are the wicked.
9:67 The hypocrite males and the hypocrite females, they are to each other. They order vice and prohibit good, and they close their hands. They forgot God, so He will forget them; indeed, the hypocrites are the wicked.
9:67 The hypocrites, both men and women. are all of a kind: they enjoin the doing of what is wrong and forbid the doing of what is right94 and withhold their hands [from doing good]. They are oblivious of God, and so He is oblivious of them. Verily, the hypocrites-it is they, they who are truly iniquitously95
Le.. their behaviour is - in its effect, at least - the exact opposite of that expected of the believers (cf. 3:104, 110 and 114, 9:71 and 112. and 22:41).
It is to be borne in mind that this and the following verses refer to the conscious hypocrites spoken of in the last sentence of the preceding verse, and not to the waverers, whose hypocrisy is an outcome of inner fears and uncertainties.
9:67 The hypocrite men and the hypocrite women belong with each other - they advocate evil and prohibit righteousness, and they are stingy. They forgot GOD, so He forgot them. The hypocrites are truly wicked.,
9:67 The hypocrites, both men and women, are all of a kind. They enjoin the doing of what is wrong and forbid the doing of what is right, and withhold their hands from doing good. They have forgotten God, and so He deprives them of His grace. The hypocrites drift away from humanity.27
‘God forgetting them’ denotes that He is depriving them of His grace. God forgets nothing in the customary sense. Whoever forgets God, forgets himself and his honored stature of being a servant of the Supreme Lord. 59:19
9:68 WaAAada Allahu almunafiqeenawaalmunafiqati waalkuffara narajahannama khalideena feeha hiya hasbuhumwalaAAanahumu Allahu walahum AAathabun muqeemun
9:68 God has promised the hypocrite men and women and the ingrates a fire in hell, in it they will abide; it suffices them. God has cursed them and they will have a lasting retribution.
9:68 God has promised the hypocrite males and the hypocrite females and the rejecters a Fire in Hell, in it they will abide; it will be enough for them. And God has cursed them and they will have a lasting retribution.
9:68 God- has promised the hypocrites, both men and women-as well as the [outright] deniers of the _ truth-the fire of hell, therein to abide: this shall be their allotted_ portion. For, God has rejected them, and long-lasting suffering awaits them.
9:68 GOD promises the hypocrite men and the hypocrite women, as well as the disbelievers, the fire of Hell, wherein they abide forever. It suffices them. GOD has condemned them; they have incurred an everlasting retribution.,
9:68 God promises the hypocrite men and women, and the rejecters, the fire of Hell for their abode. It suffices them. They deprive themselves of the grace of God, and theirs is the lasting torment.
9:69 Kaallatheena min qablikum kanooashadda minkum quwwatan waakthara amwalan waawladanfaistamtaAAoo bikhalaqihim faistamtaAAtumbikhalaqikum kama istamtaAAa allatheena minqablikum bikhalaqihim wakhudtum kaallatheekhadoo ola-ika habitat aAAmaluhumfee alddunya waal-akhirati waola-ikahumu alkhasiroona
9:69 Like those before you; they were more powerful than you, and had more wealth and offspring. They enjoyed their lot, and you enjoyed your lot as those before you enjoyed their lives; and you indulged as they indulged. These are those whose works crumbled in this world and the hereafter, and they were the losers.
9:69 Like those before them, they were more powerful than you, and with more wealth and children. They enjoyed their lives, and you enjoyed your lives as those before you enjoyed their lives; and you jested as they jested. They had their works crumble in this world and the next, and they were the losers.
9:69 [Say unto them: "You are] like those [hypocrites] who lived before your time.96 Greater than you were they in power, and richer in wealth and in children; and they enjoyed their share [of happiness]. And you have been enjoying your share -just as those who preceded you enjoyed their share; and you have been indulging in scurrilous talk -just as they indulged in it. It is they .whose works have come to nought in this world and in the life to come - and it is they, they who are the cost!"97
A reference to the statement, in verse 67, that conscious hypocrites are intrinsically "all of a kind" (ba'duhum min ba'd).
Sc., "and the same will happen to you unless you repent".
God's System Does Not Change9:69 Some of those before you were stronger than you, and possessed more money and children. They became preoccupied with their material possessions. Similarly, you have become preoccupied with your material possessions, just like those before you have become preoccupied. You have become totally heedless, just as they were heedless. Such are the people who nullify their works, both in this world and in the Hereafter; they are the losers.,
9:69 There have been people like you before who were mightier than you in strength, more affluent than you in wealth and children and party. They enjoyed their share of this worldly life. And you have been enjoying your share, just as they did, and you indulge in idle talk as they did. Such are the people whose works have perished in the world and in the life to come. And it is they who are the losers.
9:70 Alam ya/tihim nabao allatheena minqablihim qawmi noohin waAAadin wathamooda waqawmiibraheema waas-habi madyana waalmu/tafikatiatat-hum rusuluhum bialbayyinati fama kanaAllahu liyathlimahum walakin kanooanfusahum yathlimoona
9:70 Had not the news of those before them come to them, the people of Noah and Aad and Thamud. The people of Abraham, and the dwellers of Midian, and those overthrown. Their messengers came to them with proofs; it was not God who wronged them, but it was themselves that they wronged.
9:70 Did the news not come to them of those before them, the people of Noah and 'Aad and Thamud. And the people of Abraham, and the dwellers of Midyan, and those overthrown. Their messengers came to them with clarity; it was not God who wronged them, but it was themselves that they wronged.
9:70 Have, then, the stories of those who preceded them never come within the ken of these [hypocrites and deniers of the truth]?-[the stories] of Noah's people, and of [the tribes of] `Ad and Thamud, and of Abraham's people, and of the folk of Madyan, and of the cities that were overthrown?98 To [all of] them their apostles had come with all evidence of the truth. [but they rejected them:] and so it was not God who wronged them [by His punishment], but it was they who wronged themselves.
I.e., Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities of Lot's people (see 7:80 and 11:69). References to the chastisement meted out to Noah's people as well as to the `Ad and Thamud and the folk of Madyan (the Biblical Midian) are found in several places in the Qur'an; see, in particular, 7:59 and 85-93, and the corresponding notes. The reference to "Abraham's people" seems to point to the Babylonians, who rejected the monotheism preached by him, and to the overthrow of their first empire, at about 1100 B.c. by the Assyrians.
The Losers9:70 Have they not learned anything from the previous generations; the people of Noah, `Aad, Thamood, the people of Abraham, the dwellers of Midyan, and the evildoers (of Sodom and Gomorrah)? Their messengers went to them with clear proofs. GOD never wronged them; they are the ones who wronged their own souls.,
9:70 Has not the history reached them of those before them? Of the People of Noah, ‘Aad, Thamud, Abraham’s people, the dwellers of Midyan, and the disasters that befell them. Their Messengers had come to them with clear evidence of the truth. God never did injustice to them. But they used to wrong their own people and thus wronged their own ‘self’.
9:71 Waalmu/minoona waalmu/minatubaAAduhum awliyao baAAdin ya/muroona bialmaAAroofiwayanhawna AAani almunkari wayuqeemoona alssalatawayu/toona alzzakata wayuteeAAoona Allahawarasoolahu ola-ika sayarhamuhumu Allahuinna Allaha AAazeezun hakeemun
9:71 The acknowledging men and women, they are allies to one another. They order good and deter from evil, and they hold the contact prayer, and they contribute towards betterment, and they obey God and His messenger. God will have mercy on them; God is Noble, Wise.
9:71 And the believing males and the believing females, they are allies to one another. They order good and prohibit vice, and they hold the contact prayer, and they contribute towards purification and they obey God and His messenger. God will have mercy on them; God is Noble, Wise.
9:71 AND [as for] the believers, both men and women they are close unto one another:99 they [all] enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and are constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues, and pay heed unto God and His Apostle. It is they upon whom God will bestow His grace: verily, God is almighty, wise!
Or: "are the protectors [or "friends and protectors"] of one another". Since, however, the believers are here contrasted with the hypocrites, spoken of in verse 67 as being "all of a kind", it is preferable to render the term wali (of which awliya' is the plural) in its primary meaning of being "near" or "close" to one another.
The Winners9:71 The believing men and women are allies of one another. They advocate righteousness and forbid evil, they observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and they obey GOD and His messenger. These will be showered by GOD's mercy. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,
9:71 Believing men and believing women are colleagues of one another. They enjoin virtue and forbid vice. Together, they help establish the Divinely prescribed Way of Life, and set up the Economic Order of Zakaat. This is how they obey God and His Messenger. These are the ones on whom God showers His grace of success. Certainly, God is Exalted in Power, Wise.28
The believing men and women, working together, do not deliver empty lectures. They enjoin virtue and forbid vice by personal example, knowing that the Qur’an is the Eternal Criterion of right and wrong. 2:185. ‘Good’ and ‘Evil’, ‘Right’ and ‘Wrong’ are not vague entities. The Qur’an clearly defines them in 2:177 and many other verses. In short, good is all that helps people and evil is all that hurts them
9:72 WaAAada Allahu almu/mineena waalmu/minatijannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharukhalideena feeha wamasakina tayyibatanfee jannati AAadnin waridwanun mina Allahiakbaru thalika huwa alfawzu alAAatheemu
9:72 God has promised the acknowledging men and women gardens with rivers flowing beneath it, in which they will abide, and pleasing homes in the everlasting gardens. The acceptance from God is the most important; such is the greatest success.
9:72 God has promised the believing males and the believing females estates with rivers flowing beneath them, abiding therein, and pleasing homes in gardens of delight. And the acceptance from God is the most important; such is the great triumph.
9:72 God has promised the believers, both men and women, gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide, and goodly dwellings in gardens of perpetual bliss:100 but God's goodly acceptance is the greatest [bliss of all] -for this, this is the triumph supreme!
For an explanation of this rendering of `adn (akin to the Hebrew `eden, "delight" or "bliss"), see note 45 on 38:50, where this expression occurs for the first time in the chronological order of Qur'anic revelation.
9:72 GOD promises the believing men and the believing women gardens with flowing streams, wherein they abide forever, and magnificent mansions in the gardens of Eden. And GOD's blessings and approval are even greater. This is the greatest triumph.,
9:72 God promises to the believers, both men and women, Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will live forever, and magnificent dwellings in the Gardens of Eden. And God’s approval is the greatest of all blessings. That is the Supreme Triumph.
9:73 Ya ayyuha alnnabiyyu jahidialkuffara waalmunafiqeena waoghluthAAalayhim wama/wahum jahannamu wabi/sa almaseeru
9:73 O prophet, strive against the ingrates and the hypocrites and be firm against them. Their dwelling is hell, what a miserable destiny!
9:73 O prophet, strive against the rejecters and the hypocrites and be firm against them. Their dwelling is Hell, what a miserable destiny!
9:73 O PROPHET! Strive hard against the deniers of the truth and the hypocrites, and be adamant with them.101 And [if they do not repent,] their goal shall be hell -and how vile a journey's end!
I.e., "do not compromise with them in matters of principle". Regarding the meaning of the verb jahada ("he strove hard", i.e., in a righteous cause), see surah 4, note 122. The imperative jahid is obviously used here in its spiritual connotation, implying efforts at convincing both the outspoken unbelievers and the waverers, including the various types of hypocrites spoken of in the preceding passages. Although the imperative is addressed in the first instance to the Prophet, it is considered to be morally binding on all believers.
You Shall Be Stern With the Disbelievers9:73 O you prophet, strive against the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and be stern in dealing with them. Their destiny is Hell; what a miserable abode!,
9:73 (Establishment of the Divine System will build a paradise on earth. But you will meet staunch opposition) O Prophet! Strive hard against the rejecters and the hypocrites! And be tough with them without the least inclination towards compromise. Their ultimate abode is Hell, a miserable destination.
9:74 يحلفون بالله ما قالوا ولقد قالوا كلمة الكفر وكفروا بعد اسلمهم وهموا بما لم ينالوا وما نقموا الا ان اغنىهم الله ورسوله من فضله فان يتوبوا يك خيرا لهم وان يتولوا يعذبهم الله عذابا اليما فى الدنيا والءاخرة وما لهم فى الارض من ولى ولا نصير
9:74 Yahlifoona biAllahi maqaloo walaqad qaloo kalimata alkufri wakafaroobaAAda islamihim wahammoo bima lam yanaloowama naqamoo illa an aghnahumu Allahuwarasooluhu min fadlihi fa-in yatooboo yaku khayran lahumwa-in yatawallaw yuAAaththibhumu Allahu AAathabanaleeman fee alddunya waal-akhiratiwama lahum fee al-ardi min waliyyin wala naseerin
9:74 They swear by God that they did not say it, while they had said the word of rejection, and they rejected after they had peacefully surrendered, and they were concerned with what they could not possess; and they could not find any fault except that God and His messenger had enriched them from His bounty. If they repent it is better for them, and if they turn away, then God will punish them severely in this world and the next. They will not have on earth any ally or supporter.
9:74 They swear by God that they did not say it, while they had said the word of rejection, and they rejected after they had submitted, and they were obsessed with what they could not possess; and they could not find any fault except that God and His messenger had enriched them from His bounty. If they repent it is better for them, and if they turn away, then God will punish them severely in this world and the next. They will not have on the earth any ally or supporter.
9:74 [The hypocrites] swear by God that they have said nothing [wrong]; yet most certainly have they uttered a saying which amounts to a denial of the truth,102 and have [thus] denied the truth after [having professed] their self-surrender to God: for they were aiming at something which was beyond their reach.103 And they could find no fault [with the Faith] save that God had enriched them and [caused] His Apostle [to enrich them] out of His bounty!104 Hence, if they repent, it will be for their own good. but if they turn away, God will cause them to suffer grievous suffering in this world and in the life to come, and they will find no helper on earth, and none to give [them] succour.
See the first sentence of verse 61 above, and the corresponding note 86. The allegation that the Prophet deceived himself in the matter of revelation is, naturally, equivalent to disbelief in the outcome of his revelation, i.e., the Qur'an.
Lit., "which they were unable to attain to". The classical commentators take this as a reference to an abortive plot, on the part of some of the hypocrites, to kill the Prophet during the expedition to Tabuk. However, without contesting the validity of this historical interpretation, I believe that the above allusion has a far deeper meaning-namely, the existential impossibility of one's ever attaining to inner peace without a positive belief that man's life has meaning and purpose, either of which can be glimpsed only through the revelations bestowed on those exceptionally gifted and receptive personalities, the prophets. (An indirect reference to divine revelation as the only source of this kind of cognition appears in 96:5, that is, in the earliest Qur'anic passage revealed to the Prophet.) Thus, torn between their half-hearted desire to "surrender themselves to God" and their unwillingness to accept the divine guidance offered them by the Prophet, the hypocrites "were aiming at something which was beyond their reach".
I.e., by means of the spiritual guidance contained in the Qur'an and the material welfare resulting from an adherence to its moral and social principles. The above phrase implies that the reluctance of the hypocrites to pay heed to the Prophet was not due to their finding fault with the Faith as such but, rather, to their lack of gratitude for the spiritual and material benefits which they had derived from it. (Because of its historical associations, most of this verse is expressed in the past tense, although its moral import is obviously timeless.)
9:74 They swear by GOD that they never said it, although they have uttered the word of disbelief; they have disbelieved after becoming submitters. In fact, they gave up what they never had. They have rebelled even though GOD and His messenger have showered them with His grace and provisions. If they repent, it would be best for them. But if they turn away, GOD will commit them to painful retribution in this life and in the Hereafter. They will find no one on earth to be their lord and master.,
9:74 They (the hypocrites) swear by God about what innocuous words they have been saying. Yet they keep uttering falsehood and concealing the truth after professing Islam. They were aiming at something beyond their reach (attaining inner peace without sincerity to the Divine Guidance). And they could find no fault in the Divine System except that God and His Messenger have enriched them out of His bounty. So, it will be good for them if they repent and reform. If they still turn away, God will cause them to suffer a painful retribution in this world and in the life to come. And they will have no protector or helper on earth.
9:75 Waminhum man AAahada Allahala-in atana min fadlihi lanassaddaqannawalanakoonanna mina alssaliheena
9:75 Some of them pledged to God: "If He gives us from His bounty, then we will acknowledge and we will be amongst the reformed."
9:75 And from them are those who pledged to God: "If He gives us from His bounty, then we will believe and we will be among the upright."
9:75 And among them are such as vow unto God, "If indeed He grant us [something] out of His bounty, we shall most certainly spend in charity, and shall most certainly be among the righteous!"
9:75 Some of them even pledged: "If GOD showered us with His grace, we would be charitable, and would lead a righteous life.",
9:75 And among them are those who promise God, “If He gives us of His bounty we will certainly spend in charity and will certainly become of the righteous, the ones who help others.”
9:76 Falamma atahum min fadlihibakhiloo bihi watawallaw wahum muAAridoona
9:76 Yet when He gave them of His bounty, they became stingy with it, and they turned away in aversion.
9:76 So when He gave them from His bounty, they became stingy with it, and they turned away while they were averse.
9:76 But as soon as He has given them [aught] out of His bounty. they cling to it niggardly, and turn away in their obstinacy [from all that they have vowed]:
9:76 But when He did shower them with His provisions, they became stingy, and turned away in aversion.,
9:76 Yet, when He gave them of His bounty they hoarded it and turned away from their promise.
9:77 FaaAAqabahum nifaqan fee quloobihimila yawmi yalqawnahu bima akhlafoo Allaha mawaAAadoohu wabima kanoo yakthiboona
9:77 Thus, they ended up with hypocrisy in hearts until the day they meet Him; that is for breaking what they promised to God, and for what they were lying.
9:77 Thus, hypocrisy follows in their hearts until the Day they meet Him; that is for breaking what they promised God, and for what they were lying.
9:77 whereupon He causes hypocrisy to take root in their hearts, [therein to remain] until the Day on which they shall meet Him"105 - because they have failed to fulfil the vow which they had made unto God, and because they were wont to lie.106
Lit., "He has caused hypocrisy to become for them a consequence (a'qabahum) in their hearts until the Day on which they shall meet Him" (i.e., until their resurrection). Thus, the Qur'an states that it is excessive love of worldly possessions which gives rise, in a certain type of man, to the attitude of mind described as "hypocrisy"-and not vice versa (see also 29:11 and the corresponding note 7). Cf. in this connection the Prophet's saying, reported by Abu Hurayrah: "The mark (ayah) of the hypocrite is threefold: when he speaks, he lies; and when he promises, he breaks his promise; and when he is trusted, he betrays" (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi and Nasa'i similar Traditions, on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn `Amr; are quoted by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Ibn Hanbal).
I.e., to themselves, trying to find excuses for their breaking their vow.
9:77 Consequently, He plagued them with hypocrisy in their hearts, till the day they meet Him. This is because they broke their promises to GOD, and because of their lying.,
9:77 God’s law instilled hypocrisy in their hearts till the Day they meet Him (until their demise). This is because they broke their word to God that they promised Him, and because they lied again and again.
9:78 Alam yaAAlamoo anna Allaha yaAAlamusirrahum wanajwahum waanna Allaha AAallamualghuyoobi
9:78 Did they not know that God knows their secrets, their conspiracies, and that God is the knower of all the unseen?
9:78 Did they not know that God knows their secrets, and their private counsel, and that God is the Knower of all the unseen?
9:78 Do they not know that God knows [all] their hidden thoughts and their secret confabulations, and that God knows fully all the things that are beyond the reach of human perception'?
9:78 Do they not realize that GOD knows their secrets, and their conspiracies, and that GOD is the Knower of all secrets?,
9:78 Are they not aware that God knows their thoughts and secret consultations and that God is the Great Knower of all that is Hidden?
9:79 Allatheena yalmizoona almuttawwiAAeenamina almu/mineena fee alssadaqati waallatheenala yajidoona illa juhdahum fayaskharoona minhumsakhira Allahu minhum walahum AAathabun aleemun
9:79 God mocks those who criticize the generous acknowledgers for giving too much; and disdain those who do not have anything to give but their effort, God disdains them, and they will have a painful retribution.
9:79 Those who criticize the volunteers among the believers in charities; that they only have their efforts to give; so they mock them. God mocks them, and they will have a painful retribution.
9:79 [It is these hypocrites] who find fault with such of the believers as give for the sake of God107 more than they are duty-bound to give, as well as with, such as find nothing [to give] beyond [the meagre fruits of] their toil, and who scoff at them [all].108 God will cause their scoffing to rebound on themselves.109 and grievous suffering awaits them.
Regarding my rendering of sadaqat as "that which is given for the sake of God", see note 81 above.
There are many authentic Traditions to the effect that the hypocrites at Medina used to deride the offerings which the believers brought to the Prophet (as head of the community and the state) in response to the Qur'anic ordinance that they should "give for the sake of God". For instance, the Companion Abu Mas'ud reports: "[When] a man brought an ample offering, they [i.e., the hypocrites] would say, 'He [only] wants to be seen and praised by men'; and when a man brought an offering of a small measure [of dates or grain], they would say, 'God does not stand in need of such an offering"' (Bukhari and Muslim. and many similar versions in other hadith compilations). The above verse, however, does not allude merely to these historical incidents but serves to illustrate the mentality of the hypocrite whose own insincerity colours his view of all other people.
Lit., "God will scoff at them": a turn of phrase often occurring in the Qur'an (e.g., in 2:15), indicating God's requital.
9:79 Those who criticize the generous believers for giving too much, and ridicule the poor believers for giving too little, GOD despises them. They have incurred a painful retribution.,
9:79 It is these (hypocrites) who find fault with such of the believers who give generously, and they find fault with such believers who have nothing to give but their toil and labor. They ridicule them all. God’s Law of Requital will cause their ridicule to rebound on themselves, and grievous suffering awaits them.
9:80 Istaghfir lahum aw la tastaghfirlahum in tastaghfir lahum sabAAeena marratan falan yaghfira Allahulahum thalika bi-annahum kafaroo biAllahiwarasoolihi waAllahu la yahdee alqawma alfasiqeena
Muhammed Did Not Have Power of Intercession9:80 Whether you seek forgiveness for them, or do not seek forgiveness for them. If you seek forgiveness for them seventy times, God will not forgive them. That is because they have rejected God and His messenger; and God does not guide the wicked people.12
9:80 Whether you seek forgiveness for them, or do not seek forgiveness for them. If you seek forgiveness for them seventy times, God will not forgive them. That is because they have rejected God and His messenger; and God does not guide the wicked people.
9:80 [And] whether thou dost pray [unto God] that they be forgiven or dost not pray for them - [it will all be the same: for even] if thou wert to pray seventy times110 that they be forgiven, God will not forgive them, seeing that they are bent on denying God and His Apostle. And God does not bestow His guidance upon such iniquitous folk.111
Le.. many times. In Arabic usage, the number "seventy" often stands for "many". just as "seven" is a synonym for "several" (see Lisan al'Arab and Taj al-'Arus). It is evident from many authentic Traditions (recorded, among others, by Bukhari and Muslim) that the Prophet often prayed to God that He pardon his enemies.
I.e., "those who are so deeply rooted in their iniquity and in their insolent persistence in evildoing (tamarrud) ... [that] they have lost all disposition for repentance and belief" (Manar X, 657).
Satan's Most Effective Bait: The Myth of Intercession9:80 Whether you ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them - even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times - GOD will not forgive them. This is because they disbelieve in GOD and His messenger. GOD does not guide the wicked people.8 ,
9:80 (O Prophet! You very compassionately ask forgiveness for them.) It does not matter if you ask forgiveness for them, or not, God will not forgive them even if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness. They have rejected God and His Messenger. God does not guide people that choose to drift away from the right path.
9:81 Fariha almukhallafoona bimaqAAadihimkhilafa rasooli Allahi wakarihoo an yujahidoobi-amwalihim waanfusihim fee sabeeli Allahi waqaloola tanfiroo fee alharri qul naru jahannamaashaddu harran law kanoo yafqahoona
9:81 Those who were left behind rejoiced their staying behind God's messenger, and they disliked to strive with their wealth and lives in the cause of God. They said, "Do not march out in the heat." Say, "The fire of hell is far hotter." If they could only understand!
9:81 Those who have remained are happy with their position of lagging behind the messenger of God, and they disliked striving with their money and lives in the cause of God; and they say: "Do not mobilize in the heat." Say: "The fire of Hell is much hotter," if they could only understand.
9:81 THOSE [hypocrites] who were left behind rejoiced in their staying away [from war]112 after [the departure of] God's Apostle, for they hated the thought of striving with their possessions and their lives in God's cause; and they had [even] said [to the others], "Do not go forth to war in this heat!" Say: "The fire of hell is hotter by far!" Had they but grasped this truth!
Lit., "rejoiced in their sitting [at home]" -a reference to those who, under one pretext or another, excused themselves from participating in the expedition to Tabuk (see notes 59 and 66 above). As is evident from the sequence - and clearly stated in many authentic Traditions - one of the excuses advanced was the extreme heat of the season.
9:81 The sedentary rejoiced in their staying behind the messenger of GOD, and hated to strive with their money and their lives in the cause of GOD. They said, "Let us not mobilize in this heat!" Say, "The fire of Hell is much hotter," if they could only comprehend.,
9:81 Those (hypocrites) who were left behind, rejoiced in their sitting back behind the Messenger of God, and disliked to strive with their wealth and persons in God’s cause. They said, “Let us not go forth in heat.” Say, “The fire of Hell is more intense”, if they but understood.29
And the advancing aggressors could soon bring the heat of the conflict to their homes
9:82 Falyadhakoo qaleelan walyabkookatheeran jazaan bima kanoo yaksiboona
9:82 Let them laugh a little, and cry a lot, as a recompense for what they had earned.
9:82 Let them laugh a little, and cry a lot, a recompense for what they have earned.
9:82 Let them, then, laugh a little -.for they will weep a lot113 in return for what they have earned.
Lit., "and let them weep a lot".
9:82 Let them laugh a little, and cry a lot. This is the requital for the sins they have earned.,
9:82 Then let them laugh a little, they will weep much, as the reward of what they have earned.
9:83 Fa-in rajaAAaka Allahu ila ta-ifatinminhum faista/thanooka lilkhurooji faqul lantakhrujoo maAAiya abadan walan tuqatiloo maAAiya AAaduwwaninnakum radeetum bialquAAoodi awwala marratin faoqAAudoomaAAa alkhalifeena
9:83 If God returns you to a group of them, and they ask your permission to come with you, then say, "You will not come with me ever; nor will you fight any enemy with me. You had accepted staying behind the first time, so stay with those who remain behind."
9:83 So, if God sends you back to a group of them, and they ask your permission to come with you, then say: "You will not come with me ever; nor will you fight any enemy with me. You had accepted staying behind the first time, so stay with those who remain behind."
9:83 Hence, [O Prophet,] if God brings thee again face to face with some of them,"114 and then they ask thy leave to go forth [to war with thee], say: "Never shall you go forth with me. nor shall you fight an enemy together with me! Behold, you were well-pleased to stay at home on that first occasion: stay at home, then, with, those who [are obliged to] remain behind!"115
Lit., "if God brings thee back [from the campaign] to a hypocrites who remained at home under false pretences.
I.e., with the old men, the women, the children and the expected to go to war (Manar X, 662).
9:83 If GOD returns you to a situation where they ask your permission to mobilize with you, you shall say, "You will never again mobilize with me, nor will you ever fight with me against any enemy. For you have chosen to be with the sedentary in the first place. Therefore, you must stay with the sedentary.",
9:83 If God returns you to a situation where they ask your permission to go forth, say, “You shall never again come out with me, nor fight an enemy with me. You were well pleased sitting back the first time. Then, stay back with those who stay behind (women, children, elderly men, the sick and the disabled).
9:84 Wala tusalli AAala ahadinminhum mata abadan wala taqum AAala qabrihiinnahum kafaroo biAllahi warasoolihi wamatoowahum fasiqoona
9:84 Do not show support for anyone of them who dies, nor stand at his grave. They have rejected God and His messenger and died while they were wicked.
9:84 And do not make the contact prayer for any of them who have died, nor stand at their grave. They have rejected God and His messenger and died while they were wicked.
9:84 And never shalt thou pray over any of them that has died, and never shalt thou stand by his grave:116 for, behold, they were bent on denying God and His Apostle, and they died in this their iniquity.117
I.e., unless he has repented before his death. It is reported that when the life-long opponent of the Prophet and leader of the hypocrites of Medina. `Abd Allah ibn Ubayy. was dying, he sent his son to the Prophet with the request that the latter give him his (the Prophet's) shirt, so that he might be buried in it, and that the Prophet should pray over him after his death. The Prophet took this request as a sign of Ibn Ubayy's repentance, and gave him his shirt and later led the funeral prayers over his body. When `Umar ibn al-Khattab vehemently protested against this clemency towards the man whom all the believers .had regarded as "God's enemy", the Prophet answered, "God has granted me a choice in this matter [a reference to verse 80 of this surah. "whether thou dost pray that they be forgiven or dost not pray. . .", etc.], and so I shall pray [for him] more than seventy times." Several variants of this Tradition are to be found in Bukhari, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; Bukhari and Muslim, on the authority of Ibn `Umar; Muslim, on the authority of Jabir ibn `Abd Allah; and in various other hadith compilations. Since `Abd Allah ibn Ubayy died some time after the Prophet's return from Tabuk, while verse 84-like most of this surah - was revealed during the campaign, it is clear that the prohibition expressed in this verse relates only (as the sequence shows) to those who "were bent on denying God and His Apostle, and [who] died in this their iniquity"-that is, to unrepentant sinners.
Lit., "while they were iniquitous".
9:84 You shall not observe the funeral prayer for any of them when he dies, nor shall you stand at his grave. They have disbelieved in GOD and His messenger, and died in a state of wickedness.,
9:84 Neither shall you (O Prophet) follow the funeral of any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave. They rejected God and His Messenger, and drifted away from the Commands until they died.
9:85 Wala tuAAjibka amwaluhum waawladuhuminnama yureedu Allahu an yuAAaththibahum bihafee alddunya watazhaqa anfusuhum wahum kafiroona
Do Not Be Impressed by Their Wealth9:85 Do not also be impressed by their wealth and their children; God only wishes to punish them with it in this world, and their selves will vanish while they are ingrates.
9:85 And do not be impressed by their wealth and their children; God only wishes to punish them with it in this world, and so their souls will be taken while they are rejecters.
9:85 And let not their worldly goods and [the happiness which they may derive from] their children excite thy admiration: God but wants to chastise them by these means in [the life of] this world, and [to cause] their souls to depart while they are [still] denying the truth.118
Cf. 3:178 and 8:28, as well as the corresponding notes. This (almost literal) repetition of verse 55 above is meant to stress the psychological importance of this problem (Zamakhshari) - namely, the insignificance of worldly happiness as compared with spiritual righteousness or the absence of it.
Worldly Materials Are Nil9:85 Do not be impressed by their money or their children; GOD causes these to be sources of misery for them in this world, and their souls depart as disbelievers.,
9:85 Let not their wealth or their children or party impress you! God causes these things to be a suffering for them in this world, and their ‘self’ departs while they are disbelievers (9:55).30
9:86 Wa-itha onzilat sooratun an aminoobiAllahi wajahidoo maAAa rasoolihi ista/thanakaoloo alttawli minhum waqaloo tharnanakun maAAa alqaAAideena
9:86 If a chapter is sent down: "That you shall acknowledge God and strive with His messenger," those with wealth and influence ask your permission and they say, "Let us be with those who remain behind."
9:86 And if a chapter is sent down: "That you shall believe in God and strive with His messenger," those with wealth and influence ask your leave and they say: "Let us be with those who remain behind."
9:86 [They are indeed denying it:] for, when they were called upon through revelation,119 "Believe in God, and strive hard [in His cause] together with His Apostle," [even] such of them as were well able [to go to war] asked thee for exemption, saying, "Allow us to stay behind with those who remain at home!"120
Lit., "when a surah was bestowed from on high": the word surah being here synonymous with "revealed message" (see note 25 on 47:20).
I.e., with those who were either not expected to go to war-like women and children-or were handicapped by old age or illness.
9:86 When a sura is revealed, stating: "Believe in GOD, and strive with His messenger," even the strong among them say, "Let us stay behind!",
9:86 When a Surah is revealed saying, “Attain belief in God, and strive along with His Messenger”, the able-bodied men of wealth ask your leave and say, “Allow us to stay behind with those who remain at home.”
9:87 Radoo bi-an yakoonoo maAAa alkhawalifiwatubiAAa AAala quloobihim fahum layafqahoona
9:87 They were content to stay with those who remained behind, and it was stamped on their hearts, for they do not reason.
9:87 They were content to stay with those who remained behind, and it was imprinted on their hearts, for they do not understand.
9:87 They were well-pleased to remain with those who were left behind - where for their hearts have been sealed,121 so that they cannot grasp the truth.
9:87 They chose to be with the sedentary. Consequently, their hearts were sealed, and thus, they cannot comprehend.,
9:87 They are well pleased to be with the disabled, the elderly, the women and children, and the ill. This attitude puts a seal on their hearts. They seldom understand (that fear can only be overcome with action 2:277, 6:48, 6:81).
9:88 Lakini alrrasoolu waallatheenaamanoo maAAahu jahadoo bi-amwalihimwaanfusihim waola-ika lahumu alkhayratu waola-ikahumu almuflihoona
Strive For Good Causes9:88 But the messenger and those who acknowledge with him have strived with their money and their lives. For them will be the good things, and they are the successful ones.
9:88 But the messenger and those who believe with him have strived with their money and their lives. For them will be the good things, and they are the successful ones.
9:88 The Apostle, however, and all who share his faith strive hard [in God's cause] with, their possessions and their lives: and it is they whom the most excellent things await [in the life to come], and it is they, they who shall attain to a happy state!
True Believers are Eager to Strive9:88 As for the messenger and those who believed with him, they eagerly strive with their money and their lives. These have deserved all the good things; they are the winners.,
9:88 But the Messenger, and those who believe with him, strive with their wealth and persons. For them are all the good things and high ranks, and they are the ones who are truly prosperous.
9:89 aAAadda Allahu lahum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideenafeeha thalika alfawzu alAAatheemu
9:89 God has prepared for them gardens with rivers flowing beneath, in them they shall abide. Such is the great gain.
9:89 God has prepared for them estates with rivers flowing beneath them, abiding therein. Such is the great gain.
9:89 God has readied for them gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide: and this is the triumph supreme!
9:89 GOD has prepared for them gardens with flowing streams, wherein they abide forever. This is the greatest triumph.,
9:89 God has made ready for them Gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide. That is the signal victory.
9:90 Wajaa almuAAaththiroona minaal-aAArabi liyu/thana lahum waqaAAada allatheenakathaboo Allaha warasoolahu sayuseebu allatheenakafaroo minhum AAathabun aleemun
9:90 Those who made excuses from among the Arabs came to get permission. Thus, those who denied God and His messenger stayed behind. Those who rejected from them will be inflicted with a painful retribution.
9:90 And those who had an excuse from among the Nomads came so leave would be given to them, and those who denied God and His messenger simply stayed behind. Those who rejected from them will be inflicted with a painful retribution.
9:90 AND THERE came [unto the Apostle] such of the bedouin as had some excuse to offer, [with the request] that they be granted exemption,122 whereas those who were bent on giving the lie to God and His Apostle [simply] remained at home.123 [And] grievous suffering is bound to befall such of them as are bent on denying the truth!
I.e., from participating in the expedition to Tabuk. The term al-mu'adhdhirun connotes both "those having a valid excuse (`udhr)" and "those offering false excuses"; it is, therefore, best rendered as "such as had some excuse to offer". The specific mention of the a'rab ("bedouin") in this and the following passages probably arises from the fact that their attitude - positive or negative-towards Islam was of the greatest importance within the context of early Muslim history, inasmuch as the message of Muhammad could not obtain a real, lasting foothold in Arabia without first securing the allegiance of those warlike nomads and half-nomads, who constituted the great majority of the Peninsula's population. At the time when the Prophet was preparing to set out towards Tabuk, many of the already-converted tribesmen were willing to go to war under his leadership (and, in fact, did so), while others were afraid lest in their absence their encampments, denuded of man-power, be raided by hostile, as yet unconverted tribes (Razi); others, again, were simply averse to exposing themselves to the hardships of a campaign in distant lands, which did not seem to them to have any bearing on their own, immediate interests.
I.e., without even caring to come to Medina and to excuse themselves.
9:90 The Arabs made up excuses, and came to you seeking permission to stay behind. This is indicative of their rejection of GOD and His messenger - they stay behind. Indeed, those who disbelieve among them have incurred a painful retribution.,
9:90 And of the desert Arabs also, there were some who made excuses and came to claim exemption. And those who were false to God and His Messenger, merely sat behind. Grievous suffering is bound to befall the unbelievers among them.
9:91 Laysa AAala aldduAAafa-iwala AAala almarda wala AAalaallatheena la yajidoona ma yunfiqoona harajunitha nasahoo lillahi warasoolihi maAAala almuhsineena min sabeelin waAllahughafoorun raheemun
Handicapped People Are Protected9:91 There is no blame to be placed upon the weak, the sick, or those who do not find anything to spend on, as long as they are sincere to God and His messenger. There is no argument against the good doers; and God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
9:91 There is no blame to be placed upon the weak, or the sick, or those who do not find anything to spend on, if they are sincere towards God and His messenger. There is no argument against the good doers; and God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:91 [But] no blame shall attach to the weak,124 nor to the sick, nor to those who have no means. [to equip themselves],125 provided that they are sincere towards God and His Apostle: there is no cause to reproach the doers of good, for God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
I.e., the old and the infirm.
Lit., "who do not find anything to spend", i.e., on their equipment. At the time in question a public treasury did not yet exist, and every participant in a military expedition was expected to provide his own weapons and mounts.
9:91 Not to be blamed are those who are weak, or ill, or do not find anything to offer, so long as they remain devoted to GOD and His messenger. The righteous among them shall not be blamed. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
9:91 Not to be blamed are the physically weak, the elderly, the sick, and the ones who have no means to offer, so long as they are sincere to God and His Messenger (48:17). They should do what they can to support the cause. There is no way of blame against the doers of such good. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:92 Wala AAala allatheena ithama atawka litahmilahum qulta la ajidu maahmilukum AAalayhi tawallaw waaAAyunuhum tafeedumina alddamAAi hazanan alla yajidoo mayunfiqoona
9:92 Nor upon those who come to ride out with you, while you said, "I do not have any mounts for you;" they turned away while their eyes were flooded with tears out of sadness, for they could not find anything to contribute.
9:92 Nor upon those who came to ride out with you, while you said: "I do not have any mounts for you;" they turned away while their eyes were flooded with tears out of sadness, for they could not find anything to contribute.
9:92 Nor [shall blame attach] to those who, when they came unto thee [O Prophet, with the request] that thou provide them with mounts, were told by thee, "I cannot find anything whereon to mount you" - [whereupon] they turned away, their eyes overflowing with tears out of sorrow that they had no means to spend [on their equipment].
9:92 Also excused are those who come to you wishing to be included with you, but you tell them, "I do not have anything to carry you on." They then turn back with tears in their eyes, genuinely saddened that they could not afford to contribute.,
9:92 Nor is there any blame on those who came to you (O Messenger) requesting that you provide them with mounts (horses and camels). You told them, “I cannot find a ride to mount you on.” They returned with eyes flowing with tears out of sorrow that they had no means to spend for equipment.
9:93 Innama alssabeelu AAalaallatheena yasta/thinoonaka wahum aghniyaoradoo bi-an yakoonoo maAAa alkhawalifi watabaAAaAllahu AAala quloobihim fahum la yaAAlamoona
9:93 Indeed, the argument is against those who sought your permission to stay while they had the means. They accepted to be with those who remained behind; God stamped their hearts, for they do not know.
9:93 Indeed, the argument is against those who sought your leave while they were rich. They accepted to be with those who remained behind, and God stamps their hearts, for they do not know.
9:93 Only they may rightly be reproached who asked thee for exemption even though they were fully able [to go to war].126 They were well-pleased to remain with those who were left behind -wherefore God has sealed their hearts, so that they do not know [what they are doing].
Lit., "who ask thee for exemption while they are rich". The term ghani denotes "one who is rich" or "free from want" or "self-sufficient"; in this context it obviously refers to physical competence in addition to financial means: that is, to people who were able-bodied as well as financially in a position to equip themselves (cf. verses 86-87 above).
9:93 The blame is on those who ask your permission to stay behind, even though they have no excuse. They have chosen to be with the sedentary. Consequently, GOD has sealed their hearts, and thus, they do not attain any knowledge.,
9:93 The way of blame is only against those who ask for your leave when they are rich and able-bodied. They are well pleased to be with those who are obliged to stay behind. They have caused God’s Law of Requital to seal their hearts without knowing it.
9:94 YaAAtathiroona ilaykum itharajaAAtum ilayhim qul la taAAtathiroo lan nu/minalakum qad nabbaana Allahu min akhbarikumwasayara Allahu AAamalakum warasooluhu thummaturaddoona ila AAalimi alghaybi waalshshahadatifayunabbi-okum bima kuntum taAAmaloona
Ignore the Hypocrites9:94 They will apologize to you when you return to them. Say, "Do not apologize; we will no longer trust you, for God has told us of your news." God will see your work, as will His messenger, then you will be returned to the knower of the unseen and the seen, He will inform you of what you did.
9:94 They will apologize to you when you return to them, say: "Do not apologize, we will not believe you, for God has told us of your news." And God will see your work, as will His messenger, then you will be returned to Knower of the unseen and the seen, He will inform you of what you did.
9:94 [And] they will [still] be offering excuses to you when you return to them ,[from the campaign]! Say: "Do not offer [empty] excuses, [for] we shall not believe you: God has already enlightened us about you. And God will behold your [future] deeds, and [so will] His Apostle; and in the end you will be brought before Him127 who knows all that is beyond the reach of a created being's perception as well as all that can be witnessed by a creature's senses or mind,128 and then He will make you truly understand what you were doing [in life]."
Lit., "and thereafter you will be brought back unto Him".
See surah 6, note 65.
Hard Times Serve to Expose the Hypocrites9:94 They apologize to you when you return to them (from battle). Say, "Do not apologize; we no longer trust you. GOD has informed us about you." GOD will see your works, and so will the messenger, then you will be returned to the Knower of all secrets and declarations, then He will inform you of everything you had done.,
9:94 They will make excuse to you when you believers return. Say, “Make no excuse, for we shall not believe you. God has informed us about you. God and His Messenger, the Central Authority, will keep you under probation. And then you will be brought back to Him, the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, and He will tell you what you had been doing.”
9:95 Sayahlifoona biAllahilakum itha inqalabtum ilayhim lituAAridoo AAanhumfaaAAridoo AAanhum innahum rijsun wama/wahumjahannamu jazaan bima kanoo yaksiboona
9:95 They will swear by God to you when you return to them, so that you may overlook them. So overlook them, for they are tainted, and their destiny is hell as a recompense for what they earned.
9:95 They will swear by God to you, when you return to them, so that you would let them be. So let them be, for they are tainted, and their destiny is Hell as a recompense for what they earned.
9:95 When you will have returned to them, (O believers,] they will swear to you by God, [repeating their excuses,] with a view to your letting them be.129 Let them be, then: behold, they are loathsome, and hell is their goal in recompense for what they were wont to do.
Sc., "and not punishing them". As a matter of fact, their fears were unfounded, since, on his return from Tabuk, the Prophet took no punitive action against any of those who had failed to follow him on his campaign.
9:95 They will swear by GOD to you, when you return to them, that you may disregard them. Do disregard them. They are polluted, and their destiny is Hell, as a requital for the sins they have earned.,
9:95 They will swear by God, when you return to them, so that you may leave them alone. So leave them alone (9:125). They have hurt their humanity and earned the abode of Hell with their actions.
9:96 Yahlifoona lakum litardawAAanhum fa-in tardaw AAanhum fa-inna Allaha layarda AAani alqawmi alfasiqeena
9:96 They swear to you so that you would accept them. Even if you accept them, God does not accept the wicked people.
9:96 They swear to you so that you would accept them. Even if you accept them, God does not accept the wicked people.
9:96 They will swear to you with a view to making you pleased with them: but [even] should you be pleased with them, verily, God shall never be pleased with iniquitous folk.
9:96 They swear to you, that you may pardon them. Even if you pardon them, GOD does not pardon such wicked people.,
9:96 They swear that you believers may be pleased with them. Even if you accept them, God does not accept those who drift away from His commands [9:23-24]
9:97 Al-aAArabu ashaddu kufran wanifaqanwaajdaru alla yaAAlamoo hudooda ma anzalaAllahu AAala rasoolihi waAllahuAAaleemun hakeemun
Good and Bad Arabs9:97 The Arabs are the worst in rejection and hypocrisy, and more likely not to know the limits of what God has sent down upon His messenger. God is Knower, Wise.
9:97 The Nomads are the worst in rejection and hypocrisy, and more likely not to know the boundaries of what God has sent down upon His messenger. God is Knower, Wise.
9:97 [The hypocrites among] the bedouin130 are more tenacious in [their] refusal to acknowledge the truth and in [their] hypocrisy [than are settled people], and more liable to ignore the ordinances which God has bestowed from on high upon His Apostle - but God is all-knowing, wise.131
The words interpolated by me between brackets at the beginning of this sentence are based on the interpretation given by Razi (see also Manar XI, 8), obviously in view of verse 99, which speaks of believers among the bedouin.
Owing to their nomadic way of life and its inherent hardship and crudity, the bedouin find it more difficult than do settled people to be guided by ethical imperatives unconnected with their immediate tribal interests - a difficulty which is still further enhanced by their physical distance from the centres of higher culture and, consequently, their comparative ignorance of most religious demands. It was for this reason that the Prophet often stressed the superiority of a settled mode of life to a nomadic one: cf. his saying, "He who dwells in the desert (al-badiyah) becomes rough in disposition", recorded by Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i and Ibn Hanbal on the authority of Ibn Abbas, and a similar Tradition, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah, by Abu Da'ud and Bayhaqi.
The Arabs9:97 The Arabs are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and the most likely to ignore the laws that GOD has revealed to His messenger. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
9:97 The desert Arabs are more tenacious in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to disregard the limits that God has revealed to His Messenger. God is Knower, Wise.
9:98 Wamina al-aAArabi man yattakhithuma yunfiqu maghraman wayatarabbasu bikumu alddawa-iraAAalayhim da-iratu alssaw-i waAllahusameeAAun AAaleemun
9:98 From the Arabs are some who look upon what they spend as a fine, and wait for disasters to befall you. They will have the evil disasters, and God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
9:98 And from the Nomads are some who look upon what they spend as a fine, and wait for misfortune upon you. They will have the misfortune of evil, and God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
9:98 And among the bedouin there are such as regard all that they might spend [in God's cause] as a loss, and wait for misfortune to encompass you, [O believers: but] it is they whom evil fortune shall encompass - for God is all-hearing, all-knowing.
9:98 Some Arabs consider their spending (in the cause of God) to be a loss, and even wait in anticipation that a disaster may hit you. It is they who will incur the worst disaster. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.,
9:98 Among these Bedouin Arabs is he who looks upon his spending as a penalty, and awaits a disaster to hit you. (They hope for the Divine Order to collapse.) It is those who invite disaster upon themselves. God is Hearer, Knower.
9:99 Wamina al-aAArabi man yu/minu biAllahiwaalyawmi al-akhiri wayattakhithu mayunfiqu qurubatin AAinda Allahi wasalawatialrrasooli ala innaha qurbatun lahumsayudkhiluhumu Allahu fee rahmatihi inna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
9:99 From the Arabs there is he who acknowledges God and the Last day, and considers his spending as a means towards God, and the support of the messenger. It indeed makes them closer. God will admit them in His mercy; God is Forgiving, Compassionate.13
9:99 And from the Nomads are those who believe in God and the Last Day, and he looks upon what he spends to make him closer to God, and the contact prayers of the messenger. It indeed makes them closer. God will admit them in His mercy; God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:99 However, among the bedouin there are [also] such as believe in God and the Last Day, and regard all that they spend (in God's cause] as a means of drawing them nearer to God and of [their being remembered in] the. Apostle's prayers. Oh, verily, it shall [indeed] be a means of [God's] nearness to them, [for] God will admit them unto His grace: verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!
9:99 Other Arabs do believe in GOD and the Last Day, and consider their spending to be a means towards GOD, and a means of supporting the messenger. Indeed, it will bring them nearer; GOD will admit them into His mercy. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
9:99 And among the Bedouins are those who believe in God and the Last Day and consider their spending as a means towards God and a means of supporting the Messenger. This will raise their ranks with God. God will embrace them with His mercy. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:100 Waalssabiqoona al-awwaloonamina almuhajireena waal-ansari waallatheenaittabaAAoohum bi-ihsanin radiya AllahuAAanhum waradoo AAanhu waaAAadda lahum jannatintajree tahtaha al-anharu khalideenafeeha abadan thalika alfawzu alAAatheemu
9:100 The pioneers of the emigrants and the supporters, and those who followed them in kindness; God has accepted them, and they have accepted Him; and He prepared for them gardens with rivers flowing beneath in which they will abide eternally. Such is the great success.
9:100 And those who came early and quickly from among the emigrants and the supporters, and those who followed them in goodness; God has accepted them, and they have accepted Him; and He has prepared for them estates with rivers flowing beneath them, abiding therein eternally. Such is the great triumph.
9:100 And as for the first and foremost of those who have forsaken the domain of evil and of those who have sheltered and succoured the Faith,132 as well as those who follow them in [the way of] righteousness - God is well-pleased with them, and well--pleased are they with Him. And for them has He readied gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide beyond the count of time: this is the triumph supreme!
In the above context, the term muhajirun -lit., "emigrants", rendered by me as "those who have forsaken the domain of evil" (see surah 2, note 203, and surah 4, note 124) - applies primarily to the Meccan followers of the Prophet who migrated (hajaru) from Mecca to Medina -which until then was called Yathrib - at a time when Mecca was still in the possession of the enemies of Islam; the "first and foremost" among them were the earliest emigrants, i.e., those who left Mecca in or before the year 622 of the Christian era (which marks the beginning of the Islamic hijri era) and in the course of the next few years, when the Muslim community at Medina was still in danger of being overrun by the powerful Quraysh of Mecca. Similarly, the term ansar (lit., "helpers") applies here to the early converts from among the people of Medina who sheltered and succoured (nasaru) their brethren in faith-the "first and foremost" among them being those who embraced Islam before and shortly after the Prophet's and his Companions' exodus (hijrah) from Mecca, and particularly those who did so on the occasion of the two meetings, at AI-`Aqabah near Mecca, between the Prophet and deputations of the Yathrib tribes of Al-Aws and Khazraj (a little over a year and a few months, respectively, before the Prophet's hijrah). Apart, however, from their purely historical connotations, both the terms muhajirun and ansar bear in the Qur'an a spiritual meaning as well, and are often used to describe those who morally "forsake the domain of evil" and those who "shelter and succour the Faith" (see surah 8, note 78).
9:100 As for the early vanguards who immigrated (Muhajerin), and the supporters who gave them refuge (Ansar) and those who followed them in righteousness, GOD is pleased with them, and they are pleased with Him. He has prepared for them gardens with flowing streams, wherein they abide forever. This is the greatest triumph.,
9:100 The foremost among the emigrants and the helpers, as well as those who followed them in noble deeds: God’s will is in harmony with them and their will in harmony with Him. He has made ready for them the evergreen Gardens, wherein they will abide eternally. This is the Supreme Triumph.31
Muhaajireen = Emigrants from Makkah. Ansaar = Those who hosted them in Madinah. Radhi-Allahu ’anhum wa radhu ‘Anh also translates as, “God is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Him.”
9:101 Wamimman hawlakum mina al-aAArabimunafiqoona wamin ahli almadeenati maradoo AAala alnnifaqila taAAlamuhum nahnu naAAlamuhum sanuAAaththibuhummarratayni thumma yuraddoona ila AAathabin AAatheemin
9:101 Among the Arabs around you are hypocrites, as well as from the city people; they are audacious in hypocrisy. You do not know them, but We know them. We will punish them twice, then they will be returned to a great punishment.
9:101 And from among the Nomads around you are hypocrites, and from among the people of the city, they persist in hypocrisy. You do not know them, but We know them. We will punish them twice, then they will be returned to a great punishment.
9:101 But among the bedouin who dwell around you there are hypocrites; and among the people of the [Prophet's] City133 [too] there are such as have grown insolent in [their] hypocrisy. Thou dost not [always] know them, [O Muhammad - but] We know them. We shall cause them to suffer doubly [in this world];134 and then they will be given over to awesome suffering [in the life to come].
Le., Medina. Originally, the city bore the name Yathrib; but after the exodus of the Prophet from Mecca it came to be known as Madinat an-Nabi ("the City of the Prophet") and, eventually, as Al-Madinah ("The City" par excellence).
I.e., first through failure in their worldly concerns, accompanied by pangs of conscience and the resulting spiritual distress, and then through a full realization, at the moment of dying, of the unforgivable nature of their sin (Manar XI, 19).
Retribution Doubled for the Hypocrites9:101 Among the Arabs around you, there are hypocrites. Also, among the city dwellers, there are those who are accustomed to hypocrisy. You do not know them, but we know them. We will double the retribution for them, then they end up committed to a terrible retribution.9 ,
The hypocrites sit among the believers, listen to the message and proofs, then spread their poisonous doubts. It is a Quranic law that theyreceive double the retribution, now and forever.
9:101 Some of the Bedouins who dwell around your town are hypocrites, and some of the people of Al-Madinah also persist in hypocrisy. You do not know them, We know them. We will punish them twice (they will be humiliated in the battle and they will see their families and children embracing Belief). Then they will be relegated to a painful doom.
9:102 Waakharoona iAAtarafoo bithunoobihimkhalatoo AAamalan salihan waakharasayyi-an AAasa Allahu an yatooba AAalayhim inna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
9:102 Others who have acknowledged their sins, they have mixed good work with bad. Perhaps God will pardon them. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
9:102 And others who have acknowledged their sins, they have mixed a good work with another that was bad. Perhaps God will pardon them. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:102 And [there are] others135 - [people who] have become conscious of their sinning after having done righteous deeds side by side with evil ones;136 [and] it may well be that God will accept their repentance: for, verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser' of grace.
Le., neither believers in the full sense of the word nor hypocrites, but half-hearted, confused waverers between right and wrong, or between truth and falsehood.
Lit., "who have acknowledged their sins [after] having mingled a righteous deed with another that was evil". Although it relates primarily to the vacillating Muslims who refused to participate in the expedition to Tabuk, this verse alludes, in its wider meaning, to all sinners who-without external prompting-become conscious of their wrongdoing and repent of it.
9:102 There are others who have confessed their sins; they have mixed good deeds with bad deeds. GOD will redeem them, for GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
9:102 There are others who acknowledge their faults. Since they have a mixed record of good and bad deeds, they may hope that God will relent toward them, for God is Forgiving, Merciful.
9:103 Khuth min amwalihim sadaqatantutahhiruhum watuzakkeehim biha wasalliAAalayhim inna salataka sakanun lahum waAllahusameeAAun AAaleemun
9:103 Take from their money a charity to purify them and improve them with it, and support them. Your support is tranquility for them; and God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
9:103 Take from their money a charity to purify them and develop them with it, and make contact with them; for your contact is a tranquility for them; and God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
9:103 [Hence, O Prophet,] accept that [part] of their possessions which is offered for the sake of God,137 so that thou mayest cleanse them thereby and cause them to grow in purity, and pray for them: behold, thy prayer will be [a source of] comfort to them-for God is all-hearing, all-knowing.
Lit., "take out of their possessions an offering for the sake of God (sadaqah)". For the meaning of this term, see note 81 above. In this context, it primarily denotes the tax called zakah ("the purifying dues") incumbent on every Muslim enjoying a certain minimum of property and/or income. Since an acceptance of zakah by the head of state (or of the community) amounts to a recognition of the giver as a "Muslim" in the Qur'anic sense of this term, the Prophet refused to accept it from all whose behaviour had made it obvious that they were hypocrites; the above verse, however, authorizes him (and, by implication, the authorities of an Islamic state at all times) to accept the payment of zakah from those who express their repentance by deeds as well as by words.
9:103 Take from their money a charity to purify them and sanctify them. And encourage them, for your encouragement reassures them. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.,
9:103 Accept their contribution for the community. Purify their thoughts with proper education and training so that their own ‘self’ may grow. Encourage and support them! Your support is a great source of peace in their hearts. God is Hearer, Knower.32
Let the believers adopt the Divine Attributes in their human capacity. 2:103
9:104 Alam yaAAlamoo anna Allaha huwayaqbalu alttawbata AAan AAibadihi waya/khuthualssadaqati waanna Allaha huwa alttawwabualrraheemu
9:104 Did they not know that it is God who accepts repentance from His servants, and He takes the charities, and that God is the Pardoner, Compassionate.
9:104 Did they not know that it is God who accepts repentance from His servants, and He takes the charities, and that God is the Pardoner, Merciful.
9:104 Do they not know that it is God alone who can accept the repentance of His servants138 and is the [true] recipient of whatever is offered for His sake - and that God alone is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace?
Lit., "who accepts repentance from His servants": thus pointing out that no human being, not even the Prophet, has the power to absolve a sinner of his guilt (Manar XI, 32). A prophet can do no more than prav to God that He forgive the sinners.
9:104 Do they not realize that GOD accepts the repentance of His worshipers, and takes the charities, and that GOD is the Redeemer, Most Merciful?,
9:104 Do they not know that God is the One Who accepts the repentance of His servants, and accepts their charity? God is the Acceptor of repentance, Merciful.
9:105 Waquli iAAmaloo fasayara AllahuAAamalakum warasooluhu waalmu/minoona wasaturaddoona ilaAAalimi alghaybi waalshshahadatifayunabbi-okum bima kuntum taAAmaloona
9:105 Say, "Work, and God will see your work and so His messenger and those who acknowledge. You will be sent back to the knower of the unseen and the seen, and He will inform you of what you did."
9:105 And say: "Work, and God will see your work and His messenger and the believers. And you will be sent back to Knower of the unseen and the seen, and He will inform you of what you did."
9:105 And say [unto them, O Prophet]: "Act!139 And God will behold your deeds, and [so will] His Apostle, and the believers: and [in the end] you will be brought before Him who knows all that is beyond the reach of a created being's perception as well as all that can be witnessed by a creature's senses or mind140 -and then He will make you understand what you have been doing."
This connects with the injunction in verse 103 above, "accept that [part] of their possessions which is offered for the sake of God, . . . and pray for them". The stress on action as an integral part of faith is of fundamental importance in the ethics of the Qur'an: cf. the frequent juxtaposition of the concepts of "believing" and "doing good works", and the condemnation of all "who, while believing, wrought no good works" (see 6:158 and the corresponding note 160).
See Surah 6, note 65.
9:105 Say, "Work righteousness; GOD will see your work, and so will His messenger and the believers. Ultimately, you will be returned to the Knower of all secrets and declarations, then He will inform you of everything you had done.",
9:105 Say, "Act! (Prove your word with action). God will watch your actions and so will His Messenger, and the believers. Ultimately you will be returned to the Knower of the invisible and visible. Then, He will make you understand what you used to do." (7:7)
9:106 Waakharoona murjawna li-amri Allahiimma yuAAaththibuhum wa-imma yatoobuAAalayhim waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
9:106 Others are waiting for God's decision; either He will punish them, or He will pardon them. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:106 And others are made to wait for the decision of God; either He will punish them, or He will pardon them. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:106 And [there are yet] others-[people whose cases are] deferred until God wills to judge them:141 He will either chastise them or turn again unto them in His mercy-for God is all-knowing, wise.
Lit., "deferred unto God's decree (amr)"-i.e., kept in abeyance in anticipation of their future repentance. As in the preceding four verses, the people referred to here are, in the first instance, the waverers who stayed away from the campaign of Tabuk, and, by implication, all half-hearted believers who confusedly hover between right and wrong: with the difference, however, that whereas the repentant sinners spoken of in verses 102-105 are said to have realized their sinfulness spontaneously, the kind of people referred to in verse 106 have not yet reached the stage of moral self-examination and repentance, with the result that their cases are "deferred" until such a time as their impulses sway them entirely one way or another. From a psychological point of view, it is possible to discern a subtle connection between this verse and 7:46.
9:106 Others are waiting for GOD's decision; He may punish them, or He may redeem them. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
9:106 There are some who await God's decree whether He will punish them or relent to them. God is All Knower, All Wise.33
Their matter is under investigation by the State. Divine laws are based on knowledge and wisdom 9:118
9:107 Waallatheena ittakhathoomasjidan diraran wakufran watafreeqan baynaalmu/mineena wa-irsadan liman haraba Allahawarasoolahu min qablu walayahlifunna in aradna illaalhusna waAllahu yashhadu innahum lakathiboona
Mosques That Promote Division and Falsehood9:107 There are those who establish a temple to do harm and cause rejection, to cause division among those who acknowledge, and as an outpost for those who fought God and His messenger before. They will swear that they only wanted to do good, but God bears witness that they are liars.
9:107 And there are those who have taken a temple to do harm and cause rejection, and to divide between the believers, and as an outpost for those who fought God and His messenger before. They will swear that they only wanted to do good, and God bears witness that they are liars.
9:107 AND [there are hypocrites] who have established a [separate] house of worship in order to create mischief, and to promote apostasy and disunity among the believers, and to provide an outpost for all who from the outset have been warring against God and His Apostle.142 And they will surely swear [to you, O believers], "We had but the best of intentions!" -the while God [Himself] bears witness that they are lying.143
Lit., "who have been warring against God and His Apostle aforetime"-i.e., before the expedition to Tabuk. The historical occasion to which this verse refers may be thus summarized: Ever since his exodus from Mecca to Medina the Prophet was violently opposed by one Abu `Amir ("The Monk"), a prominent member of the Khazraj tribe, who had embraced Christianity many years earlier and enjoyed a considerable reputation among his compatriots and among the Christians of Syria. From the very outset he allied himself with the Prophet's enemies, the Meccan Quraysh, and took part on their side in the battle of Uhud (3 H.). Shortly thereafter he migrated to Syria and did all that he could to induce the Emperor of Byzantium, Heraclius, to invade Medina and crush the Muslim community once and for all. In Medina itself, Abu `Amir had some secret followers among the members of his tribe, with whom he remained in constant correspondence. In the year 9 H. he informed them that Heraclius had agreed to send out an army against Medina, and that large-scale preparations were being made to this effect (which was apparently the reason for the Prophet's preventive expedition to Tabuk). In order that his followers should have a rallying-place in the event of the expected invasion of Medina, Abu `Amir suggested to his friends that they build a mosque of their own in the village of Quba', in the immediate vicinity of Medina (which they did), and thus obviate the necessity of congregating in the mosque which the Prophet himself had built in the same village at the time of his arrival at Medina (see note 145 below). It is this "rival" mosque to which the above verse refers. It was demolished at the Prophet's orders immediately after his return from the Tabuk expedition. Abu `Amir himself died in Syria shortly afterwards. (For all the relevant Traditions, see Tabari's and Ibn Kathir's commentaries on this verse.)
Although the whole of this verse relates primarily to the historical occasion explained in the preceding note, it has a definite bearing on all attempts at creating sectarian divisions among Muslims, and is thus a clear amplification of an earlier injunction to this effect (see 6:159 and the corresponding note 161).
Masjids that Oppose God and His Messenger9:107 There are those who abuse the masjid by practicing idol worship, dividing the believers, and providing comfort to those who oppose GOD and His messenger. They solemnly swear: "Our intentions are honorable!" GOD bears witness that they are liars.10 ,
Any masjid where the practices are not devoted absolutely to God ALONE belongs to Satan, not God. For example, mentioning the names of Abraham,Muhammad, and/or Ali in the Azan and/orthe Salat prayers violates God'scommandments in 2:136, 2:285, 3:84, & 72:18. Unfortunately, this is a common idolatrous practice throughout the corrupted Muslim world.
9:107 (The hypocrites keep making schemes.) They built a Masjid - 'Masjidan dhiraaran' - out of mischief to promote disbelief and sectarianism among the believers, and as an outpost for those who made war against God and His Messenger before. They will swear, “We only had good intentions”, but God bears witness that they are liars.
9:108 La taqum feehi abadan lamasjidunossisa AAala alttaqwa min awwali yawmin ahaqquan taqooma feehi feehi rijalun yuhibboona an yatatahharoowaAllahu yuhibbu almuttahhireena
9:108 You shall never stand there. A temple that is founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy of your standing; in it are men who love to be cleansed. God loves the cleansed.
9:108 Do not stand in it ever. A temple that is founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy that you stand in it; in it are men who love to purify themselves. And God loves the purified.
9:108 Never set foot in such a place!144 Only a house of worship founded, from the very first day, upon God-consciousness is worthy of thy setting foot therein145 -[a house of worship] wherein there are men desirous of growing in purity: for God loves all who purify themselves.
Lit., "in it" - sc., "to pray therein".
Lit., "Indeed, a house of worship founded ... upon God-consciousness (taqwa) is most deserving. ..", etc. Some of the commentators believe that this is a reference to the mosque founded by the Prophet at Quba', a village close to Medina, on his arrival there in the month of Rabi` al-Awwal in the year 1 H., since it was the first mosque ever built by him or his followers. There are, however, authentic Traditions to the effect that the Prophet applied the designation of "a house of worship founded on God-consciousness" to his (later-built) mosque at Medina as well (Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Hanbal). It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that it applies to every mosque sincerely dedicated by its founders, to the worship of God: a view which is supported by the next verse.
Do Not Pray in Those Masjids9:108 You shall never pray in such a masjid. A masjid that is established on the basis of righteousness from the first day is more worthy of your praying therein. In it, there are people who love to be purified. GOD loves those who purify themselves.,
9:108 You shall not stand in such a Masjid! The Masjid whose foundation was laid from the first day on righteousness, is more worthy that you stand therein. In it there are people who love to be purified in character, and God loves those who keep clean of schism and sectarianism. [6:160]
9:109 Afaman assasa bunyanahu AAalataqwa mina Allahi waridwanin khayrunam man assasa bunyanahu AAala shafa jurufinharin fainhara bihi fee narijahannama waAllahu la yahdee alqawma alththalimeena
9:109 Is one who lays his foundation on obtaining awareness from God and His acceptance better, or one who lays his foundation on the edge of a cliff which is about to crumble, so that it crumbled with him into the fires of hell? God does not guide the wicked people.
9:109 Is he who founds his building on obtaining righteousness from God and His acceptance better, or he who founds his building on the edge of a cliff which is about to crumble, so that it crumbled with him into the fires of Hell? And God does not guide the wicked people.
9:109 Which. then, is the better: he who has founded his building on God-consciousness and [a desire for] His goodly acceptance-or he who has founded his building on the edge of a water-worn, crumbling river-bank, so that it [is bound to] tumble down with him into the fire of hell? For, God does not grace with His guidance people who [deliberately] do wrong:
9:109 Is one who establishes his building on the basis of reverencing GOD and to gain His approval better, or one who establishes his building on the brink of a crumbling cliff, that falls down with him into the fire of Hell? GOD does not guide the transgressing people.,
9:109 Is he who founded his building on the secure way of God and His goodly acceptance better, or he who founded his building on the crumbling cliff of "Shirk" that topples down with him into the fire of Hell? God does not guide a people who displace right with wrong.
9:110 La yazalu bunyanuhumuallathee banaw reebatan fee quloobihim illa an taqattaAAaquloobuhum waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
9:110 Such a structure that they erect will never cease to cause doubt in their hearts, until their hearts are severed. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:110 Their buildings that they built continue to cause doubt in their hearts, until their hearts are severed. And God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
9:110 the building which they have built will never cease to be a source of deep disquiet in their hearts until their hearts crumble to pieces.146 And God is all-knowing, wise.
Lit., '.`unless their hearts are cut into many pieces"-i.e., until they die. In verses 109-110, the reference to "the building which they have built" is, obviously, widened beyond the preceding allusion to houses of worship, and allegorically circumscribes here all the "works" and. the behaviour of men.
9:110 Such a building that they have established remains a source of doubt in their hearts, until their hearts are stilled. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
9:110 The building which they have built will never cease to be a source of misgiving in their hearts unless their hearts be torn to pieces. God is Knower, Wise.34
A building that divides believers will remain a source of unrest in the hearts of the sectarians until their hearts stop beating
9:111 ان الله اشترى من المؤمنين انفسهم وامولهم بان لهم الجنة يقتلون فى سبيل الله فيقتلون ويقتلون وعدا عليه حقا فى التورىة والانجيل والقرءان ومن اوفى بعهده من الله فاستبشروا ببيعكم الذى بايعتم به وذلك هو الفوز العظيم
9:111 Inna Allaha ishtara minaalmu/mineena anfusahum waamwalahum bi-anna lahumualjannata yuqatiloona fee sabeeli Allahifayaqtuloona wayuqtaloona waAAdan AAalayhi haqqan fee alttawratiwaal-injeeli waalqur-ani waman awfabiAAahdihi mina Allahi faistabshiroo bibayAAikumuallathee bayaAAtum bihi wathalika huwaalfawzu alAAatheemu
The Monotheists9:111 God has purchased from those who acknowledge their very lives and their wealth; that they will have paradise. They fight in the cause of God so they kill and are killed. A promise that is true upon Him in the Torah, the Injeel and the Quran. Whoever fulfills his pledge to God, then have good news of the deal which you concluded with. Such is the supreme success.
9:111 God has purchased from the believers their very lives and their wealth, that they will have the Paradise; they fight in the cause of God so they kill and are killed; a promise that is true upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And whoever fulfills this pledge with God, then have good news of the pledge which you are concluded with. Such is the great triumph.
9:111 BEHOLD, God has bought of the believers their lives and their possessions, promising them paradise in return, ,[and so] they fight in God's cause, and slay, and are slain: a promise which in truth He has willed upon Himself in [the words of] the Torah, and the Gospel, and the Qur'an. And who could be more faithful to his covenant than God? Rejoice, then, in the bargain which you have made with Him: for this, this is the triumph supreme!
The Most Profitable9:111 GOD has bought from the believers their lives and their money in exchange for Paradise. Thus, they fight in the cause of GOD, willing to kill and get killed. Such is His truthful pledge in the Torah, the Gospel, and the Quran - and who fulfills His pledge better than GOD? You shall rejoice in making such an exchange. This is the greatest triumph.,
9:111 God has purchased from the believers their persons and their goods, for (in return) theirs is the Garden. They shall fight in the cause of God, and shall slay and be slain. It is a promise that is binding on Him in the Torah and the Gospel, and the Qur’an. Who can fulfill a promise better than God? Rejoice then in the bargain you have made, for that is the Supreme Triumph.35
9:112 Altta-iboona alAAabidoonaalhamidoona alssa-ihoona alrrakiAAoonaalssajidoona al-amiroona bialmaAAroofiwaalnnahoona AAani almunkari waalhafithoonalihudoodi Allahi wabashshiri almu/mineena
9:112 They are the repenters, the servers, the praisers, the activists, the bowing, the prostrating, the advocators of good, the forbidders of evil, and the keepers of God's ordinance. Give good news to those who acknowledge.
9:112 They are the repenters, the worshipers, the thankful, the devout, the kneeling, the prostrating, the advocates of good and the prohibiters of vice, and the caretakers of the boundaries of God; and give good news to the believers.
9:112 [It is a triumph of] those who turn [unto God] in repentance [whenever they have sinned], and who worship and praise [Him], and go on and on [seeking His goodly acceptance],147 and bow down [before Him] and prostrate themselves in adoration, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and keep to the bounds set by God. And give thou [O Prophet] the glad tiding [of God's promise] to all believers.
Most of the commentators attribute to the expression as-sa'ihun (lit., "those who wander") the meaning of as-sa'imun, i.e., "those who fast", since he who fasts deprives himself, temporarily, of worldly enjoyments similar to one who wanders about the earth (Sufyan ibn `Uyaynah. as quoted by Razi); and they justify this metaphorical equation of siyahah ("wandering") with siyam ("fasting") by the fact that several Companions and some of their successors have thus interpreted the term as-sa'ihun in the above context (see Tabari). Other authorities, however, (e.g., Abu Muslim, as quoted by Razi) prefer the original significance of this term and explain it as more or less synonymous with al-muhajirun ("those who forsake the domain of evil"). To my mind, the expression as-sa'ihun is best rendered as "those who go on and on [seeking God's goodly acceptance]", thus combining the literal and metonymical connotations of the term siyahah.
The Believers9:112 They are the repenters, the worshipers, the praisers, the meditators, the bowing and prostrating, the advocators of righteousness and forbidders of evil, and the keepers of GOD's laws. Give good news to such believers. You Shall Disown God's Enemies Abraham Disowned His Father,
9:112 Triumphant are those who: - Return to the right path and take corrective action as soon as they realize that they have erred. - Obey the commands of God. - Work to manifest the praise of God (for bestowing the most excellent guidance). - Pick up lessons about the history of previous nations whenever they travel. - Are always humble before the Divine System. - Adore and submit to God alone. - Advocate all that is virtuous and discourage all that is vice. - And remain watchful against trespassing the limits set by God. So give the good news to those who have chosen to be graced with belief (that these are the men and women who deserve a most pleasant life in both worlds).36
9:113 Ma kana lilnnabiyyi waallatheenaamanoo an yastaghfiroo lilmushrikeena walaw kanooolee qurba min baAAdi ma tabayyana lahum annahum as-habualjaheemi
9:113 It is not for the prophet and those who acknowledge that they should seek forgiveness for those who have set up partners, even if they are relatives, after it has been made clear to them that they are the dwellers of hell.
9:113 It is not for the prophet and those who believe that they should seek forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they are relatives, after it has been made clear to them that they are the dwellers of Hell.
9:113 IT DOES NOT behove the Prophet and those who have attained to faith to pray that they who ascribed divinity to aught beside God be forgiven [by Him] even though they happened to be [their] near of kin148 -after it has been made clear unto them that those [dead sinners] are destined for. the blazing fire.
As is obvious from the sequence, this prohibition relates to the dead among such sinners-i.e., those who have died without repentance (Zamakhshari, Razi)-and not to those who are still living: for "a prayer for forgiveness in respect of a living [sinner] ... amounts to asking God that He grace him with His guidance ... and this is permissible" (Manar XI, 60).
9:113 Neither the prophet, nor those who believe shall ask forgiveness for the idol worshipers, even if they were their nearest of kin, once they realize that they are destined for Hell.,
9:113 It is not fitting for the Prophet and the believers to pray for the forgiveness of the idolaters, even if they are their relatives, after it has been made clear to them that they are dwellers of the fire.
9:114 Wama kana istighfaruibraheema li-abeehi illa AAan mawAAidatin waAAadahaiyyahu falamma tabayyana lahu annahu AAaduwwun lillahitabarraa minhu inna ibraheema laawwahun haleemun
9:114 Abraham seeking forgiveness for his father was only because of a promise he made to him. But when it became clear that he was God's enemy, he disowned him. Abraham was kind, compassionate.
9:114 And Abraham seeking forgiveness for his father was only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear that he was the enemy of God, he disowned him. Abraham was kind, compassionate.
9:114 And Abraham's prayer that his father be forgiven was but due to a promise which he had given the latter [in his lifetime];149 but when it was made clear unto him that he had been God's enemy, [Abraham] disavowed him - [although;] behold, Abraham was most tender-hearted. most clement.
9:114 The only reason Abraham asked forgiveness for his father was that he had promised him to do so. But as soon as he realized that he was an enemy of GOD, he disowned him. Abraham was extremely kind, clement.,
9:114 Abraham asked forgiveness for his father because of a promise that he had made. The promise was based on the hope that his father would mend his ways. When it was made clear to him that his father was a persistent opponent of God's commands, he desisted from asking forgiveness for him. Abraham was kind-hearted, clement. [14:41, 19:47]
9:115 Wama kana Allahu liyudillaqawman baAAda ith hadahum hattayubayyina lahum ma yattaqoona inna Allaha bikullishay-in AAaleemun
9:115 God will never mislead a people after He guided them, until He makes clear to them what they should be aware. God is knower of all things.
9:115 And it is not for God to misguide a people after He guided them, until He makes clear to them what they should avoid. God is aware of all things.
9:115 And God would never-after having invited them to His guidance -condemn people for going astray150 ere He has made [entirely] clear unto them of what they should beware. Verily, God has full knowledge of everything.151
Most of the commentators assume that the people referred to are the believers who, before the revelation of verse 113, used to pray to God that He grant His forgiveness to their relatives and friends who had died in the state of shirk ("ascribing divinity to aught beside God"): in other words, the believers need not fear to be taken to task for something which they did before the prohibition laid down in verse 113 was revealed (i.e., "ere He has made clear unto them of what they should beware"). However, Razi advances also an alternative interpretation of verse 115, suggesting that it is meant to explain the severity with which the whole of this surah condemns the deniers of the truth and the hypocrites who are going astray after God "has made clear unto them of what they should beware". (See in this connection 6:131 and the corresponding notes.) `'his interpretation is, to my mind, the more plausible of the two, and particularly so in view of the sequence (verse 116).
9:115 GOD does not send any people astray, after He had guided them, without first pointing out for them what to expect. GOD is fully aware of all things.,
9:115 God never sends a people astray after He has guided them, unless they violate the laws that were made plain. God is the Knower of all things.
9:116 Inna Allaha lahu mulku alssamawatiwaal-ardi yuhyee wayumeetu wama lakummin dooni Allahi min waliyyin wala naseerin
9:116 To God is the sovereignty of heavens and earth, He causes life and death. You have none besides God as a supporter or victor.
9:116 To God is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, He brings life and death. You have none besides God as a supporter or victor.
9:116 Verily, God's alone is the dominion over the heavens and the earth; He [alone] grants life and deals death; and there is none besides God who could protect you or bring you succour.
9:116 To GOD belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He controls life and death. You have none beside GOD as a Lord and Master.,
9:116 To God belongs the Dominion of the heavens and earth. He has full control over the laws of life and death, for individuals and nations. You have no protector and helper outside God’s laws.
9:117 Laqad taba Allahu AAalaalnnabiyyi waalmuhajireena waal-ansariallatheena ittabaAAoohu fee saAAati alAAusrati minbaAAdi ma kada yazeeghu quloobu fareeqin minhumthumma taba AAalayhim innahu bihim raoofun raheemun
God is Supporting the Monotheists9:117 God has pardoned the prophet and the emigrants and the supporters that followed him in the darkest moment, even though the hearts of some of them nearly deviated, but then He pardoned them. He is towards them Kind, Compassionate.
9:117 God has pardoned the prophet and the emigrants and the supporters who had followed him in the darkest hour, even though the hearts of some of them nearly deviated, but then He pardoned them. He is towards them Compassionate, Merciful.
9:117 INDEED, God has turned in His mercy unto the Prophet, as well as unto those who have forsaken the domain of evil and those who have sheltered and succoured the Faiths152 - [all] those who followed him in the hour of distress, when the hearts of some of the other believers had well-nigh swerved from faith.153 And once again:154 He has turned unto them in His mercy - for, behold, He is compassionate towards them, a dispenser of grace.
See note 132 above.
Lit., "after the hearts of a group of them had well-nigh swerved [from faith]": a reference to the believers who-without valid excuse-failed to respond to the Prophet's call when he was setting out on the expedition to Tabuk, and who afterwards repented.
See surah 6, note 31. According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the particle thumma has here the meaning given in my rendering, and serves to emphasize the statement that "God has turned in His mercy unto the Prophet ... and all those who followed him in the hour of distress".
9:117 GOD has redeemed the prophet, and the immigrants (Muhajireen) and the supporters who hosted them and gave them refuge (Ansar), who followed him during the difficult times. That is when the hearts of some of them almost wavered. But He has redeemed them, for He is Compassionate towards them, Most Merciful.,
9:117 God turned in kindness to the Prophet, the emigrants and those who hosted them. They followed him in difficult times after the hearts of some of them had nearly wavered. Then He turned to them in kindness. He is Compassionate, Merciful to them.37
Muhaajireen = Emigrants. Ansaar = Those who host and support them
9:118 WaAAala alththalathatiallatheena khullifoo hatta itha daqatAAalayhimu al-ardu bima rahubat wadaqatAAalayhim anfusuhum wathannoo an la maljaamina Allahi illa ilayhi thumma tabaAAalayhim liyatooboo inna Allaha huwa alttawwabualrraheemu
9:118 Also upon the three who were left behind until the land, as vast as it is, became strained to them, and their very selves became strained; they thought there is no shelter from God except to Him. Then He pardoned them that they might repent. God is the Redeemer, the Compassionate.
9:118 And also the three who were left behind, until the land, as vast as it is, became strained to them, and their very souls became strained, and they thought there was no shelter from God except to Him. Then He pardoned them that they may repent. God is the Redeemer, the Merciful.
9:118 And [He turned in His mercy, too,] towards the three [groups of believers] who had fallen prey to corruption,155 until in the end-after the earth, despite all its vastness, had become [too] narrow for them and their souls had become [utterly] constricted they came to know with certainty that there is no refuge from God other than [a return] unto Him; and thereupon He turned again unto them in His mercy, so that they might repent: for, verily, God alone is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace.156
In its wider implication - as contrasted with a purely historical allusion - the above verse relates to all believers who temporarily deviate from the right path and then, after having realized - either spontaneously or in consequence of outside reprobation - that they had "fallen prey to corruption", sincerely repent their sin.
Do Not Abandon the Messenger9:118 Also (redeemed were) the three who stayed behind. The spacious earth became so straitened for them, that they almost gave up all hope for themselves. Finally, they realized that there was no escape from GOD, except to Him. He then redeemed them that they may repent. GOD is the Redeemer, Most Merciful.,
9:118 And (God also turned in compassion) to the three men who had stayed behind. The earth, despite all its vastness, had become narrow for them, and they became extremely despondent. They realized with certainty that there is no refuge from God other than a return to Him. Then He turned to them in mercy so that they return to the right way. God is Acceptor of repentance, Merciful.38
9:119 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooittaqoo Allaha wakoonoo maAAa alssadiqeena
9:119 O you who acknowledge, be aware of God and be with the truthful.
9:119 O you who believe, be aware of God and be with the truthful.
9:119 O YOU who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God, and be among those who are true to their word!
9:119 O you who believe, you shall reverence GOD, and be among the truthful.,
9:119 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Be mindful of God and be with the truthful.
9:120 ما كان لاهل المدينة ومن حولهم من الاعراب ان يتخلفوا عن رسول الله ولا يرغبوا بانفسهم عن نفسه ذلك بانهم لا يصيبهم ظما ولا نصب ولا مخمصة فى سبيل الله ولا يطون موطئا يغيظ الكفار ولا ينالون من عدو نيلا الا كتب لهم به عمل صلح ان الله لا يضيع اجر المحسنين
9:120 Ma kana li-ahli almadeenatiwaman hawlahum mina al-aAArabi an yatakhallafooAAan rasooli Allahi wala yarghaboo bi-anfusihimAAan nafsihi thalika bi-annahum la yuseebuhumthamaon wala nasabun walamakhmasatun fee sabeeli Allahi wala yataoonamawti-an yagheethu alkuffara walayanaloona min AAaduwwin naylan illa kutiba lahumbihi AAamalun salihun inna Allaha layudeeAAu ajra almuhsineena
9:120 It is not advisable for the city dwellers and those around them of the Arabs that they should lag behind after God's messenger, nor should they yearn for themselves above him. That is because any thirst, fatigue, or hunger that afflicts them in the cause of God, or any step that they take which will annoy the ingrates, or any gain they have over any enemy; it will be recorded as a good deed for them. God does not waste the reward of the good doers.
9:120 It is not advisable for the dwellers of the city and those around them of the Nomads that they should lag behind after the messenger of God, nor should they yearn for themselves above him. That is because any thirst that will come to them, or fatigue, or hunger in the cause of God, or any step that they take which will annoy the rejecters, or any gain they have over any enemy; it will be recorded as a good deed for them. God does not waste the reward of the good doers.
9:120 It does not behove the people of the [Prophet's] City and the bedouin [who live] around them to hold back from following God's Apostle, or to care for their own selves more than for him157 -for, whenever they suffer from thirst or weariness or hunger in God's cause, and whenever they take any step which confounds158 those who deny the truth, and whenever there comes to them from the enemy whatever may be destined for them159 -[whenever anything thereof comes to pass,,] a good deed is recorded in their favour.160 Verily, God does not fail to requite the doers of good!
Although this and the following verses relate, on the face of it, to "the people of the Prophet's City" (see note 133 above) and to "the bedouin who live around them", their purport is obviously general, and applies to all believers at all times. The specific reference to "the Prophets City" is due to the fact that it was the place where the revelation of the Qur'an was completed and Islam came to its full fruition under the Prophet's guidance.
Lit., "causes wrath to".
Lit., "[whenever] they get from the enemy whatever they get" -i.e., victory or death or injury.
In its original construction, this sentence reads thus: "and neither thirst afflicts them.. ., nor do they take any step . . ., nor do they get from the enemy . . ., without that a good deed is recorded in their behalf". The same construction is applied to the next verse.
9:120 Neither the dwellers of the city, nor the Arabs around them, shall seek to stay behind the messenger of GOD (when he mobilizes for war). Nor shall they give priority to their own affairs over supporting him. This is because they do not suffer any thirst, or any effort, or hunger in the cause of GOD, or take a single step that enrages the disbelievers, or inflict any hardship upon the enemy, without having it written down for them as a credit. GOD never fails to recompense those who work righteousness.,
9:120 It is not for the residents of Al-Madinah and for the Bedouins around, to stay back behind the Messenger of God and prefer their own affairs over supporting him. For, whenever they suffer from thirst or weariness or hunger in the cause of God, and whenever they take any step that angers the rejecters, and whatever comes to them from the enemy (victory, injury or death), a good deed is recorded in their favor. God never fails to reward the doers of good.39
Muhsin = A benefactor of humanity = One who serves people = Whoever helps the creation = A doer of good. Anger during combat deters sound planning. Muhsin, in this sense, may refer to the one engaged in benign aggression self-defense as opposed to malignant aggression unjust war
9:121 Wala yunfiqoona nafaqatan sagheeratanwala kabeeratan wala yaqtaAAoona wadiyanilla kutiba lahum liyajziyahumu Allahu ahsanama kanoo yaAAmaloona
9:121 Anything small or large they spend, or any valley they cross, it will be recorded for them. God will recompense them with the best of what they did.
9:121 And anything small or large they spend, or any valley they cross, it will be recorded for them. God will recompense them with the best of what they did.
9:121 And whenever they spend anything [for the sake of God], be it little or much, and whenever they move on earth161 [in God's cause] -it is recorded in their favour, and God will grant them the best reward for all that they have been doing.
Lit., "cross a valley". As Zamakhshari rightly points out in his commentary on this verse, the term wadi ("valley" or "river-bed") is often used in classical Arabic to denote "the earth" -a usage which even in our days is familiar to the bedouin of the Arabian Peninsula, especially when combined with the verb gata'a (lit., "he cut") in its connotation of "cutting across" or "traversing [a distance]" or "advancing [on a journey]". Thus, the above Qur'anic phrase may be suitably rendered as "whenever they move on earth". (As regards the construction of this sentence, see preceding note.)
9:121 Nor do they incur any expense, small or large, nor do they cross any valley, without having the credit written down for them. GOD will surely reward them generously for their works.,
9:121 And whatever they spend, small or large, and whenever they cross a valley, it is recorded in their credit, so that God repays them the best return for their actions.
9:122 Wama kana almu/minoonaliyanfiroo kaffatan falawla nafara min kullifirqatin minhum ta-ifatun liyatafaqqahoo fee alddeeniwaliyunthiroo qawmahum itha rajaAAoo ilayhimlaAAallahum yahtharoona
Importance of Education; Restriction On Draft9:122 It is not advisable for those who acknowledge to march out in their entirety. For every battalion that marches out, let a group remain to study the system, and warn their people when they return to them, perhaps they will be cautious.
9:122 And it is not advisable for the believers to mobilize in their entirety. For every battalion that marches out, let a group remain to study the system, and warn their people when they return to them, perhaps they will be aware.
9:122 With all this, it is not desirable that all of the believers take the field [in time of war]. From within every group in their midst, some shall refrain from going forth to war, and shall devote themselves [instead] to acquiring a deeper knowledge of the Faith. and [thus be able to] teach their home-coming brethren, so that these [too] might guard themselves against evil.162
Lit., "admonish their people when they come back to them, so that they might be on their guard". Although the above injunction mentions specifically religious knowledge, it has a positive bearing on every kind of knowledge-and this in view of the fact that the Qur'an does not draw any dividing-line between the spiritual and the worldly concerns of life but, rather, regards them as different aspects of one and the same reality. In many of its verses, the Qur'an calls upon the believer to observe all nature and to discern God's creative activity in its manifold phenomena and "laws", as well as to mediate upon the lessons of history with a view to gaining a deeper insight into man's motivations and the innermost springs of his behaviour: and, thus, the Qur'an itself is characterized as addressed to "those who think". In short, intellectual activity as such is postulated as a valid way to a better understanding of God's will and - if pursued with moral consciousness-as a valid method of worshipping God. This Qur'anic principle has been emphasized in many well-authenticated sayings of the Prophet, for instance, "Striving after knowledge is a sacred duty (faridah) for every man and woman who has surrendered himself or herself to God (muslim wa-muslimah)" (Ibn Majah); or, "The superiority (fadl) of a learned man over a [mere] worshipper [i.e., one who merely prays, fasts, etc.] is like the superiority of the full moon over all the stars" (Tirmidhi, Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hanbal, Darimi). Consequently, the obligation of the believers to "devote themselves to acquiring a deeper knowledge of the Faith" (li-yatafagqahu fi 'd-din) and to impart its results to their fellow-believers relates to every branch of knowledge as well as to its practical application.
The Importance of Religious Education9:122 When the believers mobilize, not all of them shall do so. A few from each group shall mobilize by devoting their time to studying the religion. Thus, they can pass the knowledge on to their people when they return, that they may remain religiously informed.,
9:122 The believers shall not go to an expedition or mission all together. Of every group of believers, let some of them come forth to gain sound knowledge of Deen (the Qur’anic System of life). Then, upon return, they can warn their people against straying.
9:123 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooqatiloo allatheena yaloonakum mina alkuffariwalyajidoo feekum ghilthatan waiAAlamoo annaAllaha maAAa almuttaqeena
9:123 O you who acknowledge, fight the ingrates who gird you about, and let them find strength in you; know that God is with the righteous.
9:123 O you who believe, fight those who are around you of the rejecters, and let them find strength in you; and know that God is with the righteous.
9:123 O you who have attained to faith! Fight against those deniers of the truth who are near you, and let them find you adamant ;163 and know that .God is with those who are conscious of Him.
I.e., uncompromising with regard to ethical principles. For the general circumstances in which war is permitted, see 2:190, 22:39, 60:8, and the corresponding notes, as well as notes 7 and 9 on verse 5 of this surah. The reference to "those deniers of the truth who are near you" may arise from the fact that only "those who are near" can be dangerous in a physical sense or, alternatively, that - having come from afar- they have already approached the Muslim country with an aggressive intent.
The Disbelievers9:123 O you who believe, you shall fight the disbelievers who attack you - let them find you stern - and know that GOD is with the righteous.,
9:123 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Fight those of the disbelievers who close up on you, and let them find strength among your ranks. And know that God is with those who are mindful of His laws.
9:124 Wa-itha ma onzilat sooratunfaminhum man yaqoolu ayyukum zadat-hu hathihi eemananfaamma allatheena amanoo fazadat-humeemanan wahum yastabshiroona
Conspiracy of Hypocrites Increases Only Impurity9:124 When a chapter is revealed, some of them say, "Whose acknowledgement has this increased?" For those who acknowledge, it increased their acknowledgment, and they rejoice.14
The language of this and following verses that repeatedly use the word "increase" and the key words, "chapter" and "acknowledgment" is prophetic since it depicts a conspiracy of hypocrites after the revelation of the Quran who attempted to add two verses to the end of this chapter. For the example of a chapter that has increased the faith of those who acknowledge and tested the hypocrites, see Chapter 74.
9:124 And when a chapter is sent down, some of them say: "Who has been increased in faith by this?" For those who believe, it has increased their faith, and they rejoice.
9:124 YET WHENEVER a surah [of this divine writ] is bestowed from on high, some of the deniers of the truth are prone to ask,164 "Which of you has this [message] strengthened in his faith?" Now as for those who have attained to faith, it does strengthen them in their faith, and they rejoice in the glad tiding [which God has given them].165
Lit., "there are among them such as say". The "saying" that follows is perhaps an oblique, sarcastic reference to 8:2, which speaks of the believers "whose faith is strengthened whenever His messages are conveyed unto them".
A reference to the promise of paradise expressed in verse 111 above.
The Hypocrites9:124 When a sura was revealed, some of them would say, "Did this sura strengthen the faith of anyone among you?" Indeed, it did strengthen the faith of those who believed, and they rejoice in any revelation.,
9:124 Whenever a Surah is revealed some of them (hypocrites) say, “Which one of you has increased in faith?” In fact, it has increased the believers in faith and they rejoice.
9:125 Waamma allatheena feequloobihim maradun fazadat-hum rijsan ilarijsihim wamatoo wahum kafiroona
9:125 As for those who have a disease in their hearts, it only increased foulness to their foulness, and they died as ingrates.
9:125 As for those who have a disease in their hearts, it only increased tainting to their taint, and they died as rejecters.
9:125 But as for those in whose hearts is disease, each new message but adds another [element of] disbelief to the disbelief which they already harbour,166 and they die while [still] refusing to acknowledge the truth.
Lit., "it but adds [another] loathsome evil to their loathsome evil" -i.e., makes them more stubborn in their denying the truth of God's messages because they are a priori determined to deny everything that is incompatible with their refusal to admit the existence of anything that is beyond the reach of human perception (al-ghayb - see surah 2, note 3).
9:125 As for those who harbored doubts in their hearts, it actually added unholiness to their unholiness, and they died as disbelievers.,
9:125 But those who have caused their hearts to ail by harboring doubts, it only adds another element of disbelief to disbelief, and they die refusing to accept the truth.
9:126 Awa la yarawna annahum yuftanoonafee kulli AAamin marratan aw marratayni thumma layatooboona wala hum yaththakkaroona
9:126 Do they not see they are tested every calendar year once or twice? Yet, they do not repent, nor do they take heed.
9:126 Do they not see they are tested every year once or twice? But then they do not repent, nor do they remember.
9:126 Are they, then, not aware that they are being tested year-in, year-out?167 And yet, they do not repent and do not bethink themselves [of God];
Lit., "every year once or twice" - a figure of speech denoting continuity (Manar XI, 83 f.). The "test" consists in the fact that man has been endowed with reason and, therefore, with the ability to choose between right and wrong.
9:126 Do they not see that they suffer from exacting trials every year once or twice? Yet, they consistently fail to repent, and fail to take heed?,
9:126 Do they not see that they are tested once or twice each year? Still they do not repent, nor pay heed. (Tested at your hands. 9:14).
9:127 Wa-itha ma onzilat sooratunnathara baAAduhum ila baAAdinhal yarakum min ahadin thumma insarafoo sarafaAllahu quloobahum bi-annahum qawmun la yafqahoona
9:127 When a chapter is revealed, they looked at one another: "Does anyone see you?", then they turn away. God turns away their hearts, for they are a people who do not comprehend.15
The numerical structure of the Quran leads us to accept this chapter having 127 verses, rather than 129, and it rejects the additional statements found in modern manuscripts, which are written here in italics. This major correction is imposed on us by the Quran's own testimony, by its authenticating system. The correction made by the numerical structure of the Quran is also supported by numerous historical events and reports. See, Chapter 74 and the Appendix On it Nineteen.
9:127 And when a chapter is sent down, they look at one another: "Does anyone see you?" Then they turn away. God turns away their hearts, for they are a people who do not understand.
9:127 and whenever a surah is bestowed from on high, they look at one another [and say, as it were], "Is there anyone who can see what is in your hearts?"168 -and then they turn away. God has turned their hearts away [from the truth] - for they are people who will not grasp it.169
Lit., "who sees you" -thus implying that God does not exist.
Cf. 8:55 .
A Historical Crime Unveiled: Tampering With the Word of God.9:127 Whenever a sura was revealed, some of them would look at each other as if to say: "Does anyone see you?" Then they left. Thus, GOD has diverted their hearts, for they are people who do not comprehend.11 ,
This is the only sura that is not prefixed with the Basmalah. This phenomenon has puzzled the students of the Quran for 14 centuries,and many theories were advanced to explain it. Now we realize that theconspicuous absence of the Basmalah serves three purposes:(1) It represents an advance divine proclamation that the idol worshiperswere destined to tamper with the Quran by adding 2 false verses (9:128).(2) It demonstrates one of the functions of God's mathematical code in theQuran, namely, to guard the Quran against any alteration. (3) It providesadditional miraculous features of the Quran's code. Due to their extraordinary importance, the details are given inAppendices24 and29.One immediate observation is that the number of occurrences of the word "God"at the end of Sura 9 is 1273 (19x67). If the two false verses 128 & 129are included, this phenomenon--and many more--will vanish.
9:127 When a Surah is revealed, the hypocrites look at each other mockingly as if saying, “Is anyone noticing you? Let us leave.” And then they turn away. God’s law turns their hearts away because they are a people who do not use their faculties of understanding.