بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
24:1 Sooratun anzalnaha wafaradnahawaanzalna feeha ayatin bayyinatinlaAAallakum tathakkaroona
24:1 A chapter which We have sent down and imposed, and We have sent down in it clear revelations that you may remember.
24:1 A chapter which We have sent down and imposed, and We have sent down in it clear revelations that you may remember.
24:1 A Surah [is this] which We have bestowed from on high, and which We have laid down in plain terms;1 and in it have We bestowed from on high messages which are clear [in themselves], so that you might keep [them] in mind.
I.e., "the injunctions whereof We have made self-evident by virtue of their wording: thus, according to Bukhari (Kitab at-Tafsir), Abd Allah ibn Abbas explains the expression faradnaha in this context (cf. Fath al-Bari VIII, 361). Tabari also on the authority of Ibn Abbas advances the same explanation. It would seem that the special stress on God's having laid down this surah "in plain terms'' is connected with the gravity of the injunctions spelt out in the sequence: in other words, it implies a solemn warning against any attempt at widening or re-defining those injunctions by means of deductions, inferences or any other considerations unconnected with the plain wording of the Qur'an.
24:1 A sura that we have sent down, and we have decreed as law. We have revealed in it clear revelations, that you may take heed.,
24:1 This is a Surah that We have sent down with a decree of law. Clear commandments have been given in it for you to bear in mind.1
This is the 24th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 64 verses. The Qur’an is the beacon of light that shines on the path of individuals and nations when they turn it on. This Surah gives us the Rules of Conduct in our society, explaining social behavior between men and women. As always it embraces several golden concepts. The Surah derives its name from the glorious title of the Qur’an. God calls the Book "An-Noor, the Light". The preamble of this Surah is unique since it immediately addresses some very important social issues.
The Conjecture of Shaan-e-Nuzool - 'Circumstances of Revelation': The ‘hadithized’ translations and explanations succumb to a horrible fabrication that names a Mother of believers, making up a long, malicious and wicked story, while the Qur’an does not mention any particular person as the subject of slander at all. Any events safe-guarded by this Divine revelation are meant to guide us in knowledge and wisdom and are, therefore, timeless in their import.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
24:2 Alzzaniyatu waalzzaneefaijlidoo kulla wahidin minhuma mi-atajaldatin wala ta/khuthkum bihima ra/fatunfee deeni Allahi in kuntum tu/minoona biAllahiwaalyawmi al-akhiri walyashhad AAathabahumata-ifatun mina almu/mineena
Adultery24:2 The adulteress and the adulterer, you shall lash each of them one hundred lashes, and do not let any pity take you over God's system if you acknowledge God and the Last Day. Let a group of the acknowledgers witness their punishment.1
Public shaming, though it has long been abandoned in Western world, is one of the tools we may use against crimes. The Quran gives high importance to the institution of marriage. Social and psychological problems experienced among millions of children because of the breakdown of marriage institution in otherwise prosperous Western countries justify the importance of marriage. Additionally, the harms of the promiscuous lifestyle to the health and well being of the society is another reason why the Quran takes marriage contract so seriously and issues a harsh penalty for its violation.
The verse emphasizes public shame rather than inflicting physical pain. The word JaLDa does not mean a stick, but something that will touch the skin, since the word jalda is a derivative of a word that is used for skin (JeLD).
Shaming is a social and psychological penalty. For such a penalty to be effective, researchers suggest the fulfillment of the following conditions: (1) The convict must be a member of a particular group; (2) The group must approve of the penalty; (3) The shaming penalty should be delivered to the group and group should ignore the convict for a period physically, emotionally, and economically; (4) The convict who is wished to be shamed must fear the group's decision to cut the relation; and (5) The convict must have a means to regain the trust of the group.
First we should be reminded that there is no stoning-to-death punishment for adultery in Islam. The punishment of stoning was introduced to the Islamic law long after prophet Muhammed through fabricated hadith. It is the followers of Sunni and Shiite sects that adopted the Jewish practice and fabricated the most ridiculous stories, such as the story of a hungry holy goat eating a verse about stoning, etc. The followers of hadith and sunna accept the Jewish practice and the related silly stories by claiming that "these verses are not clear about adultery; thus, hadith and sunna explain these verses." Knowing the excuse of those who associate other partners with God, the first two verses rebut the claim of the unappreciative people by asserting the clarity of its language.
The origin of stoning is found in the Old Testament. For instance:
"But if this thing be true, and the tokens of virginity be not found for the damsel: Then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father's house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die: because she hath wrought folly in Israel, to play the whore in her father's house: so shalt thou put evil away from among you." (Deuteronomy 22:20-21)
According to the Old Testament, a rapist should be forced to marry the girl he violated. This rule punishes the victim to share the rest of her life with the violent and shameless man who violated her (Deuteronomy 22:28-30 ). How can this and many other unjust laws be imposed by a Just God? (See 2:59; 2:79; 5:13; 5:41; 7:162; 9:31).
24:2 The adulteress and the adulterer, you shall lash each of them with one hundred lashes, and do not let any pity overtake you regarding the system of God if you believe in God and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers witness their punishment.
24:2 AS FOR the adulteress and the adulterer2 flog each of them with a hundred stripes, and let not compassion with them keep you from [carrying out] this law of God, if you [truly] believe in God and the Last Day; and let a group of the believers witness their chastisement.3
The term zina signifies voluntary sexual intercourse between a man and a woman not married to one another, irrespective of whether one or both of them are married to other persons or not: hence, it does not - in contrast with the usage prevalent in most Western languages - differentiate between the concepts of "adultery" (i.e., sexual intercourse of married man with a woman other than his wife, or of a married woman with a man other than her husband) and "fornication" (i.e., sexual intercourse between two unmarried persons). For the sake of simplicity I am rendering zina throughout as "adultery", and the person guilty of it as "adulterer" or "adulteress", respectively.
The number of those to be present has been deliberately left unspecified, thus indicating that while the punishment must be given publicity, it need not be made a "public spectacle".
Adultery24:2 The adulteress and the adulterer you shall whip each of them a hundred lashes. Do not be swayed by pity from carrying out GOD's law, if you truly believe in GOD and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness their penalty.,1
Social pressure, i.e., public witnessing of the penalty, is the basic punishment(see also5:38). The lashes shall be symbolic,not severe.
24:2 The habitual adulteress and the habitual adulterer, flog each one of them with a hundred stripes. And let not compassion sway you in their case from carrying out God’s law, if you believe in God and the Last Day. And let a group of believers witness the penalty.2
Az-Zani & Az-Zaniah = Those who are habitual adulterers, like As-Saariq means a habitual thief. Jaldah from skin implies that the lashes must be superficial on the skin. And the presence of a group of believers clearly indicates the punishment as a means of deterrence and not torture. Nowhere does the Qur’an ordain the barbaric punishment of stoning to death anyone for any crime. Lewdness: 4:15, 25. Punishment as a deterrent: 5:38. Capital punishment for rape: 33:60:61. Notice that the punishment would, in general, apply to adultery committed in public since it is almost always done in privacy with anyone seldom being a witness
24:3 Alzzanee la yankihuilla zaniyatan aw mushrikatan waalzzaniyatula yankihuha illa zanin awmushrikun wahurrima thalika AAalaalmu/mineena
24:3 The adulterer will only marry an adulteress or one who is an idolatress. The adulteress, she will only be married to an adulterer or an idolater. This has been forbidden for the acknowledgers.
24:3 The adulterer will only marry an adulteress or she who is a polytheist. And the adulteress, she will only be married to an adulterer or he who is a polytheist. And such has been made forbidden for the believers.
24:3 [Both are equally guilty:] the adulterer couples with none other than an adulteress - that is, a woman who accords [to her own lust] a place side by side with God;4 and with the adulteress couples none other than an adulterer - that is, a man who accords [to his own lust] a place side by side with God: and this is forbidden unto the believers.5
The term mushrik (fem. mushrikah), which normally signifies a person who associates in his or her mind all manner of imaginary deities or forces with God, or who believes that any created being has a share in His qualities or powers, is here evidently used in the widest metaphorical sense of this term, denoting one who accords to his or her desires a supremacy which is due to God alone, and thus blasphemes against the principles of ethics and morality enjoined by Him. The particle aw (lit., "or") which connects the word mushrikah with the preceding word zaniyah (''adulteress") has in this context - as well as in the next clause, where both these terms appear in their masculine form - an amplifying, explanatory value equivalent to the expression "in other words" or "that is", similar to the use of this particle in 23:6. For a further elucidation of the above passage, see next note.
Some of the commentators understand this passage in the sense of an injunction: "The adulterer shall not marry any but an adulteress or a mushrikah: and as for the adulteress, none shall marry her but an adulterer or a mushrik. This interpretation is objectionable on several counts: firstly, the Qur'an does not ever countenance the marriage of a believer, however great a sin he or she may have committed, with an unbeliever (in the most pejorative sense of this term); secondly, it is a fundamental principle of Islamic Law that once a crime has been expiated by the transgressor's undergoing the ordained legal punishment (in this case, a hundred stripes), it must be regarded, insofar as the society is concerned, as atoned for and done with; and, lastly, the construction of the above passage is clearly that of a statement of fact (Razi), and cannot be interpreted as an injunction. On the other hand, since adultery is an illicit sexual union, the verb yankihu, which appears twice in this passage, cannot have the customary, specific meaning of ''he marries'' but must, rather, be understood in its general sense - applicable to both lawful and unlawful sexual intercourse - namely, "he couples with". It is in this sense that the great commentator Abu Muslim (as quoted by Razi) explains the above verse, which stresses the fact that both partners are equally guilty inasmuch as they commit their sin consciously - implying that neither of them can cause himself or herself on the ground of having been merely "seduced".
24:3 The adulterer will end up marrying an adulteress or an idol worshiper, and the adulteress will end up marrying an adulterer or an idol worshiper. This is prohibited for the believers.,
24:3 The adulterer couples with none but an adulteress who worships her desires. And with the adulteress none couples but the adulterer who worships his desires. It is forbidden to the believers. (24:26, 45:23)3
Fornication and adultery are a form of idol worship for, such people submit to their desires. The word AW here is explanatory. AW = Or + That is + Namely + Call it + In other words. AW appears in this format instead of 'or' in many places in the Qur’an such as 23:6, 24:3, 25:62. Nikah, in the lexicon, applies to genuine wedlock as well as to sexual relations between a man and a woman outside wedlock, depending on the context. The very common rendering of this verse to the effect that an adulterer is allowed to marry only an adulteress or idolatress, and vice versa, is absolutely erroneous and contrary to the Big Picture of the Qur’an which lays great emphasis on reform and forgiveness. And it defies all sense. Whereas many translators have maintained that such men and women will end up marrying their like. This is obviously the result of not bearing in mind the meaning of AW and Nikah, and going against common sense. Finally, the Book of God does not downgrade people once they have repented or received penalty. Oh, yet another point! After painting an X-rated scenario of Madinah as if adultery/fornication was going on right and left and coming to public knowledge, in the very life-time of the exalted Prophet, the Imams of the old come up with a horrible joke. They insult Hazrat Ali that he decreed for an adulterer to receive a hundred stripes to fulfill the command in the Qur’an, and then stoned him to death to fulfill the command of Hadith! The so-called Imams also contend that while an unmarried person will receive lashes, a married or mature person must be condemned to death by stoning! Did they not prefer their own whims to the Word of God?
24:4 Waallatheena yarmoona almuhsanatithumma lam ya/too bi-arbaAAati shuhadaa faijlidoohumthamaneena jaldatan wala taqbaloo lahum shahadatanabadan waola-ika humu alfasiqoona
24:4 Those who accuse the independent women and they do not bring forth four witnesses, then you shall lash them eighty lashes and do not ever accept their testimony. Those indeed are the evildoers;2
24:4 And those who accuse the independent females, then they do not bring forth four witnesses, you shall lash them with eighty lashes, and do not accept their testimony ever; and those are the wicked.
24:4 And as for those who accuse chaste women [of adultery],6 and then are unable to produce four witnesses [in support of their accusation], flog them with eighty stripes7 and ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony - since it is they, they that are truly depraved!
The term rnuhsanat denotes literally ''women who are fortified [against unchastity]", i.e., by marriage and/or faith and self-respect, implying that, from a legal point of view, every woman must he considered chaste unless a conclusive proof to the contrary is produced. (The passage relates to women other than the accusers own wife, for in the latter case - as shown in verses 6-9 - the law of evidence and the consequences are different.
By obvious implication, this injunction applies also to cases where a woman accuses a man of illicit sexual intercourse, and is subsequently unable to prove her accusation legally. The severity of the punishment to be meted out in such cases, as well as the requirement of four witnesses - instead of the two that Islamic Law regards as sufficient in all other criminal and civil suits - is based on the imperative necessity of preventing slander and off-hand accusations. As laid down in several authentic sayings of the Prophet, the evidence of the four witnesses must be direct, and not merely circumstantial: in other words, it is not sufficient for them to have witnessed a situation which made it evident that sexual intercourse was taking or had taken place: they must have witnessed the sexual act as such, and must be able to prove this to the entire satisfaction of the judicial authority (Razi, summing up the views of the greatest exponents of Islamic Law). Since such a complete evidence is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to obtain, it is obvious that the purpose of the above Quranic injunction is to preclude, in practice, all third-party accusations relating to illicit sexual intercourse - for, "man has been created weak'' (4:28) - and to make a proof of adultery dependent on a voluntary, faith-inspired confession of the guilty parties themselves.
24:4 Those who accuse married women of adultery, then fail to produce four witnesses, you shall whip them eighty lashes, and do not accept any testimony from them; they are wicked.,
24:4 (Protecting the honor of a woman is extremely important.) Those who accuse chaste women and then fail to produce four witnesses (the court of law shall order to) carry out eighty lashes to such accusers. And never in the future accept their testimony. They have drifted away from morality.4
24:23. Faasiq = One who drifts away–from what? Will depend on the context
24:5 Illa allatheena taboomin baAAdi thalika waaslahoo fa-inna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
24:5 Except those who repent after this and do right, then God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
24:5 Except those who repent after this and do good, then God is Forgiving, Merciful.
24:5 excepting [from this interdict] only those who afterwards repent and made amends:8 for, behold, God is much forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
I.e., who publicly withdraw their accusation after having suffered the punishment of flogging - which, being a legal right of the wrongly accused person, cannot be obviated by mere repentance and admission of guilt. Thus, the above-mentioned exemption relates only to the interdict on giving testimony and not to the punishment by flogging.
24:5 If they repent afterwards and reform, then GOD is Forgiver, Merciful.,
24:5 Except those who afterward repent and reform. For God is Forgiving, Merciful.
24:6 Waallatheena yarmoona azwajahumwalam yakun lahum shuhadao illa anfusuhum fashahadatuahadihim arbaAAu shahadatin biAllahiinnahu lamina alssadiqeena
24:6 Those who accuse their wives, but they have no witnesses except for themselves, then the testimony of one of them should be four testimonies, swearing by God that he is being truthful.
24:6 And those who accuse their spouses, but they have no witnesses except for themselves, then the testimony of one of them is to be equivalent to that of four witnesses if it is sworn by God that he is being truthful.
24:6 And as for those who accuse their own wives [of adultery], but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of these [accusers] call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth,9
Lit., ''then the testimony of any of these shall be four testimonies [or "solemn affirmations''] before God".
24:6 As for those who accuse their own spouses, without any other witnesses, then the testimony may be accepted if he swears by GOD four times that he is telling the truth.,
24:6 As for those who accuse their wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, then let the accuser call God four times to witness that he is telling the truth.
24:7 Waalkhamisatu anna laAAnata AllahiAAalayhi in kana mina alkathibeena
24:7 The fifth shall be God's curse upon him if he is one of those lying.
24:7 And the fifth shall be the curse of God upon him if he is of the liars.
24:7 and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is telling a lie.
24:7 The fifth oath shall be to incur GOD's condemnation upon him, if he was lying.,
24:7 And the fifth time, that God may reject him if he is telling a lie.
24:8 Wayadrao AAanha alAAathaba antashhada arbaAAa shahadatin biAllahiinnahu lamina alkathibeena
24:8 The punishment will be averted from her if she testifies four times by God that he is of the liars.
24:8 And the punishment will be averted from her if she bears witness four times by God that he is of the liars.
24:8 But [as for the wife, all] chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie,
24:8 She shall be considered innocent if she swears by GOD four times that he is a liar.,
24:8 But punishment shall be averted from her if she calls God four times as Witness that he is telling a lie.
24:9 Waalkhamisata anna ghadabaAllahi AAalayha in kana mina alssadiqeena
24:9 The fifth shall be that God's curse is upon her if he is speaking the truth.
24:9 And the fifth shall be the curse of God upon her if heis speaking the truth.
24:9 and the fifth [time], that God's curse be upon her if he is telling the truth,10
Thus, the husband's accusation is to be regarded as proven if the wife refuses to take an oath to the contrary, and disproved if she solemnly sets her word against his. Inasmuch as this procedure, which is called li'an ("oath of condemnation"), leaves the question of guilt legally undecided, both parties are absolved of all the legal consequences otherwise attending upon adultery - resp. an unproven accusation of adultery - the only consequence being a mandatory divorce.
24:9 The fifth oath shall incur GOD's wrath upon her if he was telling the truth.,
24:9 And the fifth time, that God may reject her if he is telling the truth.5
The court shall then punish neither the husband nor the wife, and it infers that the same procedure applies if the wife accuses her husband. The couple in the presence of the court will decide for or against divorce. This procedure in FIQH is called as LA’AN
24:10 Walawla fadlu AllahiAAalaykum warahmatuhu waanna Allaha tawwabunhakeemun
24:10 All this is from God's favor upon you and His mercy. God is Forgiving, Wise.
24:10 All this is from the grace of God upon you and His mercy. And God is Forgiving, Wise.
24:10 AND WERE it not for God's favour upon you, [O man,] and His grace, and that God is a wise acceptor of repentance...!11
This sentence, which introduces the section dealing with the condemnation of all unfounded or unproven accusations of unchastity - as well as the similar sentence which closes it in verse 20 - is deliberately left incomplete, leaving it to man to imagine what would have happened to individual lives and to society if God had not ordained all the above-mentioned legal and moral safeguards against possibly false accusations, or if He had made a proof of adultery dependent on mere circumstantial evidence. This idea is further elaborated in verses 14-15.
24:10 This is GOD's grace and mercy towards you. GOD is Redeemer, Most Wise.,
24:10 Were it not for God’s favor upon you and His grace (your social fabric would have been undone). God is Clement, Wise.
24:11 Inna allatheena jaoo bial-ifkiAAusbatun minkum la tahsaboohu sharran lakumbal huwa khayrun lakum likulli imri-in minhum ma iktasabamina al-ithmi waallathee tawalla kibrahuminhum lahu AAathabun AAatheemun
24:11 Those who have brought forth the false accusation were a group from within you. Do not think it is bad for you, for it is good for you. Every person amongst them will have what he deserves of the sin. As for he who had the greatest portion of it, he will have a great retribution.3
By not mentioning the person's name in this historical event, the Quran wants to keep its universal application clear. See 111:1
24:11 Those who have brought forth the false accusation were a group from among you. Do not think it is bad for you, for it is good for you. Every person among them will have what he deserves of the sin. And as for he who had the greatest portion of it, he will have a great retribution.
24:11 Verily, numerous among you are those who would falsely accuse others of unchastity:12 [but, O you who are thus wronged,] deem it not a bad thing for you: nay, it is good for you!13 [As for the slanderers,] unto every one of them [will be accounted] all that he has earned by [thus] sinning; and awesome suffering awaits any of them who takes it upon himself to enhance this [sin]!14
Lit., "those who brought forth the lie (al-ifk, here denoting a false accusation of unchastity) are a numerous group (usbah) among you". The term usbah signifies any group of people, of indeterminate number, banded together for a particular purpose (Taj al-'Arus). According to all the commentators, the passage comprising verses 11-20 relates to an incident, which occurred on the Prophet's return from the campaign against the tribe of Mustaliq in the year 5 H. The Prophet's wife A'ishah, who had accompanied him on that expedition, was inadvertently left behind when the Muslims struck camp before dawn. After having spent several hours alone, she was found by one of the Prophet's Companions, who led her to the next halting-place of the army. This incident gave rise to malicious insinuations of misconduct on the part of A'ishah; but these rumours were short-lived, and her innocence was established beyond all doubt. As is the case with all Quranic allusions to historical events, this one, too, is primarily meant to bring out an ethical proposition valid for all times and all social circumstances: and this is the reason why the grammatical construction of the above passage is such that the past-tense verbs occurring in verses 11-16 can be - and, I believe, should be - understood as denoting the present tense.
I.e., in the sight of God: for, the unhappiness caused by unjust persecution confers - as does every undeserved and patiently borne suffering - a spiritual merit on the person thus afflicted. Cf. the saying of the Prophet, quoted by Bukhari and Muslim: ''Whenever a believer is stricken with any hardship, or pain, or anxiety, or sorrow, or harm, or distress - even if it be a thorn that has hurt him - God redeems thereby some of his failings."
I.e., by stressing, in a legally and morally inadmissible manner, certain "circumstantial" details or aspects of the case in order to make the slanderous, unfounded allegation more believable.
How to Deal With Rumors and Unproven Accusations24:11 A gang among you produced a big lie. Do not think that it was bad for you; instead, it was good for you. Meanwhile, each one of them has earned his share of the guilt. As for the one who initiated the whole incident, he has incurred a terrible retribution.,2
This refers to a historical incident where the Prophet Muhammad's wife Aysha was left in the desert by mistake, andlater found by a young man who helped her catch up with the Prophet's caravan.This triggered the famous `Big Lie' against Aysha.
24:11 Surely, there are numerous among you who would slander others. Think not that this (law of eighty lashes and calling God to Witness) is harsh for you. Nay, it is good for you since every slanderer will have to account for what he earns through this dragging violation of human dignity. In the Divine System an awesome punishment awaits anyone who magnifies the slander (trying to make it believable).
24:12 Lawla ith samiAAtumoohu thannaalmu/minoona waalmu/minatu bi-anfusihim khayran waqaloohatha ifkun mubeenun
24:12 If only when you heard it the acknowledging men and women should have thought good of themselves and said: "This is an obvious lie!"
24:12 If only when you heard it the believing males and the believing females should have thought good of their own selves and said: "This is an obvious lie!"
24:12 Why do not the believing men and women, whenever such [a rumour] is heard,15 think the best of one another and say, This is an obvious falsehood"?
Lit., ''whenever you hear it" - the pronoun "you" indicating here the community as a whole.
24:12 When you heard it, the believing men and the believing women should have had better thoughts about themselves, and should have said, "This is obviously a big lie.",
24:12 Why do not the believing men and believing women, whenever such a rumor is heard, think the best of one another and say, “This is an obvious slander?"6
No judgment should be passed without evidence
24:13 Lawla jaoo AAalayhibi-arbaAAati shuhadaa fa-ith lam ya/too bialshshuhada-ifaola-ika AAinda Allahi humu alkathiboona
24:13 If only they had brought four witnesses to it. If they did not have the witnesses, then these with God are the liars.
24:13 If only they had brought four witnesses to it. If they did not have the witnesses, then these with God are the liars.
24:13 why do they not [demand of the accusers that they]16 their allegation?17 for, if they do not produce such witnesses, it is those [accusers] who, in the sight of God, are liars indeed!
This interpolation is necessary in view of the fact that the believers spoken of in the preceding verse are blamed, not for making the false accusation, but for not giving it the lie.
Lit., "in support thereof" (alayhi).
24:13 Only if they produced four witnesses (you may believe them). If they fail to produce the witnesses, then they are, according to GOD, liars.,
24:13 Why do they not (demand of the accusers that they) produce four witnesses? If they do not produce witnesses, they certainly are liars in the Sight of God.
24:14 Walawla fadlu AllahiAAalaykum warahmatuhu fee alddunya waal-akhiratilamassakum fee ma afadtum feehi AAathabunAAatheemun
24:14 Had it not been for God's favor upon you and His mercy upon you in this world and the Hereafter, a great retribution would have touched you for what you have spoken.
24:14 And had it not been for the grace of God upon you, and His mercy in this world and the Hereafter, a great retribution would have touched you for what you have spoken.
24:14 And were it not for God's favour upon you, [O men,] and His grace in this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you18 in result of all [the calumny] in which you indulge
Sc., "yourselves and your whole society". With this and the next verse the discourse returns to, and elaborates, the idea touched upon in verse 10 and explained in the corresponding note 11.
24:14 If it were not for GOD's grace towards you, and His mercy in this world and in the Hereafter, you would have suffered a great retribution because of this incident.,
24:14 And were it not for the favor and grace of God upon you, in this world and in the Hereafter, an awful suffering would have afflicted you for the slanders you fall for.
24:15 Ith talaqqawnahu bi-alsinatikumwataqooloona bi-afwahikum ma laysa lakum bihiAAilmun watahsaboonahu hayyinan wahuwa AAinda AllahiAAatheemun
24:15 For you have cast it with your tongues, and you say with your mouths what you have no knowledge of, and you think it is a minor issue, while with God it was great.4
We are instructed not to disseminate rumors or hearsay statements about a person without proof or strong evidence. This warning is about any person. But, what about not any person, but the prophet? What about collecting rumors and hearsay statements about a prophet long after he passed away? What about not only believing those rumors and hearsay statements, but also sanctifying them as a part of the religion for future generations? What about going even further by preferring them to a book believed to be the verbatim word of God? And what about even going further, and declaring those who reject them to be apostates, deserving to be killed? It is these "holy" rumors and hearsay statements that have condemned Muslim societies to ignorance, oppression, and backwardness. Those who consider hadith and sunna, which would not be admitted in any court of law, as an important source of their system, have no respect to God and his messengers; since they follow conjecture and contradictory hearsay reports (6:116). See 6:148; 10:36; 53:28.
24:15 For you have cast it with your tongues, and you say with your mouths what you have no knowledge of, and you think it is a minor issue, while with God it was great.
24:15 when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of God it is an awful thing!
24:15 You fabricated it with your own tongues, and the rest of you repeated it with your mouths without proof. You thought it was simple, when it was, according to GOD, gross.,
24:15 When you welcome (slander) on your tongues and utter with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, you deem it as a light matter. But it is most serious in the Sight of God.
24:16 Walawla ith samiAAtumoohuqultum ma yakoonu lana an natakallama bihathasubhanaka hatha buhtanun AAatheemun
24:16 When you heard it you should have said: "It was not right for us to speak of this. Glory to You, this is a great lie."
24:16 And when you heard it you should have said: "It was not right for us to speak of this. Glory be to You, this is a great lie."
24:16 And [once again]: Why do you not say, whenever you hear such [a rumour], It does not behove us to speak of this, O Thou who art limitless in Thy glory: this is an awesome calumny"?19
The interjection subhanaka ("O Thou who art limitless in Thy glory") stresses here the believers moral duty to bethink himself of God whenever he is tempted to listen to, or to repeat, a calumny (since every such rumour must be considered a calumny unless its truth is legally proved).
What to Do24:16 When you heard it, you should have said, "We will not repeat this. Glory be to You. This is a gross falsehood.",
24:16 (And once again), why do you not say, whenever you hear such a rumor, "It is not befitting for us to talk about it. Glory to You (Our Lord), this is a monstrous calumny."
24:17 YaAAithukumu Allahu antaAAoodoo limithlihi abadan in kuntum mu/mineena
24:17 God warns you not to repeat something similar to this ever, if you are acknowledgers.
24:17 God warns you not to repeat something similar to this ever, if you are believers.
24:17 God admonishes you [hereby] lest you ever revert to the like of this [sin], if you are [truly] believers;
24:17 GOD admonishes you that you shall never do it again, if you are believers.,
24:17 God admonishes you that you do not repeat the like thereof ever, if you are indeed believers.
24:18 Wayubayyinu Allahu lakumu al-ayatiwaAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
24:18 God clarifies for you the revelations; and God is Knower, Wise.
24:18 And God clarifies for you the revelations; and God is Knower, Wise.
24:18 for God makes [His] messages clear unto you - and God is all-knowing, Wise!
24:18 GOD thus explains the revelations for you. GOD is Omniscient, Wise.,
24:18 And God clearly explains His verses for you. God is the Knower, the Wise.
24:19 Inna allatheena yuhibboona antasheeAAa alfahishatu fee allatheena amanoolahum AAathabun aleemun fee alddunya waal-akhiratiwaAllahu yaAAlamu waantum la taAAlamoona
Beware of Sexual Promiscuity24:19 As for those who enjoy that immorality spreads amongst those who have acknowledged, they will have a painful retribution in the world and the Hereafter. God knows while you do not know.
24:19 As for those who enjoy that immorality spreads among those who have believed, they will have a painful retribution in the world and the Hereafter. And God knows while you do not know.
24:19 Verily, as for those who like [to hear] foul slander spread against [any of] those who have attained to faith20 grievous suffering awaits them in this world21 and in the life to come: for God knows [the full truth], whereas you know [it] not.22
The term fahishah signifies anything that is morally reprehensible or abominable: hence, "immoral conduct" in the widest sense of this expression. In the above context it refers to unfounded or unproven allegations of immoral conduct, in other words, "foul slander".
I.e., the legal punishment as stipulated in verse 4 of his surah.
This Quranic warning against slander and, by obvious implication, against any attempt at seeking out other people's faults finds a clear echo in several well-authenticated sayings of the Prophet: "Beware of all guesswork [about one another], for, behold, all [such] guesswork is most deceptive (akdhab al-hadith); and do not spy upon one another and do not try to bare [other people's] failings'' (Muwatta; almost identical versions of this Tradition have been quoted by Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Da'ud): "Do not hurt those who have surrendered themselves to God (al-muslimin) and do not impute evil to them and do not try to uncover their nakedness [i.e., their faults]: for, behold, if anyone tries to uncover his brother's nakedness, God will uncover his own nakedness [on the Day of judgment]" (Tirmidhi); and, "Never does a believer draw a veil over the nakedness of the other believer without Gods drawing a veil over his own nakedness on Resurrection Day" (Bukhari). All these injunctions have received their seal, as it were, in the Quranic exhortation: "Avoid most guesswork [about one another] - for, behold, some of [such] guesswork is [in itself] a sin" (49:12).
24:19 Those who love to see immorality spread among the believers have incurred a painful retribution in this life and in the Hereafter. GOD knows, while you do not know.,
24:19 Surely, those who love to see immorality spread among the believers, shall be punished (by a court of law) in this world and in the life to come. For, God knows and you do not know.
24:20 Walawla fadlu AllahiAAalaykum warahmatuhu waanna Allaha raoofun raheemun
24:20 All this is from God's favor upon you and His mercy. God is Kind, Compassionate.
24:20 And all this is from the favor of God upon you and His mercy. And God is Compassionate, Merciful.
24:20 And were it not for God's favour upon you and His grace, and that God is compassionate, a dispenser of grace...!23
See verse 10 of this surah and the corresponding note 11.
24:20 GOD showers you with His grace and mercy. GOD is Most Kind towards the believers, Most Merciful.,
24:20 Were it not for God’s favor upon you and His grace (your social fabric would have been undone). God is Compassionate, Merciful.
24:21 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tattabiAAoo khutuwati alshshaytaniwaman yattabiAA khutuwati alshshaytanifa-innahu ya/muru bialfahsha-i waalmunkariwalawla fadlu Allahi AAalaykum warahmatuhuma zaka minkum min ahadin abadan walakinnaAllaha yuzakkee man yashao waAllahusameeAAun AAaleemun
24:21 O you who acknowledge, do not follow the footsteps of the devil. Whosoever follows the footsteps of the devil should know that he advocates immorality and evil. Had it not been for God's favor upon you and His mercy, not one of you would have ever been purified, but God purifies whom He wishes, and God is Hearer, Knower.
24:21 O you who believe, do not follow the footsteps of the devil. And whoever follows the footsteps of the devil should know that he advocates immorality and vice. And had it not been for the grace of God upon you and His mercy, not one of you would have ever been purified, but God purifies whom He wishes, and God is Hearer, Knower.
24:21 O You who have attained to faith! Follow not Satan's footsteps: for he who follows Satan's footsteps [will find that], behold, he enjoins but deeds of abomination and all that runs counter to reason.24 And were it not for God's favour upon you and His grace, not one of you would ever have remained pure. For [thus it is:] God who causes whomever He wills to grow in purity: for God is all-hearing, all-knowing.
In this context, the term al-munkar has apparently the same meaning as in 16:90 (explained in the corresponding note 109) since, as the sequence shows, it clearly relates to the unreasonable self-righteousness of so many people who "follow Satan's footsteps" by imputing moral failings to others and forgetting that it is only due to Gods grace that man, in his inborn weakness, can ever remain pure.
The Devil Encourages Baseless Accusations24:21 O you who believe, do not follow the steps of Satan. Anyone who follows the steps of Satan should know that he advocates evil and vice. If it were not for GOD's grace towards you, and His mercy, none of you would have been purified. But GOD purifies whomever He wills. GOD is Hearer, Knower.,
24:21 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Follow not the steps of satanic people in the community. Anyone who follows Satan’s footsteps should know that he advocates evil and vice. Had it not been for the favor of God, and His grace to you, none of you could have grown in goodness. Thus it is - but anyone can develop the ‘self’ (attain Self-actualization) by following God’s laws (given in the Qur’an). God is Hearer, Knower.7
And He is Most Perceptive of our psycho-social needs
24:22 Wala ya/tali oloo alfadliminkum waalssaAAati an yu/too olee alqurba waalmasakeenawaalmuhajireena fee sabeeli AllahiwalyaAAfoo walyasfahoo ala tuhibboonaan yaghfira Allahu lakum waAllahu ghafoorunraheemun
24:22 Let not those amongst you who have been blessed with abundance refuse to give to the relatives, the needy, and those who have immigrated in the cause of God. Let them pardon and forgive. Would you not like God to forgive you? God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
24:22 And let not those among you who have been blessed by abundance refuse to give to the relatives, and the needy, and those who have immigrated in the cause of God. Let them pardon and forgive. Would you not like God to forgive you? And God is Forgiving, Merciful.
24:22 Hence, [even if they have been wronged by slander,] let not those of you who have been graced with God's favour and ease of life ever become remiss in helping25 [the erring ones among] their near of kin, and the needy, and those who have forsaken the domain of evil for the sake of God,26 but let them pardon and forbear. [For,] do you not desire that God should forgive you your sins, seeing that God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace?27
Or: "Swear that [henceforth] they would not help [lit., "give to"] ", etc. Both these meanings - "he swore [that]" and "he became remiss [in]" - are attributable to the verb ala, which appears in the above sentence in the form ya tal. My rendering is based on the interpretation given to this verb by the great philologist Abu Ubayd al-Qasim al-Harawi (Cf. Lane I, 84).
For an explanation of this rendering of the designation al-muhajirun (or, in other places, alladhina hajaru), see surah 2 note 203.
It is generally assumed that this verse refers to Abu Bakr, who swore that he would never again help his poor relative, the muhajir Mistah (whom he used to support until then) after the latter had taken part in slandering Abu Bakr's daughter, A'ishah (see note 12 above). There is no doubt that this assumption of the commentators is well-founded; but there is also no doubt that the ethical purport of the above verse is timeless and, therefore, independent of the fact or facts with which it appears to be historically linked. (This view finds additional support in the use of the plural form throughout the above passage.) The call to "pardon and forbear" is fully consonant with the Quranic principle of countering evil with good (see 13:22 and the corresponding note 44).
24:22 Those among you who are blessed with resources and wealth shall be charitable towards their relatives, the poor, and those who have immigrated for the sake of GOD. They shall treat them with kindness and tolerance; do you not love to attain GOD's forgiveness? GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
24:22 So, (even if you have been slandered) let not those of you who have been graced with bounties and resources, ever miss out in helping their relatives, the needy, and those who have forsaken the domain of evil for the sake of God. But let them pardon and overlook the imperfections of others. Do you not desire that God should forgive you your faults and absolve your imperfections? Certainly, God is Forgiving, Merciful.8
24:23 Inna allatheena yarmoona almuhsanatialghafilati almu/minati luAAinoo fee alddunyawaal-akhirati walahum AAathabun AAatheemun
24:23 Those who accuse the independent, innocent, acknowledging women, they will be cursed in this world and the Hereafter, and they will have a painful retribution.
24:23 Surely, those who accuse the independent innocent believing females, they will be cursed in this world and the Hereafter, and they will have a painful retribution.
24:23 [But,] verily, those who [falsely, and without repentance,]28 accuse chaste women who may have been unthinkingly careless but have remained true to their faith,29 shall be rejected [from God's grace] in this world as well as in the life to come: and awesome suffering awaits them
According to Razi, the absence of repentance is incontrovertibly implied in the condemnation expressed in the sequence. since the Qur'an makes it clear in many places that God always accepts a sinner's sincere repentance.
Lit., "chaste, unmindful [or "careless"] believing women", i.e., virtuous women who thoughtlessly expose themselves to situations on which a slanderous construction may be put.
Gross Sin24:23 Surely, those who falsely accuse married women who are pious believers have incurred condemnation in this life and in the Hereafter; they have incurred a horrendous retribution.,
24:23 Certainly, those who accuse chaste, inattentive believing women, shall be deprived of God’s grace in this world and in the Hereafter. An awesome suffering awaits them.9
Ghaafilaat = Women who are unknowingly indiscreet about evil = Simple, innocent women = Women who are unaware = Women who are not attentive in a given circumstance. For eighty lashes for the accusers, see 24:4
24:24 Yawma tashhadu AAalayhim alsinatuhumwaaydeehim waarjuluhum bima kanoo yaAAmaloona
24:24 On the day when their tongues, and their hands, and their feet will bear witness against them for what they used to do.
24:24 On the Day when their tongues, and their hands, and their feet will bear witness against them for what they used to do.
24:24 on the Day when their own tongues and hands and feet will bear witness against them by [recalling] all that they did!
24:24 The day will come when their own tongues, hands, and feet will bear witness to everything they had done.,
24:24 The Day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will testify against them about all that they did.10
And a time will come when methods of investigation will become far advanced
24:25 Yawma-ithin yuwaffeehimu Allahudeenahumu alhaqqa wayaAAlamoona anna Allaha huwa alhaqqualmubeenu
24:25 On that day, God will pay them what they are owed in full, and they will know that God is the Truth Manifested.
24:25 On that Day, God will pay them what they are owed in full, and they will know that God is the Truth Manifested.
24:25 On that day God will pay them in full their just due, and they will come to know that God alone is the Ultimate Truth, manifest, and manifesting [the true nature of all that has ever been done].30
Regarding the double meaning ("manifest'' and "manifesting") inherent in the adjective mubin, see note 2 on 12:1; for my rendering of God's attribute al-haqq as "the Ultimate Truth", see note 99 on 20:114. In this particular instance, the active form of mubin ("manifesting") apparently relates to Gods revelation, on Judgment Day, of the true nature of man's actions and, thus, of the enormity of the sin to which this passage refers.
24:25 On that day, GOD will requite them fully for their works, and they will find out that GOD is the Truth.,
24:25 On that Day God will pay them their just due, and they will come to know that God! He is the Manifest truth.
24:26 Alkhabeethatu lilkhabeetheena waalkhabeethoonalilkhabeethati waalttayyibatu lilttayyibeenawaalttayyiboona lilttayyibatiola-ika mubarraoona mimma yaqooloona lahummaghfiratun warizqun kareemun
24:26 The wicked women are for the wicked men, and the wicked men are for the wicked women. The good women are for the good men, and the good men are for the good women. These people are innocent from what statements have been made, and for them is forgiveness and a generous provision.
24:26 The wicked females are for the wicked males, and the wicked males are for the wicked females. And the good females are for the good males, and the good males are for the good females; these are innocent from what statements have been made, and for them is forgiveness and a generous provision.
24:26 [In the nature of things,] corrupt women are for corrupt men, and corrupt men, for corrupt women - just as good women are for good men, and good men, for good women. [Since God is aware that] these are innocent of all that evil tongues may impute to them,31 forgiveness of sins shall be theirs, and a most excellent sustenance!32
Lit., "innocent of all that they [i.e., the slanderers] may say''.
24:26 The bad women for the bad men, and the bad men for the bad women, and the good women for the good men, and the good men for the good women. The latter are innocent of such accusations. They have attained forgiveness and a generous reward.,
24:26 Evil women keep company with evil men, and evil men keep company with evil women. Likewise, men and women of good character are companions to one another (9:71, 112). The latter are innocent of whatever people might say about them. For them is protection and honorable provision.11
Maghfirah = Forgiveness = Protection = Guarding against detriment
24:27 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tadkhuloo buyootan ghayra buyootikum hattatasta/nisoo watusallimoo AAala ahliha thalikumkhayrun lakum laAAallakum tathakkaroona
Respect Privacy Rights24:27 O you who acknowledge, do not enter any homes except your own unless you are invited and you greet the people in them. This is best for you, perhaps you will remember.
24:27 O you who believe, do not enter any homes except your own unless you perceive a welcome and you greet the people in them. This is best for you, perhaps you will remember.
24:27 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not enter houses other than your own unless you have obtained permission and greeted their inmates. This is [enjoined upon you] for your own good, so that you might bear [your mutual rights] in mind.33
This categorical prohibition connects with the preceding passages inasmuch as it serves as an additional protection of individuals against possible slander. In its wider purport, it postulates the inviolability of each person's home and private life, (For the socio-political implications of this principle, see State and government in Islam, pp. 84 ff.)
Divine Etiquette24:27 O you who believe, do not enter homes other than yours without permission from their inhabitants, and without greeting them. This is better for you, that you may take heed.,
24:27 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not enter the houses other than your own until you have obtained permission and greeted their people with peace. That is best for you if you would bear it in mind.
24:28 Fa-in lam tajidoo feeha ahadanfala tadkhulooha hatta yu/thanalakum wa-in qeela lakumu irjiAAoo fairjiAAoo huwa azkalakum waAllahu bima taAAmaloona AAaleemun
24:28 But, if you do not find anyone in them then do not enter until you are given permission. If you are told to go back, then return for it is purer for you. God is aware of what you do.
24:28 But, if you do not find anyone in them then do not enter until you are given permission. And if you are told: "Go back," then go back for it is better for you. And God is aware of what you do.
24:28 Hence, [even] if you find no one within [the house], do not enter it until you are given leave;34 and if you are told, Turn back," then turn back. This will be most conducive to your purity; and God has full knowledge of all that you do.
I.e., by the rightful owner or caretaker.
24:28 If you find no one in them, do not enter them until you obtain permission. If you are told, "Go back," you must go back. This is purer for you. GOD is fully aware of everything you do.,
24:28 And if you find no one in the home, do not enter it until permission has been given to you. And if you are asked to go back, then, go back. This will be most befitting for your own ‘self’. God is Knower of your actions (that strengthen or enfeeble the ‘self’).
24:29 Laysa AAalaykum junahun an tadkhuloobuyootan ghayra maskoonatin feeha mataAAun lakum waAllahuyaAAlamu ma tubdoona wama taktumoona
24:29 There is no sin upon you that you enter homes which are abandoned if in them there are belongings of yours. God knows what you reveal and what you conceal.
24:29 There is no sin upon you that you enter homes which are abandoned if in them there are belongings of yours. And God knows what you reveal and what you hold back.
24:29 [On the other hand,] you will incur no sin if you [freely] enter houses not intended for living in but serving a purpose useful to you:35 but [always remember that] God knows all that you do openly, and all that you would conceal.
Lit., "uninhabited houses wherein there are things of use (mata) for you". In the consensus of all the authorities, including the Companions of The Prophet, this relates to buildings or premises of a more or less public nature, like inns, shops, administrative Offices, public baths, etc., as well as to ancient ruins.
24:29 You commit no error by entering uninhabited homes wherein there is something that belongs to you. GOD knows everything you reveal, and everything you conceal.,
24:29 There is no blame on you if you enter vacant houses in which some of your property is placed. God knows what you do in public and in private.
24:30 Qul lilmu/mineena yaghuddoo min absarihumwayahfathoo furoojahum thalika azkalahum inna Allaha khabeerun bima yasnaAAoona
24:30 Tell the acknowledging men to lower their gaze and guard their private parts, for that is purer for them. God is fully aware of what you do.5
Righteous men and women should not dress provocatively. A woman should lower her dress (33:59) and cover her chest. God uses flexible language, to allow culture, time, climate, age, and social dynamics and other variables play a role in the decision. The underlying reason for this recommendation is expressed as protection of women from potential male harassment. There is nothing in the Quran that instructs the government or the society to force women, in the name of God, to cover themselves. A punishment neither in this world nor in hereafter is issued. While the male clerics and the followers of their misogynistic teachings are sunk up to their eyebrows in the mud of shirk, the only unforgivable sin, somehow they scrupulously split the hair of women. Does sanctifying the dress code of Christian nuns have anything to do with their psychological and sexual problems? The verses recommending women to cover themselves aim to protect them from the harassment of unrighteous men. Ironically, women are now harassed more by the self-righteous men.
It is up to women, not men, how long they will lower their dress, whether they will cover their breasts or not. It is a different thing to remind a monotheist woman nicely to wear modestly for her protection and perhaps for social order. But, using this issue to patronize and subjugate women is not what the Quran expects from us. Even worse than this, is to impose this recommendation onto those women who are not muslims, since that violates many more Quranic principles.
The male clerics who covered their intelligence by their obsessive interference with women's hair and dress, do not even notice the lesson in verse 7:26. Despite the verse informing us that women were walking in the street with their faces open in front of Muhammed (33:52), they still have the audacity to preach to women to cover their faces with veils. See 33:55.
24:30 Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and keep covered their private parts, for that is better for them. God is fully aware of what you do.
24:30 Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and to be mindful of their chastity:36 this will be most conducive to their purity [and,] verily, God is aware of all that they do.
Lit., "to restrain [something] of their gaze and to guard their private parts". The latter expression may be understood both in the literal sense of "covering of one's private parts" - i.e., modesty in dress - as well as in the metonymical sense of "restraining one's sexual urges", i.e., restricting them to what is lawful, namely, marital intercourse (cf. 23:5). The rendering adopted by me in this instance allows for both interpretations. The "lowering of ones gaze", too, relates both to physical and to emotional modesty (Razi).
Dress Code for Believers24:30 Tell the believing men that they shall subdue their eyes (and not stare at the women), and to maintain their chastity. This is purer for them. GOD is fully Cognizant of everything they do.3 ,
Dressing modestly, therefore, is a trait of the believing men and women. The minimum requirements for a woman's dressis to lengthen her garment ( 33:59) and to coverher chest. Tyrannical Arab traditions have given a false impression thata woman must be covered from head to toe; such is not a Quranic or Islamicdress.
24:30 Tell the believing men to lower their gaze, and guard their modesty. This helps them grow in character. Surely, God is Aware of what they do.
24:31 وقل للمؤمنت يغضضن من ابصرهن ويحفظن فروجهن ولا يبدين زينتهن الا ما ظهر منها وليضربن بخمرهن على جيوبهن ولا يبدين زينتهن الا لبعولتهن او ءابائهن او ءاباء بعولتهن او ابنائهن او ابناء بعولتهن او اخونهن او بنى اخونهن او بنى اخوتهن او نسائهن او ما ملكت ايمنهن او التبعين غير اولى الاربة من الرجال او الطفل الذين لم يظهروا على عورت النساء ولا يضربن بارجلهن ليعلم ما يخفين من زينتهن وتوبوا الى الله جميعا ايه المؤمنون لعلكم تفلحون
24:31 Waqul lilmu/minati yaghdudnamin absarihinna wayahfathnafuroojahunna wala yubdeena zeenatahunna illa mathahara minha walyadribnabikhumurihinna AAala juyoobihinna wala yubdeenazeenatahunna illa libuAAoolatihinna aw aba-ihinnaaw aba-i buAAoolatihinna aw abna-ihinna awabna-i buAAoolatihinna aw ikhwanihinna aw baneeikhwanihinna aw banee akhawatihinna aw nisa-ihinnaaw ma malakat aymanuhunna awi alttabiAAeenaghayri olee al-irbati mina alrrijali awi alttifliallatheena lam yathharoo AAala AAawratialnnisa-i wala yadribnabi-arjulihinna liyuAAlama ma yukhfeena min zeenatihinnawatooboo ila Allahi jameeAAan ayyuhaalmu/minoona laAAallakum tuflihoona
24:31 Tell the acknowledging women to lower their gaze and guard their private parts, and that they should not show off their attraction except what is apparent, and let them cast their clothes over their cleavage. Let them not show off their attraction except to their husbands, or their fathers, or fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or the sons of their brothers, or the sons of their sisters, or their children that come after them, or those who are still their dependants, or the male servants who are without need, or the child who has not yet understood the nakedness of women. Let them not strike with their feet in a manner that reveals what they are keeping hidden of their attraction. Repent to God, all of you acknowledgers, so that you may succeed.*
24:31 And tell the believing females to lower their gaze and keep covered their private parts, and that they should not reveal their beauty except what is apparent, and let them put forth their shawls over their cleavage. And let them not reveal their beauty except to their husbands, or their fathers, or fathers of their husbands, or their sons, or the sons of their husbands, or their brothers, or the sons of their brothers, or the sons of their sisters, or their women, or those maintained by their oaths, or the male servants who are without need, orthe child who has not yet understood the composition of women. And let them not strike with their feet in a manner that reveals what they are keeping hidden of their beauty. And repent to God, all of you believers, that you may succeed.
24:31 And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and to be mindful of their chastity, and not to display their charms [in public] beyond what may [decently] be apparent thereof;37 hence, let them draw their head-coverings over their bosoms.38 And let them not display [more of] their charms to any but their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands' fathers, or their sons, or their husbands' Sons, or their brothers, or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their womenfolk, or those whom they rightfully possess, or such male attendants as are beyond all sexual desire,39 or children that are as yet unaware of women's nakedness; and let them not swing their legs [in walking] so as to draw attention to their hidden charms40 And [always], O you believers - all of you - turn unto God in repentance, so that you might attain to a happy state!41
My interpolation of the word "decently" reflects the interpretation of the phrase illa ma zahara minha by several of the earliest Islamic scholars, and particularly by Al-Qiffal (quoted by Razi) as "that which a human being may openly show in accordance with prevailing custom (al-adah al-jariyah)". Although the traditional exponents of Islamic Law have for centuries been inclined to restrict the definition of "what may [decently] be apparent" to a woman's face, hands and feet - and sometimes even less than that - we may safely assume that the meaning off illa ma zahara minha is much wider, and that the deliberate vagueness of this phrase is meant to allow for all the time-bound changes that are necessary for man's moral and social growth. The pivotal clause in the above injunction is the demand, addressed in identical terms to men as well as to women, to "lower their gaze and be mindful of their chastity": and this determines the extent of what, at any given time, may legitimately - i.e., in consonance with the Quranic principles of social morality - be considered "decent" or "indecent" in a person's outward appearance.
The noun khimar (of which khumur is the plural) denotes the head-covering customarily used by Arabian women before and after the advent of Islam. According to most of the classical commentators, it was worn in pre-Islamic times more or less as all ornament and was let down loosely over the wearer's back; and since, in accordance with the fashion prevalent at the time, the upper part of a woman's tunic had a wide opening in the front, her breasts cleavage were left bare. Hence, the injunction to cover the bosom by means of a khimar, (a term so familiar to the contemporaries of the Prophet) does not necessarily relate to the use of a khimar as such but is, rather, meant to make it clear that a woman's breasts are not included in the concept of "what may decently be apparent" of her body and should not, therefore, be displayed.
I.e., very old men. The preceding phrase "those whom they rightfully possess" (lit., ''whom their right hands possess'') denotes slaves; but see also note 78.
Lit., "so that those of their charms which they keep hidden may become known", The phrase yadribna bi-arjulihinna is idiomatically similar to the phrase daraba bi-yadayhi fi mishyatihi, "he swung his arms in walking" (quoted in this context in Taj al-'Arus), and alludes to a deliberately provocative gait.
The implication of this general call to repentance is that "since man has been created weak'' (4:28), no one is ever free of faults and temptations - so much so that even the Prophet used to say, ''Verily, I turn unto Him in repentance a hundred times every day" (Ibn Hanbal, Bukhari and Bayhaqi, all of then, on the authority of Abd Allah ibn Umar).
24:31 And tell the believing women to subdue their eyes, and maintain their chastity. They shall not reveal any parts of their bodies, except that which is necessary. They shall cover their chests, and shall not relax this code in the presence of other than their husbands, their fathers, the fathers of their husbands, their sons, the sons of their husbands, their brothers, the sons of their brothers, the sons of their sisters, other women, the male servants or employees whose sexual drive has been nullified, or the children who have not reached puberty. They shall not strike their feet when they walk in order to shake and reveal certain details of their bodies. All of you shall repent to GOD, O you believers, that you may succeed.,
24:31 And tell the believing women to lower their gaze, and guard their modesty. They should not show off their adornment beyond what may be decently and spontaneously apparent. Let them cover their chest area with their light covering. They should not let their attraction be apparent to any but their husbands or fathers or husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, or their women folk, or their close dependents, or such male attendants as are beyond all sexual desire, or children who have no carnal knowledge of women. And they should not strike their feet or swing their legs in walking so as to draw attention to their hidden beauty and ornament. O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Turn all of you together to God so that you may be successful (in establishing a benevolent society). [33:59]
24:32 Waankihoo al-ayamaminkum waalssaliheena min AAibadikumwa-ima-ikum in yakoonoo fuqaraa yughnihimu Allahumin fadlihi waAllahu wasiAAun AAaleemun
Help the Singles Marry24:32 Marry off those among you that are single/widow, and the reformed ones who are slaves among you and maids. If they are poor, then God will grant them from His grace. God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.6
The reference pronoun of the word "IBaDukum" is misunderstood, and contrary to the clear verses of the Quran, it is abused for the justification of slavery. The expression "your slaves" should be understood as "slaves among you" or "slaves from your group" not as "the slaves that you own." For instance, the expression "feed your poor" does not mean "poor that you own." Similarly, "your ingrates" means, "the ingrates among you." (54:43; also see: 72:4). It would be literally awkward to repeat the preposition "from" (min) twice. (For a discussion on slavery, see the endnote for verse 4:3)
24:32 And marry off those among you that are single, and the good from among your male and female servants. If they are poor, then God will grant them from His grace. And God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.
24:32 AND [you ought to] marry the single from among you42 as well as such of your male and female slaves as are fit [for marriage].43 If they [whom you intend to marry] are poor, [let this not deter you;] God will grant them sufficiency out of His bounty - for God is infinite [in His mercy], all-knowing.
I.e., from among the free members of the community, as is evident from the subsequent juxtaposition with slaves. (As most of the classical commentators point out, this is not an injunction but a recommendation to the community as a whole: hence my interpolation of the words, "you ought to".) The term ayyim - of which ayama is the plural - signifies a person of either sex who has no spouse, irrespective of whether he or she has never been married or is divorced or widowed. Thus, the above verse expresses the idea - reiterated in many authentic sayings of the Prophet - that, from both the ethical and the social points of view, the married state is infinitely preferable to celibacy.
The term as-salihin connotes here both moral and physical fitness for marriage: i.e., the attainment of bodily and mental maturity as well as mutual affection between the man and the woman concerned. As in 4:25, the above verse rules out all forms of concubinage and postulates marriage as the only basis of lawful sexual relations between a man and his female slave.
Encourage Marriage to Discourage Immorality24:32 You shall encourage those of you who are single to get married. They may marry the righteous among your male and female servants, if they are poor. GOD will enrich them from His grace. GOD is Bounteous, Knower.,
24:32 And marry the singles among you, (whether they are widowed, divorced or bachelors). They may marry the righteous among your male and female servants. If they are poor, God will enrich them with His bounty. God is of Infinite means, and He knows all things.
24:33 وليستعفف الذين لا يجدون نكاحا حتى يغنيهم الله من فضله والذين يبتغون الكتب مما ملكت ايمنكم فكاتبوهم ان علمتم فيهم خيرا وءاتوهم من مال الله الذى ءاتىكم ولا تكرهوا فتيتكم على البغاء ان اردن تحصنا لتبتغوا عرض الحيوة الدنيا ومن يكرههن فان الله من بعد اكرههن غفور رحيم
24:33 WalyastaAAfifi allatheena layajidoona nikahan hatta yughniyahumu Allahumin fadlihi waallatheena yabtaghoona alkitabamimma malakat aymanukum fakatiboohum inAAalimtum feehim khayran waatoohum min mali Allahiallathee atakum wala tukrihoo fatayatikumAAala albigha-i in aradna tahassunanlitabtaghoo AAarada alhayati alddunyawaman yukrihhunna fa-inna Allaha min baAAdi ikrahihinnaghafoorun raheemun
24:33 Let those who are not able to marry continue to be chaste until God enriches them of His Bounty. If those whom you have over them contractual rights seek the signature, then sign with them if you find that they are ready, and give them from the wealth of God which He has bestowed upon you. Do not force your daughters into marriage when they have desired independence, in order that you may make a gain in the goods of this worldly life. But if anyone has compelled them, then considering their compulsion, God is Forgiving, Compassionate.7
What about if they don't want to be chaste, then should they be forced? Of course not. For instance, "Don't force your children to eat meat, if they chose to be vegetarians" does not mean "Force your children to eat meat if they don't want to be vegetarians." The word FaTaYa has been usually mistranslated as slaves. For its meaning through its Quranic usages please see: 12:30; 12:36; 18:10; 18:60; 21:60; and 24:33.
24:33 And let those who are not able to marry continue to be chaste until God enriches them of His Bounty. And if those who are maintained by your oaths seek to consummate the marriage, then document it with them if you find that they are ready, and give them from the wealth of God which He has bestowed upon you. And do not force your young women to need if they have desired to be independent, in order that you may make a gain in the goods of this worldly life. And if anyone has compelled them, then for their compulsion, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
24:33 And as for those who are unable to marry,44 let them live in continence until God grants them sufficiency out of His bounty, And if any of those whom you rightfully possess45 desire [to obtain] a deed of freedom, write it out for them if you are aware of any good in them:46 and give them [their share of the wealth of God which He has given you.47 And do not, in order to gain48 some of the fleeting pleasures of this worldly life, coerce your [slave] maidens into whoredom if they happen to be desirous of marriage;49 and if anyone should coerce them, then, verily, after they have been compelled [to submit in their helplessness], God will be much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!
I.e., because of poverty or because they cannot find a suitable mate, or for any other personal reason.
Lit., "whom your right hands possess", i.e., male or female slaves.
The noun kitab is, in this context, an equivalent of kitabah or mukatabah (lit., "mutual agreement in writing"), a juridical term signifying a "deed of freedom" or "of manumission" executed on the basis of an agreement between a slave and his or her owner, to the effect that the slave undertakes to purchase his or her freedom for an equitable sum of money payable in installments before or after the manumission, or, alternatively, by rendering a clearly specified service or services to his or her owner. With this end in view, the slave is legally entitled to engage in any legitimate, gainful work or to obtain the necessary sum of money by any other lawful means (e.g., through a loan or a gift from a third person). In view of the imperative form of the verb katibuhum ("write it out for them"), the deed of manumission cannot be refused by the owner, the only pre-condition being an evidence - to be established, if necessary, by an unbiased arbiter or arbiters - of the slave's good character and ability to fulfill his or her contractual obligations. The stipulation that such a deed of manumission may not he refused, and the establishment of precise juridical directives to this end, clearly indicates that Islamic Law has from its very beginning aimed at an abolition of slavery as a social institution, and that its prohibition in modern times constitutes no more than a final implementation of that aim. (See also next note, as well as note 146 on 2:177.)
According to all the authorities, this relates (a) to a moral obligation on the part of the owner to promote the slave's efforts to obtain the necessary revenues by helping him or her to achieve an independent economic status and/or by remitting part of the agreed-upon compensation, and (b) to the obligation of the state treasury (bayt al-mal) to finance the freeing of slaves in accordance with the Quranic principle - enunciated in 9:60 - that the revenues obtained through the obligatory tax called zakah are to be utilized, among other purposes, "for the freeing of human beings from bondage" (fi r-riqab, an expression explained in surah 2 note 146). Hence, Zamakhshari holds that the above clause is addressed not merely to persons owning slaves but to the community as a whole - The expression "the wealth of God" contains an allusion to the principle that "God has bought of the believers their lives and their possessions, promising them paradise in return" (9:111) - implying that all of man's possessions are vested in God, and that man is entitled to no more than their usufruct.
Lit., "so that you might seek out" or "endeavour to attain to".
Lit., "if they desire protection against unchastity (tahassun)", i.e., through marriage (cf. the expression muhsanat as used in 4:24). Most of the classical commentators are of the opinion that the term fatayat ("maidens") denotes here "slave-girls": an assumption which is fully warranted by the context hence, the above verse reiterates the prohibition of concubinage by explicitly describing it as "whoredom" (bigha).
24:33 Those who cannot afford to get married shall maintain morality until GOD provides for them from His grace. Those among your servants who wish to be freed in order to marry, you shall grant them their wish, once you realize that they are honest. And give them from GOD's money that He has bestowed upon you. You shall not force your girls to commit prostitution, seeking the materials of this world, if they wish to be chaste. If anyone forces them, then GOD, seeing that they are forced, is Forgiver, Merciful.,
24:33 Let those who cannot find a match keep chaste until God grants them sufficiency out of His bounty. If any of the male and female servants desires a deed of emancipation, write it for them ensuring good for them by way of rehabilitation. Give them from God's wealth that He has bestowed upon you. You shall not hinder, for worldly gains, your maidservants from guarding their chastity through marriage. If anyone forces them, then to them, after their being compelled, God will be Forgiving, Merciful.12
24:34 Walaqad anzalna ilaykum ayatinmubayyinatin wamathalan mina allatheena khalaw minqablikum wamawAAithatan lilmuttaqeena
24:34 We have sent down to you clarifying revelations and an example of those who came before you and a lesson for the righteous.
24:34 And We have sent down to you clarifying revelations and an example of those who came before you and a lesson for the righteous.
24:34 AND, INDEED, from on high have We bestowed upon you messages clearly showing the truth, and [many] a lesson from [the stories of] those who have passed away before you, and [many] an admonition to the God-conscious.
24:34 We have revealed to you clarifying revelations, and examples from the past generations, and an enlightenment for the righteous.,
24:34 We have revealed to you messages clearly showing the truth, and many a lesson from the generations before you. Herein is an Advisory for those who wish to live upright.
24:35 الله نور السموت والارض مثل نوره كمشكوة فيها مصباح المصباح فى زجاجة الزجاجة كانها كوكب درى يوقد من شجرة مبركة زيتونة لا شرقية ولا غربية يكاد زيتها يضىء ولو لم تمسسه نار نور على نور يهدى الله لنوره من يشاء ويضرب الله الامثل للناس والله بكل شىء عليم
24:35 Allahu nooru alssamawatiwaal-ardi mathalu noorihi kamishkatin feehamisbahun almisbahu fee zujajatinalzzujajatu kaannaha kawkabun durriyyunyooqadu min shajaratin mubarakatin zaytoonatin lasharqiyyatin wala gharbiyyatin yakadu zaytuhayudee-o walaw lam tamsas-hu narun noorun AAalanoorin yahdee Allahu linoorihi man yashao wayadribuAllahu al-amthala lilnnasi waAllahubikulli shay-in AAaleemun
God's Message: a Universal Light24:35 God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a concave mirror within a lamp, the lamp is within a glass, the glass is like a radiant planet, which is lit from a blessed olive tree that is neither of the east nor of the west, its oil nearly radiates light even if not touched by fire. Light upon light. God guides to His light those whom He pleases. God sets forth parables for mankind; God is aware of all things.8
This example highlights some of the main characteristics of the Quran. God is the source of enlightenment (light). The Quran radiates God's message (lamp). Though it is protected with a mathematical code, it has a transparent language (glass), reflecting a small portion of divine knowledge (radiant planet). Its message is universal; not limited to any language, race, or geography (neither of the east nor of the west). Those with open eyes may get its message even without showing much effort (gives off light even if not touched by fire). It has meaning inside meaning, message inside message (light upon light). Receiving its message is a blessing and its teacher is God Himself (God guides whomever/whoever wish(es) to His light). The word nur (light), in the normative case, occurs 33 times and is never used in plural from in the Quran, while its antonym is always used in its plural form, zulumat (darknesses), in 23 occurrences, and never in singular form. This implies singularity of the source of truth, which is God, and diversity of the sources of falsehood, which could be Satan, polytheist clergymen, ignorance, peer pressure, wrong choices, acquired weaknesses and addictions, etc.
According to the Bible, God created the light first (Genesis 1:3 ). Light is also used as a metaphor for divine enlightenment or instruction (Psalms 119:105; Isaiah 8:20 ; Matthew 4:16 ; Matthew 5:16 ; John 5:35 ). God is described as "the Father of lights" (James 1:17 ). The Bible and its appendices use the light metaphor for many creatures too, such as John the Baptist (John 5:35 ), Jesus (Luke 2:32 ; John 1:7-9 ), his disciples, (Matthew 5:14 ), and angels/controllers (2 Corinthians 11:14 ).
24:35 God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His light is like a niche within which there is a lamp, the lamp is encased in a glass, the glass is like a radiant planet, which is lit from a blessed olive tree that is neither of the east nor of the west, its oil nearly gives off light even if not touched by fire. Light upon light, God guides to His light whom He pleases. And God sets forth examples for the people, and God is aware of all things.
24:35 God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The parable of His light is, as it were,50 that of a niche containing a lamp; the lamp is [enclosed] in glass, the glass [shining] like a radiant star:51 [a lamp] lit from a blessed tree - an olive-tree that is neither of the east nor of the west52 the oil whereof [is so bright that it] would well-nigh give light [of itself] even though fire had not touched it: light upon light!53 God guides unto His light him that wills [to be guided];54 and [to this end] God propounds parables unto men, since God [alone] has full knowledge of all things.55
The particle ka ("as if" or "as it were") prefixed to a noun is called kaf at-tashbih ("the letter kaf pointing to a resemblance [of one thing to another]" or "indicating a metaphor"). In the above context it alludes to the impossibility of defining God even by means of a metaphor or a parable - for, since "there is nothing like unto Him" (42:11, there is also "nothing that could he compared with Him" (112:4). Hence, the parable of "the light of God" is not meant to express His reality - which is inconceivable to any created being and, therefore, inexpressible in any human language - but only to allude to the illumination which He, who is the Ultimate Truth, bestows upon the mind and the feelings of all who are willing to be guided. Tabari, Baghawi and Ibn Kathir quote Ibn Abbas and lbn Mas'ud as saying in this context: "It is the parable of His light in the heart of a believer."
The "lamp'' is the revelation which God grants to His prophets and which is reflected in the believer's heart - the "niche" of the above parable (Ubayy ibn Kab, as quoted by Tabari) - after being received and consciously grasped by his reason ("the glass [shining brightly] like a radiant star"): for it is through reason alone that true faith can find its way into the heart of man.
It would seem that this is an allusion to the organic continuity of all divine revelation which, starting like a tree from one "root" or proposition - the statement of God's existence and uniqueness - grows steadily throughout man's spiritual history, branching out into a splendid variety of religious experience, thus endlessly widening the range of man's perception of the truth. The association of this concept with the olive-tree apparently arises from the fact that this particular kind of tree is characteristic of the lands in which most of the prophetic precursors of the Quranic message lived, namely, the lands to the east of the Mediterranean: but since all true revelation flows from the Infinite Being, it is "neither of the east nor of the west" - and especially so the revelation of the Qur'an, which, being addressed to all mankind, is universal in its goal as well.
The essence of the Quranic message is described elsewhere as "clear [in itself] and clearly showing the truth" (cf. note 2 on 12:1) and it is, I believe, this aspect of the Qur'an that the above sentence alludes to. Its message gives light because it proceeds from God; but it would well-nigh give light [of itself] even though fire had not touched it": i.e., even though one may be unaware that it has been "touched by the fire" of divine revelation, its inner consistency, truth and wisdom ought to be self-evident to anyone who approaches it in the light of his reason and without prejudice.
Although most of the commentators read the above phrase in the sense of "God guides unto His light whomever He wills", Zamakhshari gives it the sense adopted in my rendering (both being syntactically permissible).
I.e., because of their complexity, certain truths can be conveyed to man only by means of parables or allegories: see first and the last notes 5 and 8 on 3:7.
God24:35 GOD is the light of the heavens and the earth. The allegory of His light is that of a concave mirror behind a lamp that is placed inside a glass container. The glass container is like a bright, pearl-like star. The fuel thereof is supplied from a blessed oil-producing tree, that is neither eastern, nor western. Its oil is almost self-radiating; needs no fire to ignite it. Light upon light. GOD guides to His light whoever wills (to be guided). GOD thus cites the parables for the people. GOD is fully aware of all things.,
24:35 (This Advisory of) God is the Light of the heavens and earth. The example of His Light is that of the morning star in a splendid lamp placed in a niche made of pearls. This lamp is kindled from a blessed source, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, shining with boundless radiance. Its Light issues forth in all directions, untouched by foreign illumination. This Light glows by itself, beaming like a shiny candle, a cool chandelier. Light upon Light! God guides to His Light anyone who seeks guidance. This is one of the allegories God sets forth for men and women. God is Knower of all things and events.13
24:36 Fee buyootin athina Allahu anturfaAAa wayuthkara feeha ismuhu yusabbihulahu feeha bialghuduwwi waal-asali
24:36 In houses that God has allowed to be raised and His name is mentioned in them. He is glorified therein morning and evening.
24:36 In homes that God has permitted to be raised, and His name mentioned in them. He is glorified therein in the mornings and the evenings.
24:36 IN THE HOUSES [of worship] which God has allowed to be raised so that His name be remembered in them,56 there [are such as] extol His limitless glory at morn and evening
Lit., "and [ordained] that His name ", etc.: implying, as the sequence shows, that the spiritual purpose of those houses of worship is fulfilled only by some, and not all, of the people who are wont to congregate in them out of habit.
24:36 (God's guidance is found) in houses exalted by GOD, for His name is commemorated therein. Glorifying Him therein, day and night -,
24:36 This light-giving lamp (the Qur’an) glows in houses that God has caused to be exalted, that His Name is celebrated in them. In them, His glory is extolled in the mornings and in the evenings.14
The dwellers therein strive to raise His Name day and night
24:37 Rijalun la tulheehim tijaratunwala bayAAun AAan thikri Allahi wa-iqamialssalati wa-eeta-i alzzakatiyakhafoona yawman tataqallabu feehi alquloobu waal-absaru
24:37 People who are not distracted by trade or sale from the remembrance of God, holding the contact prayers, and contributing towards betterment. They fear a day when the hearts and sight will be overturned.
24:37 By men not distracted by trade or sale from the remembrance of God and holding the contact prayer, and contributing towards purification. They fear a Day when the hearts and sight will be overturned.
24:37 people whom neither [worldly] commerce nor striving after gain57 can divert from the remembrance of God, and from constancy in prayer, and from charity:58 [people] who are filled with fear [at the thought] of the Day On which all hearts and eyes will be convulsed,
lit., "bargaining" or "selling" or "buying and selling" (bay) - a metonym for anything that might bring worldly gain.
For this rendering of the term zakah, see surah 2 note 34.
Those Who Frequent the Masjid24:37 People who are not distracted by business or trade from commemorating GOD; they observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and they are conscious of the day when the minds and the eyes will be horrified.,
24:37 (These are not the communities of monks but) they are such that neither business matters nor sale can divert them from the remembrance of God. They keep striving to consolidate the Divine System and set up the Economic Order of Zakaat in the society. They have awesome consciousness of the Day when hearts and eyes will be horrified. [50:20]
24:38 Liyajziyahumu Allahu ahsana maAAamiloo wayazeedahum min fadlihi waAllahuyarzuqu man yashao bighayri hisabin
24:38 God will reward them for the best of what they did, and He will increase for them from His grace. For whom He pleases, God provides without price.
24:38 God will reward them for the best of what they did, and He will increase them from His grace. And God provides for whom He wishes without reckoning.
24:38 [and who only hope] that God may reward them in accordance with the best that they ever did, and give them, out of His bounty, more [than they deserve]: for, God grants sustenance unto whom He wills, beyond all reckoning.
24:38 GOD will certainly reward them for their good works, and will shower them with His grace. GOD provides for whomever He wills without limits.,
24:38 (They pray) that God may reward them for the best of what they did and increase for them His bounty. God provides sustenance beyond all reckoning according to His laws. [2:261]
24:39 Waallatheena kafaroo aAAmaluhumkasarabin biqeeAAatin yahsabuhu alththam-anumaan hatta itha jaahu lamyajidhu shay-an wawajada Allaha AAindahu fawaffahu hisabahuwaAllahu sareeAAu alhisabi
24:39 As for those who reject, their works are like a mirage in the desert. A thirsty person thinks it is water, until he reaches it, he finds it is nothing; he finds God there and He pays him his due, and God is swift in judgment.
24:39 As for those who reject, their works are like a mirage in the desert. A thirsty person thinks it is water, until he reaches it, he finds it is nothing; and he finds God there and He pays him his due, and God is swift in judgment.
24:39 But as for those who are bent on denying the truth, their [good] deeds are like a mirage in the desert, which the thirsty supposes to be water until, when he approaches it, he finds that it was nothing:59 instead, he finds [that] God [has always been present] with him, and [that] He will pay him his account in full - for God is swift in reckoning!
I.e., he is bound to realize on Judgment Day that all his supposedly "good" deeds have been rendered worthless by his deliberate refusal to listen to the voice of truth (Zamakhshari and Razi).
Chasing A Mirage24:39 As for those who disbelieve, their works are like a mirage in the desert. A thirsty person thinks that it is water. But when he reaches it, he finds that it is nothing, and he finds GOD there instead, to requite him fully for his works. GOD is the most efficient reckoner.,
24:39 As for those who reject the message, their deeds are like a mirage in the desert. The thirsty one supposes it to be water until he comes to it and finds nothing. However, he does meet God’s Law of Requital to pay him his due. God is Swift at taking account.
24:40 Aw kathulumatin fee bahrinlujjiyyin yaghshahu mawjun min fawqihi mawjun min fawqihisahabun thulumatun baAAduhafawqa baAAdin itha akhraja yadahu lam yakad yarahawaman lam yajAAali Allahu lahu nooran fama lahu minnoorin
24:40 Or like the darkness out in a deep ocean in the midst of violent waves, with waves upon waves and dark clouds. Darkness upon darkness, if he brings out his own hand, he could barely see it. For whomever God does not make a light, he will have no light.
24:40 Or like the darkness out in a deep ocean in the midst of violent waves, with waves upon waves and dark clouds. Darkness upon darkness, if he brings out his own hand, he could barely see it. And for whoever God does not make a light, he will have no light.
24:40 Or [else, their deeds are]60 like the depths of darkness upon an abysmal sea, made yet more dark by wave billowing over wave, with [black] clouds above it all: depths of darkness, layer upon layer,61 [so that] when one holds up his hand, he can hardly see it: for he to whom God gives no light, no light whatever has he!
I.e., their bad deeds, as contrasted with their good deeds, which in the preceding verse have been likened to a mirage.
Lit., "one above another".
Exile From God: Total Darkness24:40 Another allegory is that of being in total darkness in the midst of a violent ocean, with waves upon waves, in addition to thick fog. Darkness upon darkness - if he looked at his own hand, he could barely see it. Whomever GOD deprives of light, will have no light.,
24:40 Or like total darkness in the midst of a deep ocean, with waves upon waves and a thick cloud above - darkness upon darkness. When he holds out his hand, he can barely see it. For, whomever God deprives of light, will have no light.15
Light consists of several wavelengths. In deep waters, each wavelength can only penetrate to a certain depth. In this way, light loses its intensity per layer, darkness over darkness. There is recent scientific observation of a phenomenon called ‘internal waves’ which are created in different densities in the deep water where the layers of water have their own wave structure, waves upon waves. Captain Dr. Bernard Jarman, a renowned oceanographer, upon reading this verse, asked, “Oh, was this man Muhammad a sailor who had been through storms?” On learning that he only lived in a desert, Dr. Jarman embraced Islam in 1923
24:41 Alam tara anna Allaha yusabbihulahu man fee alssamawati waal-ardiwaalttayru saffatin kullun qadAAalima salatahu watasbeehahu waAllahuAAaleemun bima yafAAaloona
God24:41 Do you not see that everything in the heavens and the earth, even the birds in formation, glorifies God? Each knows its contact prayer and its glorification. God is fully aware of everything they do.
24:41 Do you not see that everything in the heavens and the earth glorifies God? Even the birds in formation, each knows its contact prayer and its glorification. And God is fully aware of everything they do.
24:41 ART THOU NOT aware that it is God whose limitless glory all [creatures] that are in the heavens and on earth extol, even the birds as they spread out their wings?62 Each [of them] knows indeed how to pray unto Him and to glorify Him; and God has full knowledge of all that they do:
Cf. 17:44 and the corresponding note 53.
24:41 Do you not realize that everyone in the heavens and the earth glorifies GOD, even the birds as they fly in a column? Each knows its prayer and its glorification. GOD is fully aware of everything they do.,
24:41 Do you not realize that God, He is the One Whom all beings in the heavens and earth glorify, and the birds, with their wings outspread, as they fly in columns. All of them know their Salaat and Tasbeeh (mission and strife). God is Aware of what they do to fulfill His Plan.16
All creatures know their Salaat, their inborn Divinely programmed instincts. So, they can automatically strive do their Tasbeeh in the best way. But humans are not programmed with such inborn instincts. Given free will, they must do their Salaat by following the revealed guidance and thus strive do Tasbeeh in the best way
24:42 Walillahi mulku alssamawatiwaal-ardi wa-ila Allahi almaseeru
24:42 To God is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and to God is the final destiny.
24:42 And to God is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and to God is the final destiny.
24:42 for, God's is the dominion over the heavens and the earth, and with God is all journeys' end.
24:42 To GOD belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and to GOD is the final destiny.,
24:42 Unto God belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and earth, and to God is the journey’s end.
24:43 Alam tara anna Allaha yuzjee sahabanthumma yu-allifu baynahu thumma yajAAaluhu rukaman fataraalwadqa yakhruju min khilalihi wayunazzilu mina alssama-imin jibalin feeha min baradin fayuseebu bihiman yashao wayasrifuhu AAan man yashao yakadusana barqihi yathhabu bial-absari
24:43 Do you not see that God drives the clouds, then He gathers them together, then He piles them upon each other, then you see the soft rain coming out of them? He sends down hail from the sky from the mountains to afflict whomever He wills, and He diverts it from whomever He wills; the brightness of the snow almost blinds the eyes.
24:43 Do you not see that God drives the clouds, then He joins them together, then He makes them into a stack; so you see the soft rain coming out of them? And He sends down hail from the sky from mountains, so He strikes with it whoever He wills, and He diverts it from whoever He wills; the vivid flash of its lightning almost blinds the eyes.
24:43 Art thou not aware that it is God who causes the clouds to move onward, then joins them together, then piles them up in masses, until thou can see rain come forth from their midst? And He it is who sends down from the skies, by degrees, mountainous masses [of clouds] charged with hail, striking therewith whomever He wills and averting it from whomever He wills, [the while] the flash of His lightning well-nigh deprives [men of their] sight!
24:43 Do you not realize that GOD drives the clouds, then gathers them together, then piles them on each other, then you see the rain coming out of them? He sends down from the sky loads of snow to cover whomever He wills, while diverting it from whomever He wills. The brightness of the snow almost blinds the eyes.,
24:43 Have you not seen how God drives the clouds, then gathers them, then makes them layers, and then you see the rain coming forth from them? He sends down, from the heights, hail and loads of snow to cover some ground and leave some uncovered, according to His laws. The flashes of lightning and the brightness of the snow dazzle the sight, all but snatching it away. [2:19-20]
24:44 Yuqallibu Allahu allayla waalnnaharainna fee thalika laAAibratan li-olee al-absari
24:44 God rotates the night and the day. In that is a lesson for those who have insight.
24:44 God rotates the night and the day. In that is a lesson for those who have insight.
24:44 It is God who causes night and day to alternate: in this [too], behold, there is surely a lesson for all who have eyes to see!
24:44 GOD controls the night and day. This should be a lesson for those who possess eyes.,
24:44 It is God Who alternates the night and the day. Herein is a lesson for men and women of vision and understanding.17
Of darkness of ignorance and light of knowledge, of death and life, calculating time, rest and work, planning the life on the planet, and so on
24:45 WaAllahu khalaqa kulla dabbatinmin ma-in faminhum man yamshee AAala batnihiwaminhum man yamshee AAala rijlayni waminhum man yamsheeAAala arbaAAin yakhluqu Allahu ma yashaoinna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
24:45 God created every moving creature from water. So some of them move on their bellies, and some walk on two legs, and some walk on four. God creates whatever He wills. God is capable of all things.9
It is noteworthy that humans are included in the classification of living creatures according to physiological characteristics. This is in line with other verses that indicate an evolutionary method in creating Adam's biological body. Millions of years ago, the ability of a mammalian to walk on two feet is considered a critical point in the evolution of the human brain and the creation of homo sapiens. Walking on two feet might seem like a simple orthopedic change but its effect on the neuropsychological transformation is huge. See 29:18; 41:9; 7:69; 15:26; 32:7; 71:14.
24:45 And God created every moving creature from water. So some of them move on their bellies, and some walk on two legs, and some walk on four. God creates whatever He wills. God is capable of all things.
24:45 And it is God who has created all animals out of water;63 and [He has willed that] among them are such as crawl on their bellies, and such as walk on two legs, and such as walk on four. God creates what He will: for, verily, God has the power to will anything.
See note 39 on 21:30. The term dabbah denotes every corporeal being endowed with both life and spontaneous movement; hence, in its widest sense, it comprises the entire animal world, including man.
24:45 And GOD created every living creature from water. Some of them walk on their bellies, some walk on two legs, and some walk on four. GOD creates whatever He wills. GOD is Omnipotent.,
24:45 And God has created every living creature from water. (Life began in water (21:30). Some of them crawl on their bellies, some walk on two legs, and some walk on four. God creates all things with a purpose and according to His laws. And God has Supreme control over all things and events.
24:46 Laqad anzalna ayatinmubayyinatin waAllahu yahdee man yashaoila siratin mustaqeemin
24:46 We have sent down to you clarifying revelations, and God guides whoever He wills to a straight path.*
24:46 We have sent down to you clarifying revelations, and God guides whoever He wills to a straight path.
24:46 INDEED, from on high have We bestowed messages clearly showing the truth; but God guides onto a straight way [only] him that wills [to be guided].64
Or: "God guides whomever He wills onto a straight way". The rendering adopted by me in this instance seems preferable in view of the preceding, intensive stress on the evidence, forthcoming from all nature, of God's creative, planning activity and the appeal to "all who have eyes to see" to let themselves be guided by this overwhelming evidence.
24:46 We have sent down to you clarifying revelations, then GOD guides whoever wills (to be guided) in a straight path.,
24:46 Surely, We have sent down messages clearly showing the truth, but God guides onto a straight path one who wishes to be guided.
24:47 Wayaqooloona amanna biAllahiwabialrrasooli waataAAna thumma yatawallafareequn minhum min baAAdi thalika wama ola-ikabialmu/mineena
The Messenger as a Living Leader24:47 They say: "We acknowledge God and the messenger, and we obey," but a group of them turn away after that. These are not acknowledgers.
24:47 And they say: "We believe in God and in the messenger, and we obey," but a group of them turn away after that. These are not believers.
24:47 For, [many are] they [who] say, We believe in God and in the Apostle, and we pay heed!" - but then, some of them turn away after this [assertion]: and these are by no means [true] believers.
God Sends Instructions Through His Messenger24:47 They say, "We believe in GOD and in the messenger, and we obey," but then some of them slide back afterwards. These are not believers.,
24:47 They say, “We believe in God and the Messenger and we obey.” Then after that, a faction of them turns away. Such are not believers.
24:48 Wa-itha duAAoo ila Allahiwarasoolihi liyahkuma baynahum itha fareequn minhummuAAridoona
24:48 If they are invited to God and His messenger to judge between them, a party of them turn away.
24:48 And if they are invited to God and His messenger to judge between them, a party of them turn away.
24:48 And [so it is that] whenever they are summoned unto God and His Apostle in order that [the divine writ] might judge between them,65 lo! some of them turn away;
I.e., in order that the divine writ - which is implied in the preceding expression "God and His Apostle" - might determine their ethical values and, consequently, their social behaviour.
24:48 When they are invited to GOD and His messenger to judge among them, some of them get upset.,
24:48 And so it is that whenever they are called to God and His Messenger to judge between them, some of them turn away.
24:49 Wa-in yakun lahumu alhaqqu ya/tooilayhi muthAAineena
24:49 However, if the judgment is in their favor, they come to it willingly with submission/peace!
24:49 But, if the judgment is in their favor, they come to him readily!
24:49 but if the truth happens to be to their liking, they are quite willing to accept it!66
Lit., "if the truth happens to be with them, they come to it willingly": cf. 4:60 and the corresponding notes 80.
24:49 However, if the judgment is in their favor, they readily accept it!,
24:49 However, if the truth is on their side, they come to him in full submission.
24:50 Afee quloobihim maradun ami irtabooam yakhafoona an yaheefa Allahu AAalayhimwarasooluhu bal ola-ika humu alththalimoona
24:50 Is there a disease in their hearts, or are they doubtful? Or do they fear that God and His messenger would wrong them in the judgment? In fact, they are the wrong doers.
24:50 Is there a disease in their hearts, or are they doubtful? Or do they fear that God and His messenger would wrong them in the judgment? In fact, they are the wrong doers.
24:50 Is there disease in their hearts? Or have they begun to doubt [that this is a divine writ]? Or do they fear that God and His Apostle might deal unjustly with them?67 Nay, it is [but] they, they who are doing wrong [to themselves]!
I.e., by depriving them of what they choose to regard as "legitimate" liberties and enjoyments, or by supposedly preventing them from "keeping up with the times". As in verses 47 and 48 (as well as in verse 51 below) the expression "God and His Apostle" is here a synonym for the divine writ revealed to the Apostle.
24:50 Is there a disease in their hearts? Are they doubtful? Are they afraid that GOD and His messenger may treat them unfairly? In fact, it is they who are unjust.,
24:50 Is there disease in their hearts? Or do they bear any doubts? Or do they fear that God and His Messenger might deal unjustly with them? Nay, it is they themselves who are unjust (since they wish to obviate justice).
24:51 Innama kana qawla almu/mineenaitha duAAoo ila Allahi warasoolihi liyahkumabaynahum an yaqooloo samiAAna waataAAna waola-ikahumu almuflihoona
24:51 The utterance of those who acknowledge when they are invited to God and His messenger to judge in their affairs is to say: "We hear and obey." These are the winners.
24:51 The utterance of the believers when they are invited to God and His messenger to judge in their affairs is to say: "We hear and obey." These are the winners.
24:51 The only response of believers, whenever they are summoned unto God and His Apostle in order that [the divine writ] might judge between them, can be no other than,68 We have heard, and we pay heed!"- and it is they, they who shall attain to a happy state:
Lit., "The only saying of the believers is that they say" - i.e., without any mental reservation. The term qawl (lit., "saying") has here the sense of a genuine spiritual "response" in contrast to the mere lip-service alluded to in verse 47 above.
Believers Unhesitatingly ObeyGod and His Messenger24:51 The only utterance of the believers, whenever invited to GOD and His messenger to judge in their affairs, is to say, "We hear and we obey." These are the winners.,
24:51 Whenever invited to God and His Messenger to judge in their affairs, the true believers say, "We hear and we obey." They are the ones who will ultimately prosper.
24:52 Waman yutiAAi Allahawarasoolahu wayakhsha Allaha wayattaqhi faola-ikahumu alfa-izoona
24:52 Whosoever obeys God and His messenger, and reveres God and is aware of Him, then these are the winners.
24:52 And whoever obeys God and His messenger, and is concerned by God, and aware of Him, then these are the winners.
24:52 for, they who pay heed unto God and His Apostle, and stand in awe of God and are conscious of Him, it is they, they who shall triumph [in the end]!
24:52 Those who obey GOD and His messenger, and reverence GOD and observe Him, these are the triumphant ones.,
24:52 Whoever obeys God and His Messenger, and fears (violating the commands of) God, and thus empowers himself against evil, such are the triumphant.18
24:53 Waaqsamoo biAllahi jahda aymanihimla-in amartahum layakhrujunna qul la tuqsimoo taAAatunmaAAroofatun inna Allaha khabeerun bima taAAmaloona
24:53 They swear by God with their strongest oaths that if you would only command them they would mobilize. Say: "Do not swear, for obedience is an obligation. God is Ever-aware of what you do."
24:53 And they swear by God with their strongest oaths that if you would only command them they would mobilize. Say: "Do not swear, for obedience is an obligation. God is Expert over what you do."
24:53 Now [as for those half-hearted ones,] they do swear by God with their most solemn oaths that if thou [O Apostle] shouldst ever bid them to do so, they would most certainly go forth [and sacrifice themselves].69 Say: Swear not! Reasonable compliance [with God's message is all that is required of you].70 Verily, God is aware of all that you do!"
This is an allusion to the ephemeral, self-deceiving enthusiasms of the half-hearted and their supposed readiness for "self-sacrifice'' contrasting with their obvious reluctance to live up to the message of the Qur'an in their day-to-day concerns.
This elliptic phrase alludes to the principle - repeatedly stressed in the Qur'an - that God does not burden man with more than he can easily bear.
24:53 They swear by GOD, solemnly, that if you commanded them to mobilize, they would mobilize. Say, "Do not swear. Obedience is an obligation. GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.",
24:53 Whereas there are some who swear by God solemnly that, if you order them, they will go forth to any mission. Say, “Swear not! Obedience is virtuous. Surely, God is Aware of all you do."
24:54 Qul ateeAAoo Allaha waateeAAooalrrasoola fa-in tawallaw fa-innama AAalayhi mahummila waAAalaykum ma hummiltum wa-in tuteeAAoohutahtadoo wama AAala alrrasooli illaalbalaghu almubeena
24:54 Say: "Obey God, and obey the messenger." But if they turn away, then he is only responsible for his obligation, and you are responsible for your obligations. If you obey him, you will be guided. The messenger is only required to deliver clearly.
24:54 Say: "Obey God, and obey the messenger." But if they turn away, then he is only responsible for his obligation, and you are responsible for your obligations. And if you obey him, you will be guided. The messenger is only required to deliver clearly.
24:54 Say: Pay heed unto God, and pay heed unto the Apostle." And if you turn away [from the Apostle, know that] he will have to answer only for whatever he has been charged with, and you, for what you have been charged with; but if you pay heed unto him, you will be on the right way. Withal, the Apostle is not bound to do more than clearly deliver the message [entrusted to him].
24:54 Say, "Obey GOD, and obey the messenger." If they refuse, then he is responsible for his obligations, and you are responsible for your obligations. If you obey him, you will be guided. The sole duty of the messenger is to deliver (the message).,
24:54 Say, "Obey God and obey the Messenger - the Central Authority. But if you turn away, remember that he is only responsible for the duty placed on him, and you for the duty placed on you. If you obey him, you will be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is only to convey the message clearly."
24:55 وعد الله الذين ءامنوا منكم وعملوا الصلحت ليستخلفنهم فى الارض كما استخلف الذين من قبلهم وليمكنن لهم دينهم الذى ارتضى لهم وليبدلنهم من بعد خوفهم امنا يعبدوننى لا يشركون بى شيا ومن كفر بعد ذلك فاولئك هم الفسقون
24:55 WaAAada Allahu allatheena amanoominkum waAAamiloo alssalihatilayastakhlifannahum fee al-ardi kama istakhlafaallatheena min qablihim walayumakkinanna lahum deenahumuallathee irtada lahum walayubaddilannahum minbaAAdi khawfihim amnan yaAAbudoonanee la yushrikoona beeshay-an waman kafara baAAda thalika faola-ika humualfasiqoona
24:55 God promises those among you who acknowledge and promote reforms, that He will make them successors on earth, as He made successors of those before them, He will enable for them their system which He has approved for them, and He will substitute security for them in place of fear, that they serve Me and do not associate anything with Me. As for those who reject after that, they are the transgressors.
24:55 God promises those among you who believe and do good works, that He will make them successors on the earth, as He made successors of those before them, and He will enable for them their system which He has approved for them, and He will substitute security for them in place of fear: "That they serve Me, not setting up anything with Me." And as for those who reject after that, these are the wicked.
24:55 God has promised those of you who have attained to faith and do righteous deeds that, of a certainty, He will cause them to accede to power on earth,71 even as He caused [some of] those who lived before them to accede to it; and that, of a certainty, He will firmly establish for them the religion which He has been pleased to bestow on them;72 and that, of a certainty, He will cause their erstwhile state of fear to be replaced by a sense of security73 [seeing that] they worship Me [alone], not ascribing divine powers to aught beside Me.74 But all who, after [having understood] this, choose to deny the truth - it is they, they who are truly iniquitous!
Lit., "cause them to be successors on earth" - i.e., enable them to achieve, in their turn, power and security and, thus, the capability to satisfy their worldly needs, this Quranic reference to God's "promise" contains an oblique allusion to the God-willed natural law which invariably makes the rise and fall of nations dependent on their moral qualities.
Cf. 5: 3 "I have willed that self-surrender unto Me (al-islam) shall be your religion". Its firm establishment (tamkin) relates to the strengthening of the believers' faith as well as to the growth of its moral influence in the world.
Lit., "exchange for them, after their fear [or "danger"] security". It is to be noted that the term amn signifies not merely outward, physical security but also - and, indeed, originally - "freedom from fear" (Taj al-'Arus). Hence, the above clause implies not only a promise of communal security after an initial period of weakness and danger (which, as history tells us, overshadows the beginnings of every genuine religious movement), but also the promise of an individual sense of inner security - that absence of all fear of the Unknown, which characterizes a true believer. (See next note.)
I.e., the believer's freedom from fear is a direct outcome of his intellectual and emotional refusal to attribute to anyone or anything but God the power to shape his destiny.
God's Promise Kings and Queens on Earth24:55 GOD promises those among you who believe and lead a righteous life, that He will make them sovereigns on earth, as He did for those before them, and will establish for them the religion He has chosen for them, and will substitute peace and security for them in place of fear. All this because they worship Me alone; they never set up any idols beside Me. Those who disbelieve after this are the truly wicked.,
24:55 God has promised that those of you who will believe in the Divine laws and strengthen human resources, He will make them rulers on earth, as He granted rule to the previous nations. He will certainly establish for them the System of Life that He has approved for them, and will replace their fear with peace and security. All this because they obey Me alone. They ascribe no partner to Me. But all those who, after this, deny these laws will drift out (of the community of living nations).19
24:56 Waaqeemoo alssalata waatooalzzakata waateeAAoo alrrasoolalaAAallakum turhamoona
24:56 Hold the contact prayer and contribute towards betterment, and obey the messenger, that you may attain mercy.
24:56 And hold the contact prayer and contribute towards purification, and obey the messenger, that you may attain mercy.
24:56 Hence, [O believers,] be constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues,75 and pay heed unto the Apostle, so that you might be graced with God's mercy.
The specific mention of the "purifying dues" (az-zakah) in this context is meant to stress the element of unselfishness as an integral aspect of true faith. According to Zamakhshari, the above verse connects with, and concludes, verse 54.
Formula for Success24:56 You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and obey the messenger, that you may attain mercy.,
24:56 So, (O Believers) establish and consolidate the Divine System, set up the Economic Order of Zakaat, and obey the Messenger, so that you may flourish.20
La’allakum turhamoon = Literally, so that you may attain mercy = That you may flourish as the embryo flourishes in the mother’s womb. Rahm = Womb. Obey the Messenger = The eternal Messenger now is the Qur’an
24:57 La tahsabanna allatheenakafaroo muAAjizeena fee al-ardi wama/wahumu alnnaruwalabi/sa almaseeru
24:57 Do not think that those who reject will remain in the land. Their abode is Hell. What a miserable destiny!
24:57 Do not think that those who disbelieve will remain in the land. Their abode is Hell. What a miserable destiny!
24:57 [And] think not that those who are bent on denying the truth can elude [their final reckoning even if they remain unscathed] on earth:76 the fire is their goal [in the life to come] - and vile indeed is such a journey's end!
For an explanation of the above sentence and the words interpolated by me, see note 39 on a similar phrase in 11:20.
24:57 Do not think that those who disbelieve will ever get away with it. Their final abode is Hell; what a miserable destiny.,
24:57 And think not that the rejecters can escape on earth. Their ultimate abode will be Fire, and it is indeed a miserable end.
24:58 يايها الذين ءامنوا ليستذنكم الذين ملكت ايمنكم والذين لم يبلغوا الحلم منكم ثلث مرت من قبل صلوة الفجر وحين تضعون ثيابكم من الظهيرة ومن بعد صلوة العشاء ثلث عورت لكم ليس عليكم ولا عليهم جناح بعدهن طوفون عليكم بعضكم على بعض كذلك يبين الله لكم الءايت والله عليم حكيم
24:58 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooliyasta/thinkumu allatheena malakat aymanukumwaallatheena lam yablughoo alhuluma minkumthalatha marratin min qabli salatialfajri waheena tadaAAoona thiyabakum mina alththaheeratiwamin baAAdi salati alAAisha-i thalathuAAawratin lakum laysa AAalaykum wala AAalayhim junahunbaAAdahunna tawwafoona AAalaykum baAAdukumAAala baAAdin kathalika yubayyinu Allahulakumu al-ayati waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
Privacy; Dawn and Evening Prayers24:58 O you who acknowledge, let those whom are under your contract and have not yet attained puberty request your permission regarding three times: Before the dawn contact prayer, and when you take off your attire from the heat of the noon, and after the dusk contact prayer. These are three private times for you. Other than these times, it is not wrong for you or them to intermingle with one another. God thus clarifies the revelations for you. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.10
24:58 O you who believe, let those among you who are maintained by your oaths, and those who have not attained puberty, request your permission regarding three times: before the dawn contact prayer, and when you put off your garments from the noon time, and after the evening contact prayer. These are three private times for you. Other than these times, it is not wrong for you or them to intermingle with one another. God thus clarifies the revelations for you. And God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
24:58 O YOU who have attained to faith!77 At three times [of day], let [even] those whom you rightfully possess,78 as well as those from among you who have not yet attained to puberty,79 ask leave of you [before intruding upon your privacy]: before the prayer of daybreak, and whenever you lay aside your garments in the middle of the day, and after the prayer of nightfall:80 the three occasions on which your nakedness is likely to be bared.81 Beyond these [occasions], neither you nor they will incur any sin if they move [freely] about you, attending to [the needs of] one another. In this way God makes clear unto you His messages: for God is all-knowing, wise!
In pursuance of the Quranic principle that the social and individual - as well as the spiritual and material - aspects of human life form one indivisible whole and cannot, therefore, be dealt with independently of one another, the discourse returns to the consideration of some of the rules of healthy social behaviour enunciated in the earlier parts of this surah. The following passage takes up and elaborates the theme of the individual's right to privacy, already touched upon in verses 27-29 above.
Lit., "whom your right hands possess" - a phrase which, primarily and as a rule, denotes male and female slaves. Since, however, the institution of slavery is envisaged in the Qur'an as a mere historic phenomenon that must in time be abolished (cf. note 46 and 47 on verse 33 of this surah, as well as note 146 on 2:177), the above expression may also he understood as referring, in general, to one's close dependants and to domestic servants of either sex. Alternatively, the phrase ma malakat aymanukum may denote, in this context, "those whom you rightfully possess through wedlock", i.e., wives and husbands (cf. 4:24 and the corresponding note 26).
I.e., all children, irrespective of whether they are related to one or not.
The term zahirah (lit., "midday" or, occasionally, "heat of midday"), which occurs in the Qur'an only in this one instance, may have been used metonymically in the sense of "day-time" as contrasted with the time after the prayer of nightfall and before the prayer of daybreak: hence my tentative rendering as "middle of the day".
Lit., "three [periods] of nakedness (thalath awrat) for you". This phrase is to be understood both literally and figuratively. Primarily, the term awrah signifies those parts of a mature person's body which cannot in decency be exposed to any but one's wife or husband or, in case of illness, one's physician. In its tropical sense, it is also used to denote spiritual "nakedness", as well as situations and circumstances in which a person is entitled to absolute privacy. The number "three" used twice in this context is not, of course, enumerative or exclusive, but is obviously meant to stress the recurrent nature of the occasions on which even the most familiar members of the household, including husbands, wives and children, must respect that privacy.
Etiquette, Two Prayers Mentioned by Name24:58 O you who believe, permission must be requested by your servants and the children who have not attained puberty (before entering your rooms). This is to be done in three instances - before the Dawn Prayer, at noon when you change your clothes to rest, and after the Night Prayer. These are three private times for you. At other times, it is not wrong for you or them to mingle with one another. GOD thus clarifies the revelations for you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
24:58 (Your social mannerism begins at home.) O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Let your servants and children who have not yet come of age ask your permission before coming in to see you on three occasions: Before you engage in your assignments at dawn, at noon when you are resting with light clothes, and after you have completed your assignments at night. These are your three times of privacy. At other times it is not wrong for you or for them to move about freely, attending to one another. In this way, God makes clear to you the revelations. God is Knower, Wise.
24:59 Wa-itha balagha al-atfaluminkumu alhuluma falyasta/thinoo kama ista/thanaallatheena min qablihim kathalika yubayyinu Allahulakum ayatihi waAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
24:59 When the children among you reach puberty, then let permission be sought from them like it was sought from those before them. God thus clarifies His revelations for you. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
24:59 And when your children reach puberty, then let them seek your permission like it was sought by those before them. God thus clarifies His revelations for you. And God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
24:59 Yet when the children among you attain to puberty, let them ask leave of you [at all times], even as those [who have reached maturity] before them have been enjoined to ask it.82 In this way God makes clear unto you His messages: for God is all-knowing, wise!
Lit., "have asked it": a reference to the injunction laid down in verses 27-28 above. My interpolation, between brackets, of the phrase "who have reached maturity" is based on Zamakhshari's interpretation of the words "those before them".
24:59 Once the children reach puberty, they must ask permission (before entering) like those who became adults before them have asked permission (before entering). GOD thus clarifies His revelations for you. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
24:59 And when the children among you come of age, let them ask permission, like those who became adults before them asked permission. Thus God makes His revelations clear for you. God is Knower, Wise. [24:27, 24:58]
24:60 WaalqawaAAidu mina alnnisa-iallatee la yarjoona nikahan falaysaAAalayhinna junahun an yadaAAna thiyabahunnaghayra mutabarrijatin bizeenatin waan yastaAAfifna khayrunlahunna waAllahu sameeAAun AAaleemun
24:60 The women who are past child bearing and who do not seek to get married have no sin upon them if they put-off their garments, provided they do not display their attraction. If they remain as they were, then it is better for them. God is Hearer, Knower.
24:60 And the women who are past child bearing, who no longer seek to get married, have no sin upon them if they put-off their garments, provided they are not adorned for beauty. And if they remain as they were, then it is better for them. God is Hearer, Knower.
24:60 AND83 [know that] women advanced in years, who no longer feel any sexual desire,84 incur no sin if they discard their [outer] garments, provided they do not aim at a showy display of [their] charms. But [even so,] it is better for them to abstain [from this]: and God is all-hearing, all-knowing.
This conjunction is, I believe, meant to indicate that the verse which it introduces is connected with certain previously revealed passages, namely, verse 31 above and 33:59, both of which allude to the principle of modesty to he observed by Muslim women in the matter of dress: hence, it must be regarded as a separate "section".
Lit., "who do not desire [or "hope for"] sexual intercourse" - the latter evidently being the meaning of nikah in this context. Although this noun, as well as the verb from which it is derived, is almost always used in the Qur'an in the sense of "marriage" or "marrying", there are undoubtedly exceptions from this general rule: for instance, the manner in which the verbal form yankihu is used in verse 3 of this surah (see the corresponding note 5 above). These exceptions confirm the view held by some philologists of great renown e.g., al-jawhari or Al-Azhari (the latter quoted in the Lisan al-Arab), to the effect that "in the speech of the Arabs, the original meaning of nikah is sexual intercourse (al-wat)".
You Shall Dress Modestly24:60 The elderly women who do not expect to get married commit nothing wrong by relaxing their dress code, provided they do not reveal too much of their bodies. To maintain modesty is better for them. GOD is Hearer, Knower.,
24:60 And the elderly women who have no interest in getting married, there is no blame on them if they lay aside their outer garments in such a way as not to show adornment. To maintain modesty is best for them. God is Hearer, Knower. [24:31, 33:33]
24:61 ليس على الاعمى حرج ولا على الاعرج حرج ولا على المريض حرج ولا على انفسكم ان تاكلوا من بيوتكم او بيوت ءابائكم او بيوت امهتكم او بيوت اخونكم او بيوت اخوتكم او بيوت اعممكم او بيوت عمتكم او بيوت اخولكم او بيوت خلتكم او ما ملكتم مفاتحه او صديقكم ليس عليكم جناح ان تاكلوا جميعا او اشتاتا فاذا دخلتم بيوتا فسلموا على انفسكم تحية من عند الله مبركة طيبة كذلك يبين الله لكم الءايت لعلكم تعقلون
24:61 Laysa AAala al-aAAma harajunwala AAala al-aAAraji harajun walaAAala almareedi harajun wala AAalaanfusikum an ta/kuloo min buyootikum aw buyooti aba-ikumaw buyooti ommahatikum aw buyooti ikhwanikum awbuyooti akhawatikum aw buyooti aAAmamikum awbuyooti AAammatikum aw buyooti akhwalikum awbuyooti khalatikum aw ma malaktum mafatihahuaw sadeeqikum laysa AAalaykum junahun an ta/kuloojameeAAan aw ashtatan fa-itha dakhaltum buyootanfasallimoo AAala anfusikum tahiyyatan min AAindiAllahi mubarakatan tayyibatan kathalikayubayyinu Allahu lakumu al-ayati laAAallakumtaAAqiloona
Do not Discriminate against the Handicapped; Share Food With Extended Family24:61 There is no blame upon the blind, nor is there any blame upon the crippled, nor is there any blame upon the ill, nor is there any blame upon yourselves, if you eat at your homes, or the homes of your fathers, or the homes of your mothers, or the homes of your brothers, or the homes of your sisters, or the homes of your uncles, or the homes of your aunts, or the homes of your mothers' brothers, or the homes of your mothers' sisters, or those to which you possess their keys, or that of your friends. You commit nothing wrong by eating together or as individuals. When you enter any home, you shall greet each other a greeting from God that is blessed and good. God thus explains the revelations for you that you may reason.11
The Quran finds no problem in eating together but religious scholars who follow other sources besides the Quran, discourage intermingling of men and women. The Quran does not discriminate against handicapped people. The only criterion that makes a person above another person in the sight of God is righteousness (49:13). Compare this to the instruction inserted into the Old Testament at Leviticus 21:16-24 , which deems handicapped or disfigured people spiritually inferior to healthy ones. Also, see 48:17.
0024:063 This is a commonly mistranslated and abused verse. Muhammed was an elected leader of a multi-religious and multi-racial city-state, and the city was under constant military attack by neighboring polytheists. The verse is asking believers to take serious the invitation of the messenger to a public gathering for a consultation limited to the community of believers. However, those who idolize Muhammed take the verse out of its context and interpret it to mean we should mention Muhammed's name with ostentatious titles. See 33:56; 2:48.
24:61 There is no blame upon the blind, nor is there any blame upon the crippled, nor is there any blame upon the ill, nor is there any blame upon yourselves, if you eat at your homes, or the homes of your fathers, or the homes of your mothers, or the homes of your brothers, or the homes of your sisters, or the homes of your uncles, or the homes of your aunts, or the homes of your mothers brothers, or the homes of your mothers sisters, or that which you possess their keys, or that of your friends. You commit nothing wrong by eating together or as individuals. When you enter any home, you shall greet each other a greeting from God that is blessed and good. God thus explains the revelations for you that you may comprehend.
24:61 [ALL OF YOU, O believers, are brethren: hence.]85 no blame attaches to the blind, nor does blame attach to the lame, nor does blame attach to the sick [for accepting charity from the hale], and neither to yourselves for eating [whatever is offered to you by others, whether it be food obtained] from your [children's] houses,86 or your fathers' houses, or your mothers' houses, or your brothers' houses, or your sisters' houses, or your paternal uncles' houses, or your paternal aunts' houses, or your maternal uncles' houses, or your maternal aunts' houses, or [houses] the keys whereof are in your charge!87 or [the house] of any of your friends; nor will you incur any sin by eating in company or separately. But whenever you enter [any of these] houses, greet one another with a blessed, goodly greeting, as enjoined by God. In this way God makes clear unto you His messages, so that you might [learn to] use your reason.
The whole of verse 61 is construed in so highly elliptic a form that disagreements as to its purport have always been unavoidable. However, if all the explanations offered by the early commentators are taken into consideration, we find that their common denominator is the view that the innermost purport of this passage is a stress on the brotherhood of all believers, expressed in a call to mutual charity, compassion and good-fellowship and, hence, the avoidance of all unnecessary formalities in their mutual relations.
In the consensus of all the authorities, the expression "your houses" implies in this context also "your children's houses", since all that belongs to a person maybe said to belong, morally, to his parents as well.
I.e., "for which you are responsible".
Be Sure Your Meal is Lawful24:61 The blind is not to be blamed, the crippled is not to be blamed, nor is the handicapped to be blamed, just as you are not to be blamed for eating at your homes, or the homes of your fathers, or the homes of your mothers, or the homes of your brothers, or the homes of your sisters, or the homes of your fathers' brothers, or the homes of your fathers' sisters, or the homes of your mothers' brothers, or the homes of your mothers' sisters, or the homes that belong to you and you possess their keys, or the homes of your friends. You commit nothing wrong by eating together or as individuals. When you enter any home, you shall greet each other a greeting from GOD that is blessed and good. GOD thus explains the revelations for you, that you may understand.,
24:61 (Helping the disabled, and keeping good relations within families must be matters of priority in your society.) There is no blame on the blind, nor on the crippled, nor on the sick or handicapped, to eat from your houses. And there is no blame on you for eating at your own homes, your fathers’ homes, your mothers’ homes, your brothers’ homes, your sisters' homes, your paternal uncles’ homes, your paternal aunts’ homes, your maternal uncles’ homes, your maternal aunts’ homes, the homes you manage and hold the keys of, or the home of a friend. You (men and women) do nothing wrong by dining together or apart. But whenever you enter houses, salute one another with a blessed, goodly greeting from God. Thus God makes clear the revelations for you, so that you may understand.
24:62 انما المؤمنون الذين ءامنوا بالله ورسوله واذا كانوا معه على امر جامع لم يذهبوا حتى يستذنوه ان الذين يستذنونك اولئك الذين يؤمنون بالله ورسوله فاذا استذنوك لبعض شانهم فاذن لمن شئت منهم واستغفر لهم الله ان الله غفور رحيم
24:62 Innama almu/minoona allatheenaamanoo biAllahi warasoolihi wa-itha kanoomaAAahu AAala amrin jamiAAin lam yathhaboo hattayasta/thinoohu inna allatheena yasta/thinoonakaola-ika allatheena yu/minoona biAllahiwarasoolihi fa-itha ista/thanooka libaAAdisha/nihim fa/than liman shi/ta minhum waistaghfirlahumu Allaha inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
Public Meetings24:62 The acknowledgers are those who acknowledge God and His messenger, and when they are with him in a meeting, they do not leave him without permission. Those who ask permission are the ones who do acknowledge God and His messenger. If they ask your permission, in order to tend to some of their affairs, you may grant permission to whomever you wish, and ask God to forgive them. God is Forgiver, Compassionate.
24:62 The believers are those who believe in God and His messenger, and when they are with him in a meeting, they do not leave him without permission. Those who ask permission are the ones who do believe in God and His messenger. If they ask your permission, in order to attend to some of their affairs, you may grant permission to whoever you wish, and ask God to forgive them. God is Forgiver, Merciful.
24:62 [TRUE BELIEVERS are only they who have attained to faith in God and His Apostle, and who, whenever they are [engaged] with him upon a matter of concern to the whole community88 do not depart [from whatever has been decided upon] unless they have sought [and obtained] his leave.89 Verily, those who [do not abstain from the agreed upon action unless they] ask leave of thee - it is [only] they who [truly] believe in God and His Apostle! Hence, when they ask leave of thee for some [valid] reason of their own, grant thou this leave to whomsoever of them thou choose [to grant it],90 and ask God to forgive them: for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!91
lit., "a uniting [or "collective"] matter" (amr jami). The personal pronoun in "with him" relates to the Apostle and, by analogy, to every legitimate leader (imam) of the Muslim community acting in accordance with the spirit of the Qur'an and the Prophet's life-example.
I.e., his permission to abstain, for valid reasons, from participating in a course of action or a policy agreed upon by the majority of the community (amma ijtama'u lahu min al-amr: Tabari). In a logical development of this principle we arrive at something like the concept of a "loyal opposition", which implies the possibility of dissent on a particular point of communal or state policy combined with absolute loyalty to the common cause. See also note 91.
I.e., after weighing the reasons advanced by the individual or the individuals concerned against the interests of the society as a whole.
The statement that "God is much-forgiving" obviously implies that an avoidance of "asking leave" to abstain from participation in an agreed-upon course of action is, under all circumstances morally preferable (Zamakhshari).
24:62 The true believers are those who believe in GOD and His messenger, and when they are with him in a community meeting, they do not leave him without permission. Those who ask permission are the ones who do believe in GOD and His messenger. If they ask your permission, in order to tend to some of their affairs, you may grant permission to whomever you wish, and ask GOD to forgive them. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,4
This verse refers to God's Messenger of the Covenant; by adding the gematrical value of "Rashad" (505) plus the value of "Khalifa" (725), plusthe verse number (62), we get 1292, a multiple of 19 (1292=19x68). See Appendix 2.
24:62 Only those are true believers in God and His Messenger who do not leave without permission when they are with him in a community meeting. Those who ask permission are the ones who believe in God and His Messenger. So when they ask your permission (O Prophet) in order to handle some of their affairs, grant permission to whomever of them you can. Remember (their welfare during their absence) asking forgiveness for them, for, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
24:63 La tajAAaloo duAAaa alrrasoolibaynakum kaduAAa-i baAAdikum baAAdan qadyaAAlamu Allahu allatheena yatasallaloona minkumliwathan falyahthari allatheena yukhalifoonaAAan amrihi an tuseebahum fitnatun aw yuseebahumAAathabun aleemun
24:63 Do not let the invitation of the messenger between you be as if you are inviting each other. God is fully aware of those among you who slip away under lame excuses. Let those who oppose his command beware, for an ordeal may strike them, or a severe retribution.*
24:63 Do not let the calling of the messenger between you be as if you are calling each other. God is fully aware of those among you who slip away under flimsy excuses. Let those who oppose his command beware, for an ordeal may strike them, or a painful retribution.
24:63 DO NOT regard the Apostles summons to you92 [in the same light] as a summons of one of you to another: God is indeed aware of those of you who would withdraw surreptitiously: so let those who would go against His bidding beware, lest a [bitter] trial befall them [in this world] or grievous suffering befall them [in the life to come].
I.e., his summons to God's message in general, spoken of in verses 46-54 above, as well as to a particular course of communal action, referred to in verse 62. Alternatively, "the Apostles summons" may, in this context, be synonymous with the Qur'an itself.
24:63 Do not treat the messenger's requests as you treat each others' requests. GOD is fully aware of those among you who sneak away using flimsy excuses. Let them beware - those who disobey his orders - for a disaster may strike them, or a severe retribution.,
24:63 Do not consider the Messenger's summons among you as your calling one another. God knows those of you who sneak out under flimsy excuses. And let those who conspire to evade his orders beware of a consequent tribulation or an awful retribution. [62:9]
24:64 Ala inna lillahi ma feealssamawati waal-ardi qadyaAAlamu ma antum AAalayhi wayawma yurjaAAoona ilayhifayunabbi-ohum bima AAamiloo waAllahubikulli shay-in AAaleemun
24:64 Certainly, to God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. Surely, He knows what your condition is; and on the day when they are returned to Him, He will inform them of everything they had done. God is aware of all things.
24:64 Certainly, to God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. Surely, He knows what your condition is; and on the Day when they are returned to Him, He will inform them of everything they had done. God is aware of all things.
24:64 Oh, verily, unto God belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: well does He know where you stand and at what you aim!93 And one Day, all [who have ever lived] will be brought back unto Him, and then He will make them [truly] understand all that they were doing [in life]: for, God has full knowledge of everything.
Lit., "well does He know upon what you are": i.e., "what your beliefs are and what moral principles govern your attitudes and actions".
24:64 Absolutely, to GOD belongs everything in the heavens and the earth. He fully knows every condition you may be in. The day you are returned to Him, He will inform them of everything they had done. GOD is fully aware of all things.,
24:64 Remember: To God belongs all that is in the heavens and earth. He knows your condition (capabilities, limitations, intentions, and actions). The Day when all people return to Him, He will make them truly understand what they did in life. God is the Knower of all things and events. [53:31]