بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
7:1 Alif. Lam. Mim.1
See Appendix II.
7:1 A. L. M. S..1 ,
See Appendix 1 for the role of these initials in the Quran's mathematical miracle.
7:1 A.L.M.S. Alif-Laam-Meem-Saad. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Majeed the Magnificent, Saadiq the True, states that),1
This is the 7th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 206 verses. People with outstanding faculties of reasoning (Ma’rifah) are stationed at the heights of human dignity and achievement. The term A’raaf appears in this Surah in verses 46 and 48. ‘Urf = The most elevated part of anything = Easily discernible. A’raaf = Plural, Heights. Derived meaning of A’raaf = The heights of intellect = Stature of those endowed with faculty of discernment = The high degrees of those who are better able to distinguish between right and wrong.
Very commonly, A’raaf is thought of as a waiting room high up in the Heights where some people hope to be admitted into Paradise. Some exponents see it as ‘Purgatory’ where humans are washed of their ‘sins’. Another view is that A’raaf denotes the high points of a wall between Hell and Paradise.
Unfortunately, the orthodox Muslim scholars have had a tendency to apply most of the Qur’anic verses to non-Muslims and to the Hereafter whenever possible. This attitude seems to stem from their erroneous belief that Muslims will easily enter Paradise just because they recite the Kalemah (There is no god but the One True God and Muhammad is His Messenger). A seeking mind can understand that the Qur’an is a Guide explaining how to best live in this world. That is the only way to success in the life Hereafter. Ritualistic utterances carry no weight before God. The people of discernment are a blessing to humanity right here in this world, and, therefore, this Surah applies to this life.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
7:2 Kitabun onzila ilayka falayakun fee sadrika harajun minhu litunthirabihi wathikra lilmu/mineena
7:2 A book that has been sent down to you, so let there not be any burden in your chest from it, that you may warn with it; and a reminder to those who acknowledge.
7:2 A Book that has been sent down to you, so let there not be any burden in your chest from it, that you may warn with it; and a reminder to the believers.
7:2 A DIVINE WRIT has been bestowed from on high upon thee -and let there be no doubt about this in thy heart-in order that thou mayest warn [the erring] thereby, and [thus] admonish the believers:2
The expression haraj (lit., "straitness" or "tightness") is often used idiomatically to denote "doubt": and this is, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah, the meaning of the term here (see Tabari, Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi, Ibn Kathir). The construction of the whole sentence makes it clear that the "doubt" does not relate to the origin of the divine writ but to its purpose: and thus, although ostensibly addressed to the Prophet, the above passage is meant to draw the attention of all whom the Qur'anic message may reach to the fact that it has a twofold objective - namely, to warn the rejectors of the truth and to guide those who already believe in it. Both the warning and the admonition are summarized in the sequence.
7:2 This scripture has been revealed to you - you shall not harbor doubt about it in your heart - that you may warn with it, and to provide a reminder for the believers.,
7:2 This Book has been revealed to you (O Messenger), so you shall harbor no doubt about it in your heart – in order that with it you may warn (the erring). And it is a Reminder for the believers.2
Sadr = Chest = Breast = Heart. Haraj = Difficulty = Burden = Doubt = Hardship = Loss = Tightness in chest
7:3 IttabiAAoo ma onzila ilaykum minrabbikum wala tattabiAAoo min doonihi awliyaaqaleelan ma tathakkaroona
Do Not Follow Any Other Source Besides God7:3 Follow what was sent down to you all from your Lord, and do not follow besides Him any supporters. Little do you remember!
7:3 Follow what was sent down to you from your Lord, and do not follow besides Him any supporters. Little do you remember!
7:3 "Follow what has been sent down unto you by your Sustainer, and follow no masters other than Him.3 How seldom do you keep this in mind!
Some of the great Muslim thinkers, and particularly Ibn Hazm and Ibn Taymiyyah, maintain' that the expression awliya' (here rendered as "masters") denotes, in this context, "authorities" in the religious sense of the word, implying a prohibition of attributing legal validity-side by side with Qur'anic ordinances - to the subjective opinions of any person below the Prophet. See in this connection 5:101, and the corresponding notes.
7:3 You shall all follow what is revealed to you from your Lord; do not follow any idols besides Him. Rarely do you take heed.,
7:3 You shall all follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and follow no masters other than Him. How seldom do you keep this in mind!3
Awliya = Protecting friends = Allies = Masters
7:4 Wakam min qaryatin ahlaknahafajaaha ba/suna bayatan aw hum qa-iloona
7:4 How many a town have We destroyed; for Our punishment came to them while sleeping, or while resting.
7:4 And how many a town have We destroyed; for Our punishment came to them while sleeping, or while resting.
7:4 And how many a [rebellious] community have We destroyed, with Our punishment coming upon it by night, or while they were resting at noontide!4
I.e., suddenly, when the people felt completely secure and at ease. This passage connects with the obligation, laid down in the preceding two verses, to follow God's revealed messages.
7:4 Many a community we annihilated; they incurred our retribution while they were asleep, or wide awake.,
7:4 (You will find ample documentation in history that when communities ignored Our Permanent Value System they met with destruction.) How many a community We (Our laws) have annihilated! Our requital visited them by night, or while they slept for their afternoon rest.
7:5 Fama kana daAAwahum ithjaahum ba/suna illa an qaloo innakunna thalimeena
7:5 Then their only saying when Our punishment came to them was: "We were wicked!"
7:5 Then their only saying when Our punishment came to them was: "We were wicked!"
7:5 And when Our punishment came upon them, they had nothing to say for themselves, and could only cry,5 "Verily, we were wrongdoers!"
Lit., "their plea was nothing but that they said".
7:5 Their utterance when our retribution came to them was: "Indeed, we have been transgressors.",
7:5 They had no plea when Our requital came to them, but they said, “We were unjust, and used to oppress the vulnerable.”
7:6 Falanas-alanna allatheena orsilailayhim walanas-alanna almursaleena
7:6 We will ask those who received the message, and We will ask the messengers.
7:6 We will question those to whom We have sent, and We will question the messengers.
7:6 Thus, [on Judgment Day] We shall most certainly call to account all those unto whom a [divine] message was sent, and We shall most certainly call to account the message-bearers [themselves];6
7:6 We will certainly question those who received the message, and we will question the messengers.,
7:6 We will certainly question those to whom Our Messengers were sent, and certainly We will question the Messengers.
7:7 Falanaqussanna AAalayhim biAAilmin wamakunna gha-ibeena
7:7 We will narrate to them with knowledge; We were not absent.
7:7 We will tell to them with knowledge; We were not absent.
7:7 and thereupon We shall most certainly reveal unto them Our knowledge [of their doings]:7 for never have We been absent [from them].
Lit., "relate to them with knowledge".
7:7 We will inform them authoritatively, for we were never absent.,
7:7 We will recount the whole story for them, for We were never absent in Time and Place. (9:105)
7:8 Waalwaznu yawma-ithini alhaqqufaman thaqulat mawazeenuhu faola-ika humu almuflihoona
7:8 The scales on that day will be the truth. Whoever has heavy scales, these are the successful ones.
7:8 And the balance on that Day will be the truth. So, those whose weights are heavy on the balance, those are the successful ones.
7:8 And true will be the weighing on that Day; and those whose weight [of good deeds] is heavy in the balance -it is they, they who shall attain to a happy state;
7:8 The scales will be set on that day, equitably. Those whose weights are heavy will be the winners.,
7:8 The scales on that Day will be truly equitable. Those whose constructive deeds are heavy, will prosper.
7:9 Waman khaffat mawazeenuhu faola-ikaallatheena khasiroo anfusahum bima kanoo bi-ayatinayathlimoona
7:9 Whoever has light scales, these are the ones who lost themselves for they wrongfully treated Our signs.2
Our personality weakens by not following the instruction of its creator.
7:9 And whoever has light weights, then these are the ones who lost their souls for what they transgressed of Our revelations.
7:9 whereas those whose weight is light in the balance - it is they who will have squandered their own selves by their wilful rejection of Our messages.8
Lit., "for that they were wont to act wrongfully with regard to Our messages".
7:9 As for those whose weights are light, they will be the ones who lost their souls as a consequence of disregarding our revelations, unjustly.,2
Failing to heed our Creator leads to spiritual starvation and eventual "loss" of the soul.
7:9 And those whose scales are light, will be the ones who have put their own ‘self’ in loss. This is because they used to replace Our revelations with manmade dogmas.
7:10 Walaqad makkannakum fee al-ardiwajaAAalna lakum feeha maAAayisha qaleelan matashkuroona
The Test7:10 We granted you dominion on earth, and made for you in it a habitat; little do you give thanks!
7:10 And We granted you dominion on the earth, and made for you in it a habitat; little do you give thanks!
7:10 YEA, INDEED, [O men,] We have given you a [bountiful] place on earth, and appointed thereon means of livelihood for you: [yet] how seldom are you grateful!
7:10 We have established you on earth, and we have provided for you the means of support therein. Rarely are you appreciative.,
7:10 (Take heed before the final scales are set.) We have placed you on earth and given you means for a fulfilling life. How seldom are you grateful!4
7:11 Walaqad khalaqnakum thumma sawwarnakumthumma qulna lilmala-ikati osjudoo li-adamafasajadoo illa ibleesa lam yakun mina alssajideena
7:11 We created you, We shaped you, and then We said to the controllers: "Submit to Adam;" so they submitted except for Satan, he was not of those who submitted.
7:11 And We created you, then We shaped you, then We said to the angels: "Yield to Adam;" so they yielded except for Satan, he was not of those who yielded.
7:11 Yea, indeed, We have created you, and then formed you;9 and then We said unto the angels, "Prostrate yourselves before Adam!" - whereupon they [all] prostrated themselves, save Iblis: he was not among those who prostrated themselves.10
The sequence of these two statements -"We have created you [i.e., "brought you into being as living organisms"] and then formed you" [or "given you your shape", i.e., as human beings]-is meant to bring out the fact of man's gradual development, in the individual sense, from the embryonic stage to full-fledged existence, as well as of the evolution of the human race as such.
As regards God's allegorical command to the angels to "prostrate themselves" before Adam, see 2:30, and the corresponding notes. The reference to all mankind which precedes the story of Adam in this surah makes it clear that his name symbolizes, in this context, the whole human race. Western scholars usually take it for granted that the name "Iblis" is a corruption of the Greek word di?bolos, from which the English "devil" is derived. There is, however, not the slightest evidence that the pre-Islamic Arabs borrowed this or any other mythological term from the Greeks-while. on the other hand, it is established that the Greeks derived a good deal of their mythological concepts (including various deities and their functions) from the much earlier South-Arabian civilization (cf. Encyclopaedia of Islam I, 379 f.). One may, therefore, assume with something approaching certainty that the Greek di?bolos is a Hellenized form of the Arabic name for the Fallen Angel, which, in turn, is derived from the root-verb ablasa, "he despaired" or "gave up hope" or "became broken in spirit" (see Lane I, 248). The fact that the noun di?bolos ("slanderer" -derived from the verb diaballein, "to throw [something] across") is of genuinely Greek origin does not, by itself, detract anything from this hypothesis: for it is conceivable that the Greeks, with their well-known tendency to Hellenize foreign names, identified the name "Iblis" with the, to them. much more familiar term di?bolos -As regards Iblis' statement, in the next verse, that he had been created "out of fire", see surah 38. note 60.
7:11 We created you, then we shaped you, then we said to the angels, "Fall prostrate before Adam." They fell prostrate, except Iblees (Satan); he was not with the prostrators.,
7:11 We created you, then shaped you, then told the angels, "Be of service to Adam! And they agreed to be of service, all but Iblees (Satan). He was not of the subservient.5
Let us take a panoramic view of our common origin. Life began as a single life cell from hydrated inorganic matter 23:13. God made us ‘Adam’ Homo sapiens, male and female. And He made the angels the universal forces subservient to mankind. Satan or Iblees, our own rebellious desires, refused to submit to the higher controls of judgment
7:12 Qala ma manaAAaka allatasjuda ith amartuka qala ana khayrun minhukhalaqtanee min narin wakhalaqtahu min teenin
7:12 He said, "What has prevented you from submitting when I have ordered you?" He said, "I am better than him, You created me from fire and created him from clay!"3
It is interesting that God does not kick out the Perverse from His presence as soon as he disobeys the divine order; by directing him to defend his action, God wants to inform us about the source of his disobedience. Perverse demonstrated an unjustified pride in something that was not his own work. Racism finds its roots in such a diabolic false pride. See 15:28.
7:12 He said: "What has prevented you from yielding when I have ordered you?" He said: "I am far better than him, You created me from fire and created him from clay!"
7:12 [And God] said: "What has kept thee from prostrating thyself when I commanded thee?" Answered [Iblis]: "I am better than he: Thou hast created me out of fire, whereas him Thou hast created out of clay."
The Test Begins7:12 He said, "What prevented you from prostrating when I ordered you?" He said, "I am better than he; You created me from fire, and created him from mud.",
7:12 God said, “What stopped you from being subservient when I ordered you?” Iblees responded, "I am better than he. You created me from fire, and created him from clay.”6
Emotions are fiery in relation to sound judgment. The criterion of honor is not lineage, color, caste or nation. It is nothing but good conduct. 49:13
7:13 Qala faihbit minhafama yakoonu laka an tatakabbara feeha faokhrujinnaka mina alssaghireena
7:13 He said, "Descend from it, it is not for you to be arrogant here; depart, for you are disgraced."
7:13 He said: "Descend from it, for it is not for you to be arrogant here; depart, for you are disgraced."
7:13 [God] said: "Down with thee, then, from this [state] -for it is not meet for thee to show arrogance here! Go forth, then: verily, among the humiliated shalt thou be!"
7:13 He said, "Therefore, you must go down, for you are not to be arrogant here. Get out; you are debased.",
7:13 (Recall that many of the verses of the Qur’an are allegorical.) God said, “You are dismissed and degraded hence. It is not for you to be arrogant here. Go forth, then! You shall be among the humiliated.”
7:14 Qala anthirnee ilayawmi yubAAathoona
7:14 He said, "Grant me respite until the day they are resurrected?"
7:14 He said: "Grant me respite until the Day they are resurrected?"
7:14 Said [Iblis]: "Grant me a respite till the Day when all shall be raised from the dead."
7:14 He said, "Grant me a respite, until the Day of Resurrection.",
7:14 He (Iblees) said, "Give me respite till the Day they are raised up.”
7:15 Qala innaka mina almunthareena
7:15 He said, "You are granted respite."4
The so-called "problem of evil" has created a great challenge for theologians and philosophers who accept a Benevolent and Omnipotent God. The Christian medieval philosopher St. Augustine, in Enchiridion, has an interesting argument regarding the existence of Satan: "He used the very will of the creature which was working in opposition to the Creator's will as an instrument for carrying out his will…"
7:15 He said: "You are granted."
7:15 [And God] replied: "Verily, thou shalt be among those who are granted a respite."
7:15 He said, "You are granted a respite.",
7:15 (The request was granted.) God said, "Be among those who are given respite.”
7:16 Qala fabima aghwaytaneelaaqAAudanna lahum sirataka almustaqeema
7:16 He said, "For You having me sent astray, I will stalk for them on Your Straight Path."5
7:16 He said: "For that which You have caused me to be misled, I will stalk for them on Your straight path."
7:16 [Whereupon Iblis] said: "Now that Thou hast thwarted me,"11 shall most certainly lie in ambush for them all along Thy straight way,
Or: "allowed me to fall into error". The term aghwahu denotes both "he caused [or "allowed"] him to err" or "he caused him to be disappointed" or "to fail in attaining his desire" (cf. Lane VI, 2304f.). Since. in this case. the saying of Iblis refers to the loss of his erstwhile position among the angels, the rendering adopted by me seems to be the most appropriate.
7:16 He said, "Since You have willed that I go astray, I will skulk for them on Your straight path.,3
Satan is a proven liar, and so are his constituents (see2:36,6:22-23,&7:20).
7:16 Iblees said, "Since You have willed that I go astray, I will lurk in ambush for them in Your straight path.”
7:17 Thumma laatiyannahum min bayniaydeehim wamin khalfihim waAAan aymanihim waAAan shama-ilihimwala tajidu aktharahum shakireena
7:17 "Then I will come to them from between their hands, and from behind them, and from their right, and from their left; You will not find most of them to be appreciative."
7:17 "Then I will come to them from between their hands, and from behind them, and from their right, and from their left; and You will find most of them unthankful."
7:17 and shall most certainly fall upon them openly as well as in a manner beyond their ken,12 and from their right and from their left: and most of them Thou wilt find ungrateful."
Lit., "from between their hands and from behind them". Regarding this idiomatic expression and my rendering of it, see the similar phrase in 2:255 ("He knows all that lies open before men and all that is hidden from them"). The subsequent phrase "from their right and from their left" signifies "from all directions and by all possible means".
7:17 "I will come to them from before them, and from behind them, and from their right, and from their left, and You will find that most of them are unappreciative.",
7:17 “Then I will assault them openly and secretly, through their strengths and through their weaknesses. And You will not find most of them grateful (for the guidance).”
7:18 Qala okhruj minha mathoomanmadhooran laman tabiAAaka minhum laamlaanna jahannamaminkum ajmaAAeena
7:18 He said, "Get out from this, you are despised and banished. As for those among them who follow you, I will fill hell with you all!"
7:18 He said: "Get out from this, you are despised and banished. As for those of them who follow you, I will fill Hell with you all!"
7:18 [And God] said: "Go forth from here, disgraced and disowned! [And] as for such of them as follow thee - I will most certainly fill hell with you all!
7:18 He said, "Get out therefrom, despised and defeated. Those among them who follow you, I will fill Hell with you all.,
7:18 He said, “Go forth from here, degraded and banished. Whoever follows you among them, I will fill Hell with you all.”7
Jahannam = Hell = Fire = Hebrew Gehenna = Destruction of the ‘self’ in this life and the Hereafter for succumbing to Satan, the selfish desires
7:19 Waya adamu oskun antawazawjuka aljannata fakula min haythu shi/tumawala taqraba hathihi alshshajaratafatakoona mina alththalimeena
7:19 "Adam, reside with your mate in the paradise, and eat from wherever you please; but do not approach this tree or you will be of the wicked."6
The Quran describes the tree as the tree of eternity. Perverse tempted Adam and his mate with the false promise of eternity. The Old Testament, in Genesis 2:1-25 and 3:1, narrates the same event with some differences. According to Genesis, the tree is about the knowledge of evil and good, and the one who was first tempted is Eve. The Biblical accusation of Eve for the failure of Adam in this major event, would later be exploited fully by misogynistic clergymen. St. Paul justifies his male chauvinist teaching based on women's serpentine-like role in the original sin. The other major difference in the account of this event is the depiction of the tree. The Bible describes the tree as the tree of knowledge. This depiction might be one of the causes of dogmatic and anti-scientific attitude developed by the Church. Sunni and Shiite mushriks imported and adopted this Judeo-Christian distortion regarding creation and the role of man and woman in our failure, through hadith narrations. These misogynistic ideas later were sneaked into the commentaries of the Quran that relied on hadiths. See 2:36; 20:115.
7:19 "And O Adam, reside you and your mate in the paradise, and eat from it as you both wish, and do not come near this tree, else you will be of those who have wronged."
7:19 And [as for thee], O Adam', dwell thou and thy wife in this garden, and eat, both of you, whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become evildoers!"13
7:19 "As for you, Adam, dwell with your wife in Paradise, and eat therefrom as you please, but do not approach this one tree, lest you fall in sin.",
7:19 “O Adam! Dwell, you and your wife, in the Garden and eat from whatever you may wish; but do not approach this one tree, lest you become wrongdoers.”8
7:20 Fawaswasa lahuma alshshaytanuliyubdiya lahuma ma wooriya AAanhuma minsaw-atihima waqala ma nahakumarabbukuma AAan hathihi alshshajarati illaan takoona malakayni aw takoona mina alkhalideena
7:20 But the devil whispered to them, to reveal their bodies which was hidden from them; and he said, "Your Lord did not forbid you from this tree except that you would become controllers, or you would be immortals."
7:20 But the devil whispered to them, to reveal to them what was not apparent to them of their bodies; and he said: "Your Lord did not prohibit you from this tree except that you would become angels, or you would be immortal."
7:20 Thereupon Satan whispered unto the two with a view to making them conscious of their nakedness, of which [hitherto] they had been unaware;14 and he said: "Your Sustainer has but forbidden you this tree lest you two become .[as] angels, or lest you live forever."15
Lit., "so as to make manifest to them that of their nakedness which [hitherto] had been imperceptible to them": an allegory of the state of innocence in which man lived before his fall from grace-that is, before his consciousness made him aware of himself and of the possibility of choosing between alternative courses of action, with all the attending temptations towards evil and the misery which must follow a wrong choice.
Lit., "or [lest] you become of those who are enduring": thus instilling in them the desire to live forever and to become. in this respect, like God. (See note 106 on 20:120.)
7:20 The devil whispered to them, in order to reveal their bodies, which were invisible to them. He said, "Your Lord did not forbid you from this tree, except to prevent you from becoming angels, and from attaining eternal existence.",
7:20 Then Satan deceived them in order to reveal their imperfections and fallibility to them. He said, "Your Lord forbade this tree lest you become angels or become immortals.”9
The selfish desires of humans prompted them to think about their own children rather than the collective good. That would, in a way, give them power and immortality
7:21 Waqasamahuma innee lakumalamina alnnasiheena
7:21 He swore to them: "I am giving good advice."
7:21 And he swore to them: "I am giving good advice."
7:21 And he swore unto them, "Verily, I am of those who wish you well indeed!"
7:21 He swore to them, "I am giving you good advice.",
7:21 And Satan swore to both, man and woman, “I am a sincere advisor to you.”
7:22 Fadallahuma bighuroorin falammathaqa alshshajarata badat lahuma saw-atuhumawatafiqa yakhsifani AAalayhimamin waraqi aljannati wanadahuma rabbuhumaalam anhakuma AAan tilkuma alshshajaratiwaaqul lakuma inna alshshaytana lakumaAAaduwwun mubeenun
7:22 So he misled them with deception; and when they tasted the tree, their bodies became apparent to them, and they rushed to cover themselves with the leaves of the paradise; and their Lord called to them: "Did I not forbid you from that tree, and tell you that the devil is your clear enemy?"7
Our creation on earth with material bodies starts with our failure of a divine test. We believed in Satan's promise and we ended up with a temporal body rather than an eternal one. We are given a second chance in this temporal body, which is designed to fail in a short time. The temptation of attaining eternity, shame, body, and covering the body all imply that the temptation was sexual intercourse between man and woman. In this second test, however, sexual attraction and intercourse per se is not prohibited; to the contrary, it is considered a divine blessing (30:21; 33:52). Nevertheless, the purpose of the test is the same: we should peacefully surrender ourselves to God alone, lead a righteous life to redeem ourselves, and expect that there will be a Day after death in which God alone will judge our intentions, attitude and actions, which will determine our eternal salvation or damnation. See 7:26 and 15:29.
7:22 So he misled them with deception; and when they tasted the tree, their bodies became apparent to them, and they rushed to cover themselves with the leaves of the paradise; and their Lord called to them: "Did I not prohibit you from that tree, and tell you that the devil is your clear enemy?"
7:22 -and thus he led them on with deluding thoughts. But as soon as the two had tasted [the fruit] of the tree, they became conscious of their nakedness; and they began to cover themselves with pieced-together leaves from the garden. And their Sustainer called unto them: "Did I not forbid that tree unto you and tell you, `Verily, Satan is your open foe'?"
7:22 He thus duped them with lies. As soon as they tasted the tree, their bodies became visible to them, and they tried to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise. Their Lord called upon them: "Did I not enjoin you from that tree, and warn you that the devil is your most ardent enemy?",
7:22 So by deceit Satan brought about their downfall. They tasted of the tree of discord and started to divide into branches. Soon their imperfections became obvious to them and they tried to conceal them with courteous behavior. Then came a reminder from their Lord, "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you that Satan is your open enemy?"10
Personal interests dominated their minds rather than the collective good of all. Humanity began to fall into mutual contention. Leaf of Paradise = Righteous behavior
7:23 Qala rabbana thalamnaanfusana wa-in lam taghfir lana watarhamnalanakoonanna mina alkhasireena
7:23 They said, "Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves and if You do not forgive us and have mercy on us, then we will be of the losers!"
7:23 They said: "Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves and if You do not forgive us and have mercy on us, then we will be of the losers!"
7:23 The two replied: "O our Sustainer! We have sinned against ourselves -and unless Thou grant us forgiveness and bestow Thy mercy upon us, we shall most certainly be lost!"
7:23 They said, "Our Lord, we have wronged our souls, and unless You forgive us and have mercy on us, we will be losers.",
7:23 They said, "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. Unless You forgive us and have mercy on us, we will certainly be lost.”11
Men and women accepted responsibility acknowledging that they had free will, while Satan blamed God and ascribed his disobedience to the will of God. 7:16
7:24 Qala ihbitoo baAAdukumlibaAAdin AAaduwwun walakum fee al-ardi mustaqarrunwamataAAun ila heenin
7:24 He said, "Descend as enemies to one another; on earth you will have residence and provisions until the appointed time."
7:24 He said: "Descend; for you are enemies to one another; and on the earth you will have residence and provisions until the appointed time."
7:24 Said He: "Down with you,16 [and be henceforth] enemies unto one another, having on earth your abode and livelihood for a while:
Sc., "from this state of blessedness and innocence". As in the parallel account of this parable of the Fall in 2:35, the dual form of address changes at this stage into the plural, thus connecting once again with verse 10 and the beginning of verse 11 of this surah, and making it clear that the story of Adam and Eve is, in reality, an allegory of human destiny. In his earlier state of innocence man was unaware of the existence of evil and, therefore, of the ever-present necessity of making a choice between the many possibilities of action and behaviour: in other words, he lived, like all other animals, in the light of his instincts alone. Inasmuch, however, as this innocence was only a condition of his existence and not a virtue, it gave to his life a static quality and thus precluded him from moral and intellectual development. The growth of his consciousness-symbolized by the wilful act of disobedience to God's command-changed all this. It transformed him from a purely instinctive being into a full-fledged human entity as we know it - a human being capable of discerning between right and wrong and thus of choosing his way of life. In this deeper sense, the allegory of the Fall does not describe a retrogressive happening but, rather, a new stage of human development: an opening of doors to moral considerations. By forbidding him to "approach this tree", God made it possible for man to act wrongly-and, therefore, to act rightly as well: and so man became endowed with that moral free will which distinguishes him from all other sentient beings. - Regarding the role of Satan - or Iblis - as the eternal tempter of man, see note 26 on 2:34 and note 31 on 15:41 .
7:24 He said, "Go down as enemies of one another. On earth shall be your habitation and provision for awhile.",
7:24 God said, “Be degraded with wedges of discord between one another. There will be for you an abode and sustenance for a while on earth.”12
Self interests of people had given rise to unjust marking of land and individual hoarding. Suppression of the weak had begun. God told them that they had fallen down from the high station of humanity. They had ignored the law that "Mankind is one community". From then on, they would live as tribes and nations, enemies to one another. 10:19, 49:13
7:25 Qala feeha tahyawnawafeeha tamootoona waminha tukhrajoona
7:25 He said, "In it you will live and in it you will die, and from it you will be brought forth."
7:25 He said: "In it you will live and in it you will die, and from it you will be brought forth."
7:25 there shall you live" - He added - "and there shall you die, and thence shall you be brought forth [on Resurrection Day]!
7:25 He said, "On it you will live, on it you will die, and from it you will be brought out.",
7:25 He said, "You shall live on earth and die there and be resurrected from there.”13
In the meantime they could regain their lost Paradise if they followed the Divine Commands. 2:213
7:26 Ya banee adama qad anzalnaAAalaykum libasan yuwaree saw-atikumwareeshan walibasu alttaqwa thalikakhayrun thalika min ayati AllahilaAAallahum yaththakkaroona
7:26 O Children of Adam, We have sent down for you garments to cover your bodies, as well as ornaments; and the garment of awareness is the best. That is from God's signs, perhaps they will remember.8
Some translators and commentators render the word sawa as "sin" or "ugly parts" or "genitals." Though the word is etymologically related to "sin" or "shame," we prefer translating it as "body," which appeared to us after our sinful and shameful failure of the first test. For the other usages of the same word, see 5:31; 7:20; 20:121.
7:26 O Children of Adam, We have sent down for you garments to alleviate your bodies, and feathers; and the garment of righteousness is the best. That is from the signs of God, perhaps they will remember.
7:26 O CHILDREN of Adam! Indeed, We have bestowed upon you from on high [the knowledge of making] garments to cover your nakedness, and as a thing of beauty:17 but the garment of God-consciousness is the best of all. Herein lies a message from God, so that man"18 might take it to heart.
Lit., "as plumage" - a metaphorical expression derived from the beauty of birds' plumage.
Lit., "this is [one] of God's messages, so that they.. .", etc.
7:26 O children of Adam, we have provided you with garments to cover your bodies, as well as for luxury. But the best garment is the garment of righteousness. These are some of GOD's signs, that they may take heed.,
7:26 O Children of Adam! We have provided you with garments to cover your bodies as well as to adorn you. The best garment for you to wear, in addition, is good conduct. (Your character decorates you inside out.) These are the verses of God that they must take to heart.
7:27 Ya banee adama layaftinannakumu alshshaytanu kama akhrajaabawaykum mina aljannati yanziAAu AAanhuma libasahumaliyuriyahuma saw-atihima innahu yarakumhuwa waqabeeluhu min haythu la tarawnahum innajaAAalna alshshayateena awliyaa lillatheenala yu/minoona
7:27 O Children of Adam, do not let the devil afflict you as he evicted your parents from the paradise; removing from them their garments to show them their bodies. He and his tribe see you from where you do not see them. We have made the devils as allies for those who do not acknowledge.9
7:27 O Children of Adam, do not let the devil afflict you as he evicted your parents from the paradise; he removes from them their garments to show them their bodies. He and his tribe see you from where you do not see them. We have made the devils as allies for those who do not believe.
7:27 O children of Adam! Do not allow Satan to seduce you in the same way as he caused your ancestors to be driven out of the garden: he deprived them of their garment [of God-consciousness] in order to make them aware of their nakedness. Verily, he and his tribe are lying in wait for you where you cannot perceive them!19 Verily, We have placed [all manner of] satanic forces near unto those who do not [truly] believe;20
Lit., "see you from where you do not see them".
The interpolated word "truly" is implied in this phrase in view of the subsequent reference to the erroneous beliefs of such people: for, although their beliefs are wrong, some of them are under the impression that the "shameful deeds" subsequently referred to have been enjoined by God. As for the "satanic forces" (shayatin), it is to be remembered that this designation is applied in the Qur'an to all kinds of wicked impulses or propensities that are "near unto" (i.e., in the hearts of) those who do not truly believe in God (see note 31 on 14:22): hence, the term shayatin occurring in verse 30 below has been rendered as "evil impulses".
7:27 O children of Adam, do not let the devil dupe you as he did when he caused the eviction of your parents from Paradise, and the removal of their garments to expose their bodies. He and his tribe see you, while you do not see them. We appoint the devils as companions of those who do not believe.,
7:27 O Children of Adam! Let not your selfish desires deceive you as it deceived your ancestors, caused them to lose their Paradise, and exposed their imperfections. A host of selfish and rebellious desires lurk within you. You can't even see them but these Satans see you and befriend those who do not believe.
7:28 Wa-itha faAAaloo fahishatan qaloowajadna AAalayha abaana waAllahuamarana biha qul inna Allaha laya/muru bialfahsha-i ataqooloona AAalaAllahi ma la taAAlamoona
Examine Claims About God With Knowledge7:28 When they commit evil acts, they say, "We found our fathers doing such, and God ordered us to it." Say, "God does not order evil! Do you say about God what you do not know?"10
In Euthyphro, Plato narrates a conversation between Socrates and a pious priest on the meaning of virtue and the baffling question, "is it right because God says so or does God says so because it is right?" We know from the Quran that Truth or Justice are among God's attributes and thus their existence is the essence of God's self. In other words, the answer to the Socratic question should be "both are true: it is right because God says so and God says so because it is right." See 37:105.
7:28 And if they commit immorality, they say: "We found our fathers doing such, and God ordered us to it." Say: "God does not order immorality! Do you say about God what you do not know?"
7:28 and [so,] whenever they commit a shameful deed, they are wont to say, "We found our forefathers doing it," and, "God has enjoined it upon us." Say: "Behold, never does God enjoin deeds of abomination. Would you attribute unto God something of which you have no knowledge?"
7:28 They commit a gross sin, then say, "We found our parents doing this, and GOD has commanded us to do it." Say, "GOD never advocates sin. Are you saying about GOD what you do not know?",
7:28 (As an example,) when people commit an indecency they say, "We found our forefathers doing it and God has enjoined it upon us" (made it natural for us). Say (O Prophet), "God never enjoins indecency. Do you attribute to God that of which you have no knowledge?"
7:29 Qul amara rabbee bialqistiwaaqeemoo wujoohakum AAinda kulli masjidin waodAAoohumukhliseena lahu alddeena kama badaakumtaAAoodoona
7:29 Say, "My Lord orders justice, and that you be devoted at every temple, and that you call on Him, while dedicating to Him in the system; as He initiated you, so you will return."11
7:29 Say: "My Lord orders justice, and that you set yours faces at every temple, and that you call on Him, while being faithful to Him in the system; as He initiated you, so you will return."
7:29 Say: "My Sustainer has [but] enjoined the doing of what is right; and [He desires you to] put your whole being into every act of worship,21 and to call unto Him, sincere in your faith in Him alone. As it was He who brought you into being in the first instance, so also [unto Him] you will return:
The term wajh (lit., "face") occurring here is often used, in the abstract sense, to denote a person's entire being or entire attention-as, for instance, in the phrase aslamtu wajhi li'llahi, "I have surrendered my whole being unto God" (3:20). The word masjid, which usually signifies the time or place of prostration in prayer (sujud), evidently stands in this context-as well as in verse 31 below-for any act of worship.
7:29 Say, "My Lord advocates justice, and to stand devoted to Him alone at every place of worship. You shall devote your worship absolutely to Him alone. Just as He initiated you, you will ultimately go back to Him.",
7:29 Say (O Messenger), "My Lord enjoins justice and to stand devoted to Him alone in complete submission at all time and place. Call unto Him, sincere in your faith in Him alone. As He brought you into being in the first place, so shall you return to Him.”
7:30 Fareeqan hada wafareeqan haqqaAAalayhimu alddalalatu innahumu ittakhathooalshshayateena awliyaa min dooni Allahiwayahsaboona annahum muhtadoona
7:30 A group He has guided and a group has deserved misguidance; that is because they have taken the devils as allies besides God; and they think they are guided!
7:30 A group He has guided and a group have deserved misguidance; that is because they have taken the devils as allies besides God; and they think they are guided!
7:30 some [of you] He will have graced with His guidance, whereas, for some a straying from the right path will have become unavoidable:22 for, behold, they will have taken [their own] evil impulses for their masters in preference to God, thinking all the while that they have found the right path!"
Lit., "will have become incumbent upon them" (hagqa `alayhim), implying that this straying was an inevitable consequence of their own doings and attitudes.
Beware: They Believe that They Are Guided7:30 Some He guided, while others are committed to straying. They have taken the devils as their masters, instead of GOD, yet they believe that they are guided.,
7:31 Ya banee adama khuthoozeenatakum AAinda kulli masjidin wakuloo waishraboo walatusrifoo innahu la yuhibbu almusrifeena
7:31 O Children of Adam, dress nicely at every temple, and eat and drink and do not indulge or waste; He does not like the indulgers and the prodigals.
7:31 O Children of Adam, dress nicely at every temple, and eat and drink and do not indulge; He does not like the indulgers.
7:31 O CHILDREN of Adam! Beautify yourselves23 for every act of worship, and eat and drink [freely], but do not waste: verily, He does not love the wasteful!
Lit., "take to your adornment (zinah)". According to Raghib (as quoted in Lane III, 1279 f.), the proper 'meaning of zinah is "a [beautifying] thing that does not disgrace or render unseemly ... either in the present world or in that which is to come": thus, it signifies anything of beauty in both the physical and moral connotations of the word.
Dress Nicely For The Masjid7:31 O children of Adam, you shall be clean and dress nicely when you go to the masjid. And eat and drink moderately; Surely, He does not love the gluttons.,
7:31 O Children of Adam! Adorn yourselves with nice attire remaining subservient to Divine Commands at every occasion of subservience. Enjoy God’s bounties, but do not commit excesses. God does not love the wasters.15
Masjid = All occasions of subservience to God. This encompasses the entire life of a Muslim
7:32 Qul man harrama zeenata Allahiallatee akhraja liAAibadihi waalttayyibatimina alrrizqi qul hiya lillatheena amanoofee alhayati alddunya khalisatanyawma alqiyamati kathalika nufassilu al-ayatiliqawmin yaAAlamoona
Do Not Prohibit in the Name Of God7:32 Say, "Who has forbidden the nice things that God has brought forth for His servants and the good provisions?" Say, "They are in this worldly life for those who acknowledge, and they will be exclusive for them on the day of Resurrection" We thus explain the signs for those who know.12
This verse implicitly criticizes the clerics who prohibited gold and silk for men.
7:32 Say: "Who has made unlawful the nice things that God has brought forth for His servants and the good provisions?" Say: "They are meant for those who believe during this worldly life, and they will be exclusive for them on the Day of Resurrection." It is such that We explain the revelations for those who know.
7:32 Say: "Who is there to forbid the beauty which God has brought forth for His creatures, and the good things from among the means of sustenance?" Say: "They are [lawful] in the life of this world unto all who have attained to faith - to be theirs alone on Resurrection Day."24 Thus clearly do We spell out these messages unto people of [innate] knowledge!
By declaring that all good and beautiful things of life-i.e., those which are not expressly prohibited-are lawful to the believers, the Qur'an condemns, by implication, all forms of life-denying asceticism, world-renunciation and self-mortification. While, in the life of this world, those good things are shared by believers and unbelievers alike, they will be denied to the latter in the hereafter (cf. verses 51 of this surah).
Innovated Prohibitions Condemned7:32 Say, "Who prohibited the nice things GOD has created for His creatures, and the good provisions?" Say, "Such provisions are to be enjoyed in this life by those who believe. Moreover, the good provisions will be exclusively theirs on the Day of Resurrection." We thus explain the revelations for people who know.,
7:32 Say, "Who is there to forbid the beauty and aesthetic niceties that God has brought forth for His servants, and the good things of sustenance?” Say, “On the Day of Resurrection, these things will be only for those who chose to believe in Divine laws during the life of this world.” Thus do We detail Our messages for people who make use of what they learn. [17:18-20, 20:117-123]
7:33 Qul innama harrama rabbiyaalfawahisha ma thahara minhawama batana waal-ithma waalbaghyabighayri alhaqqi waan tushrikoo biAllahi malam yunazzil bihi sultanan waan taqooloo AAala Allahima la taAAlamoona
7:33 Say, "My Lord has forbidden all lewd action, what is obvious from them and what is subtle, and sin, aggression without cause, your setting up partners with God that were never authorized by Him, and saying about God what you do not know."
7:33 Say: "My Lord has made unlawful immorality; what is public of it and private; and sin, and aggression without cause, and that you set up partners with God that which He has never authorized, and that you say about God what you do not know."
7:33 Say: "Verily, my Sustainer has forbidden only shameful deeds, be they open or secret, and [every kind of] sinning, and unjustified envy, and the ascribing of divinity to aught beside Him - since He has never bestowed any warrant therefor from on high and the attributing unto God of aught of which you have no knowledge."
7:33 Say, "My Lord prohibits only evil deeds, be they obvious or hidden, and sins, and unjustifiable aggression, and to set up beside GOD powerless idols, and to say about GOD what you do not know.",
7:33 Say, "My Lord forbids only: Indecent shameful deeds, open or secret, actions that hurt the ‘self’ and drag down the individual and collective human potential, unjust aggression, associating others with God (Shirk), for which He has sent down no authority, and that you say things about God that you do not know.”
7:34 Walikulli ommatin ajalun fa-itha jaaajaluhum la yasta/khiroona saAAatan walayastaqdimoona
7:34 For every nation will be an allotted time; when their time is reached, they will not delay by one moment nor advance it.
7:34 And for every nation will be an appointed time; when their time is reached, they will not delay by one hour nor advance.
7:34 And for all people a term has been set:25 and when [the end of] their term approaches, they can neither delay it by a single moment,26 nor can they hasten it.
Lit., "for every community (ummah) there is a term": i.e., all people have a life-term decreed by God, during which they are at liberty to accept or to reject the guidance offered them through revelation. The word ummah often denotes "living beings" -in this context, "people".
In Arabic usage, the term sa'ah (lit., "hour") signifies not merely the astronomical hour-i.e., the twenty-fourth part of a mean solar day -but also "time" in an absolute sense, or any fraction of it, whether large or small. In the above context, it has obviously been used in the sense of "a least fraction of time" or "a single moment".
7:34 For each community, there is a predetermined life span. Once their interim comes to an end, they cannot delay it by one hour, nor advance it.,
7:34 All nations and communities determine the terms of their Rise and Fall in accordance with these Divine laws. And these laws work with meticulous timing, without delay and without hastening.
7:35 Ya banee adama immaya/tiyannakum rusulun minkum yaqussoona AAalaykum ayateefamani ittaqa waaslaha fala khawfunAAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona
When Messengers Come To You7:35 O Children of Adam, when messengers come to you from amongst yourselves and narrate My signs to you; then for those who are aware, and reform, there will be no fear over them nor will they grieve.
7:35 O Children of Adam, when messengers come to you from among yourselves and tell to you My revelations; then for those who are aware, and upright, there will be no fear over them nor will they grieve.
7:35 O CHILDREN of Adam! Whenever there come unto you apostles of your own, conveying My messages unto you, then all who are conscious of Me and live righteously - no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve;
Messengers From Among You7:35 O children of Adam, when messengers come to you from among you, and recite My revelations to you, those who take heed and lead a righteous life, will have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.,
7:35 O Children of Adam! (I had revealed in the early stages of human civilization that I will keep sending My guidance to you 2:213.) When Messengers of your own come to you narrating My messages, those who will live upright and mend their ways, will have nothing to fear or grieve.
7:36 Waallatheena kaththaboobi-ayatina waistakbaroo AAanhaola-ika as-habu alnnari humfeeha khalidoona
7:36 As for those who reject Our signs, and become arrogant towards them; then these are the dwellers of the fire, in it they will abide"
7:36 As for those who reject Our revelations, and become arrogant towards them; then these are the dwellers of the Fire, in it they will abide"
7:36 but they who give the lie to Our messages and scorn them in their pride-these are destined for the fire, therein to abide.
7:36 As for those who reject our revelations, and are too arrogant to uphold them, they have incurred Hell, wherein they abide forever.,
7:36 But those who reject Our revelations and scorn them, will dwell in the Hellfire to live therein, forever.
7:37 Faman athlamu mimmani iftaraAAala Allahi kathiban aw kaththababi-ayatihi ola-ika yanaluhum naseebuhummina alkitabi hatta itha jaat-humrusuluna yatawaffawnahum qaloo ayna makuntum tadAAoona min dooni Allahi qaloo dallooAAanna washahidoo AAala anfusihim annahum kanookafireena
The Worst People7:37 Who is more wicked than one who invents lies about God, or denies His signs? These will receive their recompense from the book; so that when Our messengers come to take them, they will say, "Where are those whom you used to call on besides God?" they said, "They have abandoned us!" and they bore witness upon themselves that they were ingrates.
7:37 Who is more wicked than he who invents lies about God, or denies His revelations? These will receive their recompense from the record; so that when Our messengers come to terminate their lives, they will say: "Where are those whom you used to call on besides God?" They said: "They have abandoned us!" And they bore witness upon themselves that they were rejecters.
7:37 And who could be more wicked than they who attribute their own lying inventions to God or give the lie to His messages? Whatever has been decreed to be their lot [in life] will be theirs27 -till there shall come _ unto them Our messengers to cause them to die, [and] shall say, "Where, now, are those beings whom you were wont to invoke beside God?" And [those sinners] will reply, "They have forsaken us!" -and [thus] they will bear witness against themselves that they had been denying the truth.
Lit., "their share of the [divine] decree (al-kitab) will reach them": i.e., they will have in their lifetime, like all other people, all the good or bad fortune envisaged for them in God's eternal decree. The "messengers" (rusul) referred to in the next clause are, apparently, the angels of death.
7:37 Who is more evil than those who invent lies about GOD, or reject His revelations? These will get their share, in accordance with the scripture, then, when our messengers come to terminate their lives, they will say, "Where are the idols you used to implore beside GOD?" They will say, "They have abandoned us." They will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers.,
7:37 Who can do a greater wrong than the one who invents lies about God, or belies His revelations? They get their due share according to the Law of Respite till Our couriers of death come to them saying, “Where are those on whom you called besides God?” They will respond, “They have left us hanging.” Then they will testify against themselves that they had been disbelievers.
7:38 قال ادخلوا فى امم قد خلت من قبلكم من الجن والانس فى النار كلما دخلت امة لعنت اختها حتى اذا اداركوا فيها جميعا قالت اخرىهم لاولىهم ربنا هؤلاء اضلونا فاتهم عذابا ضعفا من النار قال لكل ضعف ولكن لا تعلمون
7:38 Qala odkhuloo fee omamin qad khalatmin qablikum mina aljinni waal-insi fee alnnarikullama dakhalat ommatun laAAanat okhtaha hattaitha iddarakoo feeha jameeAAan qalatokhrahum li-oolahum rabbana haola-iadalloona faatihim AAathaban diAAfanmina alnnari qala likullin diAAfunwalakin la taAAlamoona
7:38 He said, "Enter with the multitude of nations before you from humans and Jinn to the fire!" Every time a nation entered, it cursed its sister nation, until they are all gathered inside it; then the last of them says to the first: "Our Lord, these are the ones who have misguided us, so give them double the retribution of the fire!" He replied: "Each will receive double, but you do not know."13
7:38 He said: "Enter with the multitude of nations before you from mankind and Jinn to the Fire!" Every time a nation entered, it cursed its sister nation, until they are all gathered inside it; then the last of them says to the first: "Our Lord, these are the ones who have misguided us, so give them double the retribution of the Fire!" He replied: "Each will receive double, but you do not know."
7:38 [And God] will say: "Join those hosts of invisible beings and humans who have gone before you into the fire!" [And] every time a host enters [the fire], it will curse its fellow-host -so much so that, when they all shall have passed into it, one after another, the last of them will speak [thus] of the first of them:28 "O our Sustainer! It is they who have led us astray: give, them, therefore, double suffering through fire!" He, will reply: "Every one of you deserves double suffering29 -but you know it not."
The terms "first" and "last" refer here either to a sequence in time ("those who came earlier" and "those who came later") or in status ("leaders" and "followers"); and in both cases they relate, as the next sentence indicates, to the evil influence which the former exerted on the latter during their lifetime-either directly, as leaders of thought and persons of distinction, or indirectly, as forerunners in.time, whose example was followed by later generations.
Lit., "to everyone a double [suffering]": i.e., for having gone astray and for having, by his example, led others astray. Cf. 16:25 - "on Resurrection Day they shall bear the full weight of their own burdens, as well as some of the burdens of those ignorant ones whom they have led astray".
Mutual Blaming7:38 He will say, "Enter with the previous communities of jinns and humans into Hell." Every time a group enters, they will curse their ancestral group. Once they are all in it, the latest one will say of the previous one, "Our Lord, these are the ones who misled us. Give them double the retribution of Hell." He will say, "Each receives double, but you do not know.",
7:38 God will command them to join the previous uncivilized and civilized communities into the fire. Every later group will blame the earlier one, "Our Lord! These are the ones who misled us; double their punishment.” He will say, “Doubled for all”: but this you do not know.16
The first group violated the laws and misled others, and the second group was guilty of blind following and misleading their successors
7:39 Waqalat oolahum li-okhrahumfama kana lakum AAalayna min fadlinfathooqoo alAAathaba bima kuntum taksiboona
7:39 The first of them said to the last: "You have no preference over us, so taste the retribution for what you earned!"
7:39 And the first of them said to the last: "You have no preference over us, so taste the retribution for what you have earned!"
7:39 And the first of them will say unto the last of them: "So you were in no wise superior to us!30 Taste, then, this suffering for all [the evil] that you were wont to do!"
I.e., "You went the wrong way, as we did, out of your own free will, and you bear the same responsibility as we do." Another possible interpretation is: "You are not superior to us because you have learnt nothing from our mistakes."
7:39 The ancestral group will say to the later group, "Since you had an advantage over us, taste the retribution for your own sins.",
7:39 The first nation will say to the last, “You are not the least bit better than us. So taste the doom for what you earned.”
7:40 Inna allatheena kaththaboo bi-ayatinawaistakbaroo AAanha la tufattahulahum abwabu alssama-i walayadkhuloona aljannata hatta yalija aljamalu feesammi alkhiyati wakathalika najzee almujrimeena
Do Not Be Unappreciative of God's Signs7:40 Those who have denied Our signs, and reacted to them with arrogance, the gates of the sky will not open for them, nor will they enter paradise until the camel passes through the eye of a needle. It is such that We recompense the criminals.14
If the word jamal is read as jummal (rope), then it changes the meaning of the phrase to "until the rope passes through the eye of a needle." The Bible uses the same metaphor. "And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God." (Matthew 19:24 ; Mark 10:25 ; Luke 18:25 ). Ironically, despite these Biblical verses, many modern evangelical Christians, who worship the fictional Jesus, have become avid proponents of wild capitalism and big corporations.
7:40 Those who have denied Our revelations, and became arrogant towards them, the gates of the heavens will not open for them, nor will they enter the Paradise until the camel passes through the eye of a needle. It is such that We recompense the criminals.
7:40 VERILY, unto those who give the lie to Our messages and scorn them in their pride, the gates of heaven shall not be opened;31 and they shall not enter paradise any more than a twisted rope can pass through a needle's eye:32 for thus do We requite such as are lost in sin.
According to Ibn `Abbas (as quoted by Razi), this metaphor signifies that God will not accept any of the good deeds of such sinners, nor their subsequent supplications.
Lit., "until (hatta) a twisted rope passes through a needle's eye"; since this phrase is meant to express an impossibility, the rendering of hatta as "any more than" seems to be appropriate here. As for the word jamal occurring in this sentence, there is hardly any doubt that its translation, in this context, as "camel" is erroneous. As pointed out by Zamakhshari' (and confirmed by other classical commentators, including Razi), Ibn `Abbas used to read the word in the spelling jummal, which signifies "a thick rope" or "a twisted cable"; and the same reading is attributed to 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (Taj al-'Arus ). It is to be noted that there are also several other dialectical spellings of this word, namely, jumal, juml, jumul and, finally, jamal (as in the generally-accepted version of the Qur'an) - all of them signifying "a thick, twisted rope" (Jawhari, and all of them used in this sense by some of the Prophet's Companions or their immediate successors (tabi'un). Ibn `Abbas is also quoted by Zamakhshari as having said that God could not have coined so inappropriate a metaphor as "a camel passing through a needle's eye"-meaning that there is no relationship whatsoever between a camel and a needle's eye whereas, on the other hand, there is a definite relationship between the latter and a rope (which, after all, is but an extremely thick thread). On all accounts, therefore, the rendering of jamal as "a twisted rope" is, in this context, infinitely preferable to that of "a camel". The fact that the latter rendering occurs in a somewhat similar phrase in the Greek version of the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew xix, 24, Mark x, 25 and Luke xviii, 25) does not affect this contention. One should remember that the Gospels were originally composed in Aramaic, the language of Palestine at the time of Jesus, and that those Aramaic texts are now lost. It is more than probable that, owing to the customary absence of vowel signs in Aramaic writing, the Greek translator misunderstood the consonant spelling g-m-l (corresponding to the Arabic j-m-l), and took it to mean "a camel": a mistake repeated since, with regard to the above Qur'an-verse, by many Muslims and all, non-Muslim orientalists as well.
Rejecting God's Revelations: An Unforgivable Offense7:40 Surely, those who reject our revelations and are too arrogant to uphold them, the gates of the sky will never open for them, nor will they enter Paradise until the camel passes through the needle's eye. We thus requite the guilty.,
7:40 Those who deny Our messages, and scorn them, the gates of heaven will not be opened for them, and they will not enter the Garden until the camel goes through the eye of a needle. This is how We recompense the guilty.17
Likewise nations that ignore the Divine laws in nature will utterly fail to establish a Paradise on earth. The parable of the camel and the needle conveys a perception, the impossibility of attaining success in defiance of these laws
7:41 Lahum min jahannama mihadun waminfawqihim ghawashin wakathalika najzee alththalimeena
7:41 They will have hell as an abode, and from above them will be barriers. It is thus We recompense the wicked.
7:41 They will have Hell as an abode, and from above them will be barriers. It is thus We recompense the wicked.
7:41 Hell will be their resting-place and their covering as well:33 for thus do We requite the evildoers.
Lit., "for them there will be a resting-place of [the fires of] hell and, from above them, coverings [thereof]".
7:41 They have incurred Hell as an abode; they will have barriers above them. We thus requite the transgressors.,
7:41 Hell is their bed and their covering as well. This is how We recompense the guilty, those who steal the fruit of others’ labor and thus violate human rights.18
Nations that fail to build their own Paradise on earth only lurk on hellish ground. They have a ceiling of chaos above, keeping them from rising in the community of nations
7:42 Waallatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati la nukallifunafsan illa wusAAaha ola-ika as-habualjannati hum feeha khalidoona
7:42 As for those who acknowledge and do good; We do not burden a person beyond its capacity; those are the dwellers of paradise, in it they will abide.
7:42 As for those who believe and do good; We do not burden a soul except with what it can bear; those are the dwellers of the Paradise, in it they will abide.
7:42 But those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds - [and] We do not burden any human being with more than he is well able to bear - they are destined for paradise, therein to abide,
7:42 As for those who believe and lead a righteous life - we never burden any soul beyond its means - these will be the dwellers of Paradise. They abide in it forever.,
7:42 But those who attain conviction in Divine laws and work to augment the individual and collective potential of humanity, will succeed in attaining Paradise of their own making (3:136). We never assign goals to people that are beyond their capacity.19
7:43 WanazaAAna ma fee sudoorihimmin ghillin tajree min tahtihimu al-anharu waqalooalhamdu lillahi allathee hadanalihatha wama kunna linahtadiya lawlaan hadana Allahu laqad jaat rusulurabbina bialhaqqi wanoodoo an tilkumualjannatu oorithtumooha bima kuntum taAAmaloona
7:43 We removed what was in their chests of jealousy and hidden enmity; rivers will flow beneath them; and they will say, "Praise be to God who has guided us to this, and we would not have been guided unless God guided us. The messengers of our Lord had come with truth." It will be announced to them: "This is paradise; you have inherited it for what you have done."
7:43 And We removed what was in their chests of hate; rivers will flow beneath them; and they will say: "Praise be to God who has guided us to this, and we would not have been guided unless God guided us. The messengers of our Lord had come with the truth." And it was called to them: "This is the Paradise; you have inherited it for what you have done."
7:43 after We shall have removed whatever unworthy thoughts or feelings may have been [lingering] in their bosoms. Running waters will flow at their feet;34 and they will say: "All praise is due to God, who has guided us unto this; for we would certainly not have found the right path unless God had guided us! Indeed, our Sustainer's apostles have told us the truth!" And [a voice] will call out unto them: "This is the paradise which you have inherited by virtue of your past deeds!"
Lit., "beneath them": i.e., all blessings will be at their command.
By God's Grace7:43 We will remove all jealousy from their hearts. Rivers will flow beneath them, and they will say, "GOD be praised for guiding us. We could not possibly be guided, if it were not that GOD has guided us. The messengers of our Lord did bring the truth." They will be called: "This is your Paradise. You have inherited it, in return for your works.",
7:43 (In earthly life, human beings conceal many negative feelings they might have toward others even though, apparently their mutual relations are cordial) We will remove all negative emotions from their hearts. There will be no such feelings amongst the dwellers of earthly and heavenly Paradise wherein streams will flow. (The blessings of such a Social Order will be everlasting!) They will say, “All praise is due to God Who has guided us to such a beautiful destination. Without God’s Guidance we would never have reached this state of felicity. God’s Messengers brought to us this truth.” It will be proclaimed, “This is the Paradise you have inherited” (as a result of your own effort, therefore, you will not be expelled from it.)20
These verses are as much applicable to this world as to the Hereafter. In this Ideal Society, justice, and therefore, mutual trust will prevail. Rivers of aesthetic beauties will flow and provision will be abundant. When the basic needs of individuals are secure, they will have the chance to move toward the higher levels of self-actualization. So, negative emotions and behavior such as jealousy, selfishness, contempt, rancor, revenge and deceit shall vanish from their hearts. They will praise God in word and action for His guidance, without which the bliss would not be possible. They will acknowledge that the Messengers of their Lord came with the absolute truth. They will hear echoes of welcome: This is your Paradise. You have built it and you shall inherit it never to be lost again
7:44 Wanada as-habualjannati as-haba alnnari an qadwajadna ma waAAadana rabbuna haqqanfahal wajadtum ma waAAada rabbukum haqqan qaloonaAAam faaththana mu-aththinun baynahum an laAAnatuAllahi AAala alththalimeena
A Dialogue Between People of Paradise and Hell7:44 The companions of paradise called the dwellers of the fire: "We have found what our Lord promised us to be true; did you find what your Lord promised to be true?" They said, "Indeed!" Then a caller announced between them: "God's curse is on the wicked."
7:44 And the dwellers of the Paradise called the dwellers of the Fire: "We have found what our Lord promised us to be true; did you find what your Lord promised to be true?" They said: "Indeed!" Then a caller announced between them: "The curse of God is on the wicked."
7:44 And the inmates of paradise will call out to the inmates of the fire: "Now we have found that what our Sustainer promised us has come true; have you. too, found that what your Sustainer promised you has come true?" [The others] will answer, "Yes!"-whereupon from their midst a voice35 will loudly proclaim: "God's rejection is the due of the evildoers
Lit., "an announcer" (mu'adhdhin).
7:44 The dwellers of Paradise will call the dwellers of Hell: "We have found our Lord's promise to be the truth; have you found your Lord's promise to be the truth?" They will say, "Yes." An announcer between them will announce: "GOD's condemnation has befallen the transgressors;,
7:44 The dwellers of the Garden will call out to the dwellers of the fire, “We have found that what our Lord promised us has come true. Have you too, found that what your Lord promised you has come true?” They will answer, “Yes!” Then from their midst a voice will proclaim, “God rejects the oppressors who wrongfully violated human rights.”
7:45 Allatheena yasuddoona AAansabeeli Allahi wayabghoonaha AAiwajan wahum bial-akhiratikafiroona
7:45 "The ones who hinder from the path of God, and seek to distort it, are the rejecters of the Hereafter."
7:45 "The ones who repel from the path of God, and sought to make it crooked; and regarding the Hereafter they were rejecters."
7:45 who turn others away from God's path and try to make it appear crooked, and who refuse to acknowledge the truth of the life to come!"
7:45 "who repel from the path of GOD, and strive to make it crooked, and, with regard to the Hereafter, they are disbelievers.",
7:45 They hindered men and women from the path of God and tried to make it crooked, thus practically denying the Law of Requital and the life Hereafter.
7:46 Wabaynahuma hijabunwaAAala al-aAArafi rijalun yaAArifoonakullan biseemahum wanadaw as-habaaljannati an salamun AAalaykum lam yadkhuloohawahum yatmaAAoona
Identification Station7:46 A barrier separates them. At the identification station there are people who recognize others by their features. They called out to the dwellers of paradise: "Peace be upon you!" They have not yet entered it, but they are hoping.15
The word araf is a plural noun derived from the verb ARaFa (recognize, discern, know, identify). The usage of both of these forms in this very verse clarifies the meaning of araf as identification station, where people are separated according to their failure and success in their test during their lives on the planet earth. Traditional translations render it as "purgatory, limbo" or an elevated third place between paradise and hell. We translated the word rijal as "people" rather than "man," since the verse is not in the context of relations between men and women. Unlike zakar (male), rijal (men, walkers on feet; humans) does not necessarily exclude women (See, 9:108; 16:43; 17:64; 21:7; 38:62; 64:6; 72:6). At the identification station, people are recognized and separated based on certain marks recognized by detectors commissioned by God. See 2:26; 13:35; 47:15. Also, see 12:109; 33:4; 39:29; 72:5.
The idea of limbo has been much more important among Catholics. However, in 2006, after a week-long deliberation, the Theological Commission recommended to Pope Benedict XVI that he abolish limbus infantium which has been in existence for the last 700 years. Below is an excerpt from the Internationalist Humanist News authored by Babu Gogineni about this "radical restructuring of the heavens":
"Since early days, Christians have wrestled with the thorny question of the fate of unbaptised prophets, as well as the fate of children who die before they are baptized. Catholics believe that all human beings, with the exception of Mary and Jesus, are born in original sin and that only the ritual of baptism will cleanse their sins and will redeem them. Without baptism, there can be no union of the believer with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection, and there can be no holy communion with God, either in this life or in the next. Such a person cannot go to heaven even if he or she has never committed sin.
"To help solve the problem, St. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-390 AD) proposed that the unbaptised should neither be punished nor could they access the full glory of God. However, the hardliner St Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD) rejected this idea, insisting that baptism was necessary for salvation, and that even babies would be consigned to hell if they were not baptized. Though St. Augustine made the generous concession that their torment would be the mildest of all of hell's residents, this torture of the innocent was unacceptable to St Thomas Aquinas (1226-1274 AD), the first major theologian to speculate about the existence of a place called limbo where these souls would be lodged for ever. Limbo is now a part of Canon Law. …
"This safe passage to heaven that the Catholic Church now assures children who are dying young is a significant step in the right direction. One should now hope and pray that in the Catholic heaven the children will also receive adequate protection from sexual abuse by Catholic priests. Since the Church did not deem sexual abuse by its clergy a matter worthy of punishment in this world, they will all no doubt now be going to heaven too. The Church needs to take immediate steps to ensure that the millions of little children who are now being admitted to heaven are adequately protected in line with the Holy See's international obligations as an early ratifier of the 1990 Convention on the Rights of the Child."
On the other hand, a Lutheran theologian Martin E Marty, in an article published at Christian Post, criticized the timing of this papal amendment and its ramification:
"The post-limbo announcement awakens all kinds of responses, many of them easily accessible on the internet or in the press. Taunters who have heard that Catholicism does not change now taunt, "Here's a change." Catholic pastors who have always found the reference to limbo, a place of non-descriptness and non-happening, to be more chilling than comforting to parents of unbaptized children can be relieved of the charge to pass on word about it. Catholics who lean toward a most expansive Catholic view of salvation and tend toward universalism cheer, for this proclamation that unbaptized infants can go straight to heaven might open the door for Catholic witness that some non-infants could have the same experience. "Pro-choice" Catholics are coming on record as seeing that this can fortify their cause: If fetuses are babies, and they no longer go to limbo but can go to heaven, then abortion may not be as dire a fate as it is often pictured to be. Abort and send them prematurely to heaven. Catholic traditionalists – you'll find plenty of them – rage at Pope Benedict and others involved in this announcement, seeing them as traitors to the Catholic cause: If this can change, can't other things? Relativism, which the pope abhors, will take over.
"Pope Benedict made clear in his announcement that limbo was never an infallible teaching and was not even a formal doctrine of the church. We wonder whether generations of parents who suffered endlessly as they imagined their infants endlessly denied the vision of God or much of any other kind of vision knew of that nuance. Those of us who are not Catholic, and who care about Catholic teaching and Catholic parents, but cannot appreciate all the niceties of gradation of authority among "infallible" and "not quite infallible" and "traditional" and "easy to change" teachings, will look for clarification.
"So will Catholics of many stripes, including some who had not thought about limbo for a long time, but in response to press coverage now find themselves in an intellectual limbo."
7:46 And between them is a barrier, and on the elevated platform are men who recognized others by their features. And they called out to the dwellers of the Paradise: "Peace be upon you!" They have not yet entered it, but they are hoping.
7:46 And between the two there will be a barrier.36 And there will be persons who [in life] were endowed with the faculty of discernment [between right and wrong], recognizing each by its mark.37 And they will call out unto the inmates of paradise, "Peace be upon you!"-not having entered it themselves, but longing [for it].
The word hijab denotes anything that intervenes as an obstacle between things or conceals one thing from another; it is used in both an abstract and a concrete sense.
The term al-a'raf (which gave to this surah its title) occurs in the Qur'an only twice-namely, in the above verse and in verse 48. It is the plural of `urf, which primarily denotes "acknowledgement" or "discernment", and is also used to denote the highest, or most elevated, part of anything (because it is most easily discerned): for instance, the `urf of a cock is the coxcomb, that of a horse its mane, and so forth. On the basis of this idiomatic usage, many commentators assume that the a'raf referred to here are "elevated places", like the heights of a wall or its ramparts, and identify it with the "barrier" (hijab) mentioned at the end of the preceding sentence. A far more likely interpretation, however, is forthcoming from the primary significance of the word `urf and its plural a'raf: namely, "discernment" and "the faculty of discernment", respectively. This interpretation has been adopted by some of the great, early commentators of the Qur'an, like Al-Hasan al-Basri and Az-Zajjaj, whose views Razi quotes with evident approval. They state emphatically that the expression `ala 'l-a'raf is synonymous with `ala ma'rifah, that is, "possessing knowledge" or "endowed with the faculty of discernment" (i.e., between right and wrong); and that the persons thus described are those who in their lifetime were able to discern between right and wrong ("recognizing each by its mark"), but did not definitely incline to either: in brief, the indifferent ones. Their lukewarm attitude has prevented them from doing either much good or much wrong-with the result that, as the next sentence shows, they deserve neither paradise nor hell. (Several Traditions to this effect are quoted by Tabari as well as by Ibn Kathir in their commentaries on this verse.) -The noun rijal (lit., "men") at the beginning of the next sentence as well as in verse 48 obviously denotes "persons" of both sexes.
7:46 A barrier separates them, while the Purgatory is occupied by people who recognize each side by their looks. They will call the dwellers of Paradise: "Peace be upon you." They did not enter (Paradise) through wishful thinking.,4
Initially, there will be 4 places: (1) the High Heaven, (2) the Lower Heaven, (3) the Purgatory, and (4) Hell. ThePurgatory will be annexed into the Lower Heaven.
7:46 Between the people of Paradise and Hell there will be a veil. On the Heights there will be people with insight who will recognize others by their looks. They will greet those who are hoping to enter the Garden but have not yet entered it, with “Peace!” [2:143, 4:41, 56:10-11]
7:47 Wa-itha surifat absaruhumtilqaa as-habi alnnari qaloorabbana la tajAAalna maAAa alqawmi alththalimeena
7:47 When their eyes are turned towards the dwellers of the fire, they say, "Our Lord, do not make us with the wicked people!"
7:47 And when their eyes are turned towards the dwellers of the Fire, they say: "Our Lord, do not place us with the wicked people!"
7:47 And whenever their eyes are turned towards the inmates of the fire, they will cry: "O our Sustainer! Place us not among the people who have been guilty of evildoing!"
7:47 When they turn their eyes towards the dwellers of Hell, they will say, "Our Lord, do not put us with these wicked people.",
7:47 When their eyes turn toward the dwellers of the hellish societies, they will say, “Our Lord! Do not place us with unjust people.”
7:48 Wanada as-habual-aAArafi rijalan yaAArifoonahum biseemahumqaloo ma aghna AAankum jamAAukum wamakuntum tastakbiroona
7:48 Those attending the identification station called on men they recognized by their features, they said, "What good did your large number do for you, or what you were arrogant for?"*
7:48 And the people standing on the elevated platform called on men they recognized by their features, they said: "What good did your large number do for you, or what you were arrogant for?"
7:48 And they who [in life] had possessed this faculty of discernment will call out to those whom they recognize by their marks [as sinners], saying: "What has your amassing [of wealth] availed you, and all the false pride of your past?
The Majority Doomed7:48 The dwellers of the Purgatory will call on people they recognize by their looks, saying, "Your great numbers did not avail you in any way, nor did your arrogance.",
7:48 The people on the Heights will recognize another group by their appearance and say to them, “How did your multitude, the wealth you amassed and the things you took pride in, help you?”21
In my opinion, the people of Heights will advise corrective action to be taken against the hoarding of wealth, population explosion, and self-glorification of nations. Jam’ukum = Your great numbers = Your multitude = Your hoardings = What you have amassed
7:49 Ahaola-i allatheenaaqsamtum la yanaluhumu Allahu birahmatinodkhuloo aljannata la khawfun AAalaykum wala antumtahzanoona
7:49 "Weren't these the ones whom you swore God would not grant them of His mercy? "Enter paradise, there is no fear for you nor will you grieve."
7:49 "Were these not the ones whom you swore God would not grant them of His mercy?" Enter the Paradise, there is no fear for you nor will you grieve.
7:49 Are those [blessed ones] the self-same people of whom you once solemnly declared, `Never will God bestow His grace upon them'?38 [For now they have been told,] `Enter paradise; no fear need you have, and neither shall you grieve!"'
Implying either that the believers did not deserve God's grace or, alternatively, that God does not exist. The expression "you solemnly declared" (lit., "you said under oath") is a metaphor for the unbelievers' utter conviction in this respect.
7:49 "Are those the people you swore that GOD will never touch them with mercy?" (The people in the Purgatory will then be told,) "Enter Paradise; you have nothing to fear, nor will you grieve.",
7:49 And pointing to the dwellers of the Garden, they will say, “Are these not the people about whom you used to swear that God will never bestow His grace upon them? They are entering the Garden where there will be no fear or grief.”22
They will make it clear that the Divine law favors no particular people. Obeying His laws brings His grace and bounties
7:50 Wanada as-habu alnarias-haba aljannati an afeedoo AAalaynamina alma-i aw mimma razaqakumu Allahu qalooinna Allaha harramahuma AAala alkafireena
7:50 The dwellers of the fire called on the dwellers of paradise: "Give us some water, or what God has provided for you?" They said, "God has forbidden it for the ingrates."
7:50 And the dwellers of the Fire called on the dwellers of the Paradise: "Give us some water, or what God has provided for you?" They said: "God has made it forbidden for the rejecters."
7:50 And the inmates of the fire will call out unto the inmates of paradise: "Pour some water upon us, or some of the sustenance [of paradise] which God has provided for you!" [The inmates of paradise] will reply: "Verily, God has denied both to those who have denied the truth -
7:50 The dwellers of Hell will call on the dwellers of Paradise: "Let some of your water, or some of GOD's provisions to you flow towards us." They will say, "GOD has forbidden them for the disbelievers.",
7:50 The dwellers of Hell will say to the dwellers of Paradise, “Give us something of the life-giving resources and the provisions bestowed on you by God.” They will reply, “God has made these things forbidden to the rejecters of His laws."23
The hellish societies will expect God’s provisions to be granted to them as free-bees. They will be told that God’s bounties can only be achieved by establishing the Right System
7:51 Allatheena ittakhathoodeenahum lahwan walaAAiban wagharrat-humu alhayatualddunya faalyawma nansahum kamanasoo liqaa yawmihim hatha wama kanoobi-ayatina yajhadoona
7:51 The ones who took their system as diversion and games, and were preoccupied with this worldly life. Today we ignore them as they ignored their meeting on this day, and they denied Our signs.
7:51 The ones who took their system for distraction and play, and were preoccupied with this worldly life. Today We forget them as they forgot their meeting on this Day, and they did not heed Our revelations.
7:51 those who, beguiled by the life of this world, have made play and passing delights their religion!39 [And God will say:] "And so We shall be oblivious of them today as they were oblivious of the coming of this their Day [of Judgment], and as Our messages they did deny:
See 6:70 and the corresponding note 60.
7:51 Those who do not take their religion seriously, and are totally preoccupied with this worldly life, we forget them on that day, because they forgot that day, and because they spurned our revelations.,
7:51 Those who took their religion as mere amusement and ritual partying, were deceived by immediate gains of the worldly life (6:70). We will forget them as they forgot the meeting of this Day, and rejected Our revelations.
7:52 Walaqad ji/nahum bikitabin fassalnahuAAala AAilmin hudan warahmatan liqawmin yu/minoona
The Quran Is Detailed in Knowledge7:52 We have brought them a book which We have detailed with knowledge; a guide and a mercy to those who acknowledge.16
7:52 And We have come to them with a Book which We have detailed with knowledge; a guidance and a mercy to those who believe.
7:52 for, indeed, We did convey unto them a divine writ which We clearly, and wisely,40 spelled out - a guidance and a grace unto people who will believe."
Lit., "with knowledge".
Quran: Fully Detailed7:52 We have given them a scripture that is fully detailed, with knowledge, guidance, and mercy for the people who believe.,
7:52 We have given them a Book of knowledge that explains the guidance in full detail. It is a mercy for those who accept it. (It has the Power to change hellish societies into Paradise on earth.)
7:53 Hal yanthuroona illata/weelahu yawma ya/tee ta/weeluhu yaqoolu allatheenanasoohu min qablu qad jaat rusulu rabbina bialhaqqifahal lana min shufaAAaa fayashfaAAoo lanaaw nuraddu fanaAAmala ghayra allathee kunnanaAAmalu qad khasiroo anfusahum wadalla AAanhum makanoo yaftaroona
7:53 Are they waiting for its fulfillment? On the day which its fulfillment happens, those who previously forgot it will say, "Our Lord's messengers have come with truth! Are there any intercessors to intercede for us? Or could we be returned so that we may act differently than what we did?" They have lost themselves and what they have invented has abandoned them.
7:53 Are they waiting for what it says to come true? On the day it comes true, those who previously forgot it will say: "The messengers of our Lord have come with the truth! Are there any intercessors to intercede for us? Or can we be sent back and we will work differently than what we did?" They have lost their souls and what they have invented has abandoned them.
7:53 Are [the unbelievers] but waiting for the final meaning of that [Day of Judgment] to unfold?41 [But] on the Day when its final meaning is unfolded, those who aforetime had been oblivious thereof will say: "Our Sustainer's apostles have indeed told us the truth! Have we, then, any intercessors who could intercede in our behalf? Or could we be brought back [to life] so that we might act otherwise than we were wont to act?"42 Indeed, they will have squandered their own selves, and all their false imagery will have forsaken them.
In this context, the term ta'wil (which literally means "an endeavour to arrive at the final meaning [of a saying or occurrence]"-cf. 3:7) signifies the fulfilment of the warnings contained in the Qur'an: and in this sense it connotes the "unfolding of its final meaning"
Cf. 6:27 -28.
7:53 Are they waiting until all (prophecies) are fulfilled? The day such fulfillment comes to pass, those who disregarded it in the past will say, "The messengers of our Lord have brought the truth. Are there any intercessors to intercede on our behalf? Would you send us back, so that we change our behavior, and do better works than what we did?" They have lost their souls, and their own innovations have caused their doom.,
7:53 Are they waiting until the consequences stare them in the eyes? The Day the consequences appear, those who disregarded it will say, “The Messengers of our Lord did bring the truth. Are there any intercessors to intercede on our behalf? Or can we be returned so that we behave differently from our past?” They have put their own ‘self’ in loss and their own forgery fails them.24
They will seek mediation for their mutual conflicts and long for starting from scratch. Since they have hurt their own ‘self’, they have lost the power of judgment and they would need help. They have been dragging unworkable systems
7:54 Inna rabbakumu Allahu allatheekhalaqa alssamawati waal-ardafee sittati ayyamin thumma istawa AAalaalAAarshi yughshee allayla alnnahara yatlubuhuhatheethan waalshshamsa waalqamara waalnnujoomamusakhkharatin bi-amrihi ala lahu alkhalqu waal-amrutabaraka Allahu rabbu alAAalameena
7:54 Your Lord is God who created the heavens and earth in six days, and then He established the authority. The night covers the day, which seeks it continually; and the sun and the moon and the stars are all subjected to His law; to Him is the creation and the law. Glory be to God, the Lord of the worlds.17
This verse, like many other verses informs us that God is employing evolution and stages in His creation (41:9; 7:69; 15:28; 24:45; 29:18; 32:7; 71:14). Furthermore, creation in six days provides a yardstick regarding the times allocated for the creation of the earth and the universe. According the Quran the creation of earth took four out of six days. If universe started 13.7 billion years ago, ignoring the possibility of early inflation, then 4/6th of this, would be approximately 9 billion years, which is about 4 billion years more than currently estimated age.
According to the Bible, God created the universe for a special purpose (Psalms 135:6), and creation shows the power of God (Isaiah 40:26,28 ), His glory and handiwork (Psalms 19:1), and the wisdom of God (Psalms 104:24; 136:5). In six days. Exodus 20:11 ; 31:17). First day, making light and dividing it from darkness (Genesis 1:3-5 ; 2Co 4:6). Second day, making the firmament or atmosphere, and separating the waters (Genesis 1:6-8 ). Third day, separating the land from the water, and making it fruitful (Genesis 1:9-13 ). Fourth day, placing the sun, moon, and stars to give light (Genesis 1:14-19 ). Fifth day, making birds, insects, and fish (Genesis 1:20-23 ). Sixth day, making beasts of the earth, and man (Genesis 1:24,28 ). God rested on the seventh day (Genesis 2:2-3 ). Those who distorted the revelation in the Bible misunderstood the meaning of the phrase "six days" as "six 24-hour days." According to the Bible, the earth is only 5700-plus years old.
The Quran rejects the assertion of God "resting" on the seventh day (50:38).
7:54 Your Lord is God who has created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He settled upon the Throne. The night runs away from the day, which seeks it continually; and the sun and the moon and the stars are commissioned by His command; to Him is the creation and the command. Glory to God, Lord of the worlds.
7:54 VERILY, your Sustainer is God, who has created the heavens and the earth in six aeons, and is established on the throne of His almightiness.43 He covers the day with the night in swift pursuit, with the sun and the moon and the stars subservient to His command: oh, verily, His is all creation and all command. Hallowed is God, the Sustainer of all the worlds!
The conjunctive particle thumma which precedes this clause does not always denote order in time ("then" or "thereupon"). In cases where it is used to link parallel statements it has often the function of the simple conjunction wa ("and") - as, for instance, in 2:29 ("and has applied His design. . .", etc.) As regards the term `arsh (lit., "throne" or "seat of power"), all Muslim commentators, classical and modern, are unanimously of the opinion that its metaphorical use in the Qur'an is meant to express God's absolute sway over all His creation. It is noteworthy that in all the seven instances where God is spoken of in the Qur'an as "established on the throne of His almightiness" (, 10:3, 13:2, 20:5, 25:59, 32:4 and 57:4), this expression is connected with a declaration of His having created the universe.-The word yawm, commonly translated as "day" - but rendered above as "aeon" - is used in Arabic to denote any period, whether extremely long ("aeon") or extremely short ("moment"): its application to an earthly "day" of twenty-four hours is only one of its many connotations. (Cf. in this respect note 26 above, where the meaning of sa'ah - lit., "hour" - is explained.)
7:54 Your Lord is the one GOD, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then assumed all authority. The night overtakes the day, as it pursues it persistently, and the sun, the moon, and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Absolutely, He controls all creation and all commands. Most Exalted is GOD, Lord of the universe.,5
The six days of creation are allegorical; they serve as a yardstick to let us know the relative complexity of ourinfinitesimal planet Earth--it was created in "4 days" (see41:10).
7:54 Your Lord is God Who created the heavens and earth in six stages, and then established Himself on the Throne of His Almightiness. He draws the night over the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession. The sun, the moon and the stars are committed to serve by His command. Remember! Behold! To Him belong the World of Creation and the World of Command. Exalted is God, Lord of the Worlds.25
7:55 OdAAoo rabbakum tadarruAAanwakhufyatan innahu la yuhibbu almuAAtadeena
7:55 Call on your Lord openly and in secret. He does not like the aggressors.
7:55 Call on your Lord in humility and in secret. He does not like the aggressors.
7:55 Call unto your Sustainer humbly, and in the secrecy of your hearts. Verily, He loves not those who transgress the bounds of what is right:
7:55 You shall worship your Lord publicly and privately; He does not love the transgressors.,
7:55 (He has the power to revive dead nations.) Call on your Lord in humility and in private. He does not love those who forsake moderation.
7:56 Wala tufsidoo fee al-ardibaAAda islahiha waodAAoohu khawfan watamaAAaninna rahmata Allahi qareebun mina almuhsineena
Do Not Corrupt the Earth7:56 Do not corrupt the earth after it has been reformed; and call on Him out of fear and want. God's mercy is near to the righteous.
7:56 And do not corrupt the earth after it has been made right; and call on Him fearing and hoping. Surely the mercy of God is near the righteous.
7:56 hence, do not spread corruption on earth after it has been so well ordered. And call unto Him with fear and longing: verily, God's grace is ever near unto the doers of good!
7:56 Do not corrupt the earth after it has been set straight, and worship Him out of reverence, and out of hope. Surely, GOD's mercy is attainable by the righteous.,
7:56 So, do not spread corruption on earth after it has been set in order. Call upon Him in fear and hope. God’s mercy is close to the benefactors of humanity.26
Fear the consequences of violating His commands and hope for His grace since His promise is always true
7:57 Wahuwa allathee yursilu alrriyahabushran bayna yaday rahmatihi hatta ithaaqallat sahaban thiqalan suqnahu libaladinmayyitin faanzalna bihi almaa faakhrajnabihi min kulli alththamarati kathalikanukhriju almawta laAAallakum tathakkaroona
7:57 He is the One who sends the winds to be dispersed between His hands of mercy; so when it carries a heavy cloud, We drive it to a dead town, and We send down the water with it and We bring forth fruits of all kind. Thus We will bring out the dead, perhaps you may remember.
7:57 He is the One who sends the winds to be dispersed between His hands of mercy; so when it carries a heavy cloud, We drive it to a dead land, and We send down the water with it and We bring forth fruits of all kind. It is thus that We will bring out the dead, perhaps you will remember.
7:57 And He it is who sends forth the winds as a glad tiding of His coming grace-so that, when they have brought heavy clouds, We may drive them towards dead land and cause thereby water to descend; and by this means do We cause all manner of fruit to come forth. Even thus shall We cause the \dead to come forth: [and this] you ought to keep in mind.44
This is the key-sentence of the parable set forth in verses 57-58: by the exercise of the same life-giving power by which God causes plants to grow, He will resurrect the dead at the end of time. The next sentence continues the parable by likening those whose hearts are open to the voice of truth to fertile earth, and those who are bent on denying it, to barren earth.
7:57 He is the One who sends the wind with good omen, as a mercy from His hands. Once they gather heavy clouds, we drive them to dead lands, and send down water therefrom, to produce with it all kinds of fruits. We thus resurrect the dead, that you may take heed.,
7:57 He is the One who sends pleasant winds bearing good news of the forthcoming rain of His blessings. When the winds carry the heavy clouds, We drive them to a land that is dead. The water then causes all kinds of fruit and vegetation to sprout. This is how We can revive dead people and nations. Herein is a sign for those who pay heed.
7:58 Waalbaladu alttayyibuyakhruju nabatuhu bi-ithni rabbihi waallatheekhabutha la yakhruju illa nakidan kathalikanusarrifu al-ayati liqawmin yashkuroona
7:58 As for the good town, its plants are produced by its Lord's permission, while the inferior land does not produce except very little. It is such that We cite the signs for a people who are thankful.
7:58 And the good land, its plants are brought forth with the permission of its Lord. And for the one that is bad, it does not bring forth except very little. It is such that We dispatch the signs for a people who are thankful.
7:58 As for the good land, its vegetation comes forth [in abundance] by its Sustainer's leave, whereas from the bad it comes forth but poorly. Thus do We give many facets to Our messages for [the benefit of] people who are grateful!
7:58 The good land readily produces its plants by the leave of its Lord, while the bad land barely produces anything useful. We thus explain the revelations for people who are appreciative.,
7:58 The land that has been well prepared springs up rich produce by the Leave of its Lord. The land that has not been well prepared only yields scant vegetation. (Similar is the situation of nations that wish to come back to life. They need reform at the grassroots level.) This is how We explain Our verses from various vantage points for those who are grateful to receive such clear guidance.
7:59 Laqad arsalna noohan ilaqawmihi faqala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu innee akhafu AAalaykumAAathaba yawmin AAatheemin
Noah7:59 We have sent Noah to his people, so he said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. I fear for you the retribution of a great day!"
7:59 We had sent Noah to his people, so he said: "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. I fear for you the retribution of a great Day!"
7:59 INDEED, We sent forth Noah unto his people,45 and he said: "O my people! Worship God alone: you have no deity other than Him. Verily, I fear lest suffering befall you on an awesome Day!"46
In continuation of the stress, in the preceding passages, on God's omnipotence and transcendental oneness, verses 59-93 refer to several of the earlier prophets, who preached the same truth, and whose names were familiar to the Arabs before the revelation of the Qur'an. Their stories - beginning with that of Noah, who is considered the first apostle ever sent to mankind - are reduced here to the warnings with which they unsuccessfully tried to persuade their people to worship God alone and to live righteously.
This refers either to the Day of Judgment or to the approaching deluge.
Noah7:59 We sent Noah to his people, saying, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god beside Him. I fear for you the retribution of an awesome day.",
7:59 (Now follows a brief resume of the previous Prophets and their nations for you to draw lessons) We sent Noah to his people. He said, “O My people! Serve God (by serving His creation). You have no other god besides Him. (If you do not reform) I fear for you the retribution of an awesome day.”27
The Qur’an gives a hint that Noah’s people had received other Messengers as well. 26:105 The people of Noah too denied the Messengers.
7:60 Qala almalao min qawmihi innalanaraka fee dalalin mubeenin
7:60 The leaders from his people said, "We see that you are clearly misguided."
7:60 The leaders from his people said: "We see that you are clearly misguided."
7:60 The great ones among his people replied: "Verily, we see that thou art obviously lost in error!"
7:60 The leaders among his people said, "We see that you are far astray.",
7:60 The chiefs of his people said, "We see you in manifest error.”
7:61 Qala ya qawmi laysa bee dalalatunwalakinnee rasoolun min rabbi alAAalameena
7:61 He said, "My people, I am not misguided, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds."
7:61 He said: "My people, I am not misguided, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds."
7:61 Said [Noah]: "O my people! There is no error in me, but I am an apostle from the Sustainer of all the worlds.
7:61 He said, "O my people, I am not astray; I am a messenger from the Lord of the universe.,
7:61 Noah said, "O My people! There is no error in me. I am a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds.
7:62 Oballighukum risalati rabbeewaansahu lakum waaAAlamu mina Allahi mala taAAlamoona
7:62 "I deliver to you my Lord's messages, I advise you, and I know from God what you do not know."
7:62 "I deliver to you the messages of my Lord, and I advise you, and I know from God what you do not know."
7:62 I am delivering unto you my Sustainer's messages and giving you good advice: for I know [through revelation] from God what you do not know.
7:62 "I deliver to you the messages of my Lord, and I advise you, and I know from GOD what you do not know.,
7:62 I only convey to you the messages of my Lord. My advice to you is sincere and I know from God what you do not know.
7:63 Awa AAajibtum an jaakum thikrunmin rabbikum AAala rajulin minkum liyunthirakumwalitattaqoo walaAAallakum turhamoona
7:63 "Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from amongst you to warn you so that you become aware, and that you may receive mercy?"
7:63 "Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from among you to warn you, that you may be righteous, and that you may receive mercy?"
7:63 Why, do you deem it strange that a tiding from your Sustainer should have come unto you through a man from among yourselves, so that he might warn you, and that you might become conscious of God, and that you might be graced with His mercy?"
7:63 "Is it too much of a wonder that a reminder should come to you from your Lord, through a man like you, to warn you, and to lead you to righteousness, that you may attain mercy?",
7:63 Why do you wonder that there has come to you a Reminder from your Lord through a man from amongst you - to warn you, and to show you the secure path so that you may flourish in grace?”
7:64 Fakaththaboohu faanjaynahu waallatheenamaAAahu fee alfulki waaghraqna allatheena kaththaboobi-ayatina innahum kanoo qawmanAAameena
7:64 They denied him, so We saved him and those with him in the ship, and We drowned those who denied Our signs; they were a blind people.
7:64 They denied him, so We saved him and those with him in the ship, and We drowned those who denied Our revelations; they were a blind people.
7:64 And yet they gave him the lie! And so We saved him and those who stood by him, in the ark, the while We caused those who had given the lie to Our messages to drown: verily, they were blind folk!47
Explaining this verse in his translation of the Qur'an, Muhammad Ali rightly points out that the latter "does not support the theory of a world deluge, for it plainly states ... that only people to whom Noah had delivered his message called him a liar, and ... were drowned .... Hence the deluge affected the territory of Noah 's people, not the whole world, as the Bible would have us believe." To this may be added that the deluge spoken of in the Bible, in the myths of Sumeria and Babylonia, and, finally, in the Qur'an, most probably represents the inundation, during the Ice Age, of the huge basin which today is covered by the Mediterranean: an inundation which was due to the break-in of the Atlantic through the land-barrier at the modern Gibraltar, and of the Black Sea through what is now the Dardanelles.
7:64 They rejected him. Consequently, we saved him and those with him in the ark, and we drowned those who rejected our revelations; they were blind.,
7:64 But they denied him. So, We saved him and those with him in the ship, and drowned those who denied Our revelations. They were a people blind in arrogance.28
A great flood was about to come as revealed to Noah. He and his followers built an Ark. They were with him in belief and in the ship, so they were saved
7:65 Wa-ila AAadin akhahumhoodan qala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu afala tattaqoona
Hud7:65 To Aad We sent their brother Hud, he said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. Will you not be aware?"
7:65 And to 'Aad We sent their brother Hud, he said: "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. Will you not be righteous?"
7:65 AND UNTO [the tribe of] `Ad [We sent] their brother Hud.48 He said: "O my people! Worship God alone: you have no deity other than Him. Will you not, then, be conscious of Him?"
Hud is said to have been the first Arabian prophet. He may be identical with the Biblical `Eber, the ancestor of the Hebrews (`Ibrim) who - like most of the Semitic tribes - had probably originated in South Arabia . (References to `2b& are found in Genesis x, 24-25 and xi, 14 ff.) The ancient Arabian name Hud is still reflected in that of Jacob's son Judah (Yahudah in Hebrew), which provided the subsequent designation of the Jews. The name ` Eber - both in Hebrew and in its Arabic form `Abir -signifies "one who crosses over" (i.e., from one territory to another), and may be a Biblical echo of the fact that this tribe "crossed over" from Arabia to Mesopotamia in pre-Abrahamic times.-The tribe of `Ad, to which Hud belonged ("their brother Hud"), inhabited the vast desert region known as AI-Ahqaf, between `Uman and Hadramawt, and was noted for its great power and influence (see 89:8 - "the like of whom has never been reared in all the land"). It disappeared from history many centuries before the advent of Islam, but its memory always remained alive in Arabian tradition.
Hood7:65 To `Aad we sent their brother Hood. He said, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god beside Him. Would you then observe righteousness?",
7:65 To the people of ‘Aad, We sent their brother, Hud. He said, “O My people! Serve God by serving His creation. You have no god besides Him. Do you not seek to live upright?”
7:66 Qala almalao allatheenakafaroo min qawmihi inna lanaraka fee safahatinwa-inna lanathunnuka mina alkathibeena
7:66 The leaders who rejected from among his people said, "We see you in foolishness, and we think you are one of the liars"
7:66 The leaders who rejected from among his people said: "We see you in foolishness, and we think you are one of the liars"
7:66 Said the great ones among his people, who refused to acknowledge the truth: "Verily, we see that thou art weak-minded; and, verily, we think that thou art a liar!"49
They considered him "weak-minded" because he expected them to give up their traditional beliefs and deities; and a "liar", because he claimed to be a prophet of God.
7:66 The leaders who disbelieved among his people said, "We see that you are behaving foolishly, and we think that you are a liar.",
7:66 The elite among his people who were disbelieving said, "Ah! We see that you are in folly, and we think that you are a liar.”
7:67 Qala ya qawmi laysa bee safahatunwalakinnee rasoolun min rabbi alAAalameena
7:67 He said, "My people, there is no foolishness in me, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds."
7:67 He said: "My people, there is no foolishness in me, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds."
7:67 Said [Hud]: "O my people! There is no weak-mindedness in me, but I am an apostle from the Sustainer of all the worlds.
7:67 He said, "O my people, there is no foolishness in me; I am a messenger from the Lord of the universe.,
7:67 He said, "O My people! There is no folly in me. I am a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds.
7:68 Oballighukum risalati rabbeewaana lakum nasihun ameenun
7:68 "To deliver to you my Lord's messages, and to you I am a trustworthy advisor."
7:68 "To deliver to you the messages of my Lord, and to you I am a trustworthy advisor."
7:68 I am delivering unto you my Sustainer's messages and advising you truly and wells.50
Lit., "I am a trustworthy adviser to you".
7:68 "I deliver to you my Lord's messages, and I am honestly advising you.,
7:68 I convey to you the messages of my Lord, and I am a sincere and trustworthy adviser to you.
7:69 Awa AAajibtum an jaakum thikrunmin rabbikum AAala rajulin minkum liyunthirakum waothkurooith jaAAalakum khulafaa min baAAdi qawmi noohinwazadakum fee alkhalqi bastatan faothkurooalaa Allahi laAAallakum tuflihoona
7:69 "Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from amongst you to warn you? Recall that he made you successors after the people of Noah, and He improved you in creation. So recall God's blessings that you may succeed."18
The word Basta is erroneously misspelled in modern manuscripts. Some manuscripts indicate a correction through a tiny letter S (Sin) on top of the erroneous letter S (Sad). This spelling error came to our attention when we noticed that the frequency of the letter/number S90 in the three S90-initialed chapters were 153, rather than the expected 152 (19x8). Our study of the oldest available manuscripts supported the implied correction of the mathematical system. The mathematical system of the Quran is a verifiable and falsifiable scientific theory that is supported by textual facts, historical events, and fulfilled predictions and prophecies. See 74:1; 1:1; 2:1; 13:38; 27:82; 38:1; 40:28; 46:10; 72:28.
This verse also informs us of the evolutionary stage or genetic improvement in our creation after Noah. Chapter 71, which focuses on the story of Noah, informs us of our creation on this planet in terms of evolution rather than an instantaneous one (71:14). See 7:69; 15:28; 24:45; 32:7).
7:69 "Are you surprised that a reminder has come to you from your Lord through a man from among you to warn you? And remember that He made you successors after the people of Noah, and He increased you in status. So remember the grace of God, that you may succeed."
7:69 Why, do you deem it strange that a tiding from your Sustainer should have come unto you through a man from among yourselves, so that he might warn you? Do but remember how He made you heirs to Noah's people, and endowed you abundantly with power:51 remember, then, God's blessings, so that you might attain to a happy state!"
Lit., "successors after Noah's people"-i.e., the most numerous and powerful of all the tribes that descended from Noah - "and increased you abundantly in respect of [your] natural endowment (khalq)". The latter term also signifies "power" (Razi).
7:69 "Is it too much of a wonder that a message should come to you from your Lord, through a man like you, to warn you? Recall that He made you inheritors after the people of Noah, and multiplied your number. Remember GOD's blessings, that you may succeed.",
7:69 Why do you wonder that there has come to you a Reminder from your Lord through a man from amongst you, to warn you? Recall that He made you successors to Noah’s people and gave you abundant power. Keep in mind God’s authority and blessings that you may continue to prosper.”
7:70 Qaloo aji/tana linaAAbuda Allahawahdahu wanathara ma kana yaAAbudu abaonafa/tina bima taAAiduna in kunta mina alssadiqeena
7:70 They said, "Have you come to us to serve God alone and abandon what our fathers had served? Bring us what you promise if you are of the truthful ones!"
7:70 They said: "Have you come to us to serve God alone and abandon what our fathers had served? Bring us what you promise if you are of the truthful ones!"
7:70 They answered: "Hast thou come to us [with the demand] that we worship God alone, and give up all that our forefathers were wont to worship? Bring about, then, that [punishment] with which thou hast threatened us, if thou art a man of truth!"
Following the Parents Blindly: A Human Tragedy7:70 They said, "Did you come to make us worship GOD alone, and abandon what our parents used to worship? We challenge you to bring the doom you threaten us with, if you are truthful.",
7:70 They said, "Have you come to us that we serve God alone and give up what our forefathers worshiped? Bring upon us what you threaten us with, if you are truthful.”
7:71 Qala qad waqaAAa AAalaykum minrabbikum rijsun waghadabun atujadiloonanee fee asma-insammaytumooha antum waabaokum manazzala Allahu biha min sultanin faintathirooinnee maAAakum mina almuntathireena
7:71 He said, "An affliction and wrath shall befall you from your Lord. Do you argue with me over names which you and your fathers have created with no authority being sent down by God? Wait then, and I will wait with you."19
Those who follow the teachings of Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Maja, Ibn Hanbal, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, Imam Azam, Imam Shafi, Imam Yusuf, Imam Rabbani, Abdulqadir Gaylani, Naqshibendi, Gazzali, Said Nursi, and many more, besides the Quran are addressees of this verse.
7:71 He said: "A tainting and wrath shall befall you from your Lord. Do you argue with me over names which you and your fathers have created with no authority being sent down by God? Wait then, and I will wait with you."
7:71 Said [Hud]: "You are already beset by loath some evils52 and by your Sustainer's condemnation! Do you argue with me about the [empty] names which you have invented53 - you and your forefathers - for which God has bestowed no warrant from on high? Wait, then, [for what will happen:] verily, I shall wait with you!"54
A reference to their idolatry and obstinacy.
Lit., "names which you have named"-i.e., the false deities, which have no real existence.
Lit., "I shall be, together with you, among those who wait."
7:71 He said, "You have incurred condemnation and wrath from your Lord. Do you argue with me in defense of innovations you have fabricated - you and your parents - which were never authorized by GOD? Therefore, wait and I will wait along with you.",
7:71 (‘Aad were a powerful community that had gone unjust. Since there is a Law of Respite for nations, they flourished and were unable to see the wrong thus far.) Hud said, "Your Lord’s Requital is already hovering over you. Do you argue with me about certain names that you and your forefathers have fabricated, whereas God never authorized them? Then wait for the consequences, and I am also waiting.” [53:23]
7:72 Faanjaynahu waallatheenamaAAahu birahmatin minna waqataAAna dabiraallatheena kaththaboo bi-ayatinawama kanoo mu/mineena
7:72 We saved him and those with him by a mercy from Us, and We destroyed the remnant of those who rejected Our signs and did not acknowledge.
7:72 We saved him and those with him by a mercy from Us, and We destroyed the remnant of those who rejected Our revelations, they were never believers.
7:72 And so, by Our grace, We saved him and those who stood by him, the while We wiped out the last remnant of those who gave the lie to Our messages and would not believe.55
As is shown in 69 :6-8, this destruction came about through a violent sandstorm raging without a break for seven nights and eight days.
7:72 We then saved him and those with him, by mercy from us, and we annihilated those who rejected our revelations and refused to be believers.,
7:72 (The People of ‘Aad ruled a big empire in Arabia. However, they failed to heed the Prophet’s warning. Then hurricane winds annihilated them 41:16) We saved him and those with him by mercy from Us, and cut the root of those who denied Our messages and would not believe.
7:73 Wa-ila thamooda akhahum salihanqala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu qad jaatkum bayyinatunmin rabbikum hathihi naqatu Allahi lakum ayatanfatharooha ta/kul fee ardi Allahi walatamassooha bisoo-in faya/khuthakum AAathabunaleemun
Saleh7:73 To Thamud, We sent their brother Saleh, he said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him; proof has come to you from your Lord. This is God's camel, in her you have a sign, so leave her to eat in God's land, and do not harm her, else a painful retribution will take you."
7:73 And to Thamud, We sent their brother Saleh, he said: "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him; clarity has come to you from your Lord, this is the camel of God, in her you have a sign, so leave her to eat in God's earth, and do not harm her, else the painful retribution will take you."
7:73 AND UNTO [the tribe of] Thamud [We sent] their brother salih56 He said: "O my people! Worship God alone: you have no deity other than Him. Clear evidence of the truth has now come unto you from your Sustainer. "This she-camel belonging to God shall be a token for you: so leave her alone to pasture on God's earth, and do her no harm, lest grievous chastisement befall you.57
The Nabataean tribe of Thamud descended from the tribe of 'Ad mentioned in the preceding passage, and is, therefore, often referred to in pre-Islamic poetry as the "Second `Ad". Apart from Arabian sources, "a series of older references, not of Arabian origin, confirm the historical existence of the name and people of Thamud. Thus the inscription of Sargon of the year 715 B.C. mentions the Thamud among the people of eastern and central Arabia subjected by the Assyrians. We also find the Thamudaei, Thamudenes mentioned in Aristo, Ptolemy, and Pliny" (Encyclopaedia of Islam IV, 736). At the time of which the Qur'an speaks, the Thamud were settled in the northernmost Hijaz, near the confines of Syria . Rock-inscriptions attributed to them are still extant in the region of Al-Hijr.-As in the case of the `Adite prophet Hud-and the prophet Shu'ayb spoken of in verses 85-93 of this surah - salih is called the "brother" of the tribe because he belonged to it.
The commentators cite various legends to the effect that this she-camel was of miraculous origin. Since neither the Qur'an nor any authentic Tradition provides the least support for these legends, we must assume that they are based on the expression naqat Allah ("God's she-camel"), which has led some pious Muslims to fantastic conjectures. However, as Rashid Rida' points out (Manar VIII, 502), this expression denotes merely the fact that the animal in question was not owned by any one person, and was therefore to be protected by the whole tribe; a further, analogous expression is found in the words "God's earth" in the same verse: an illustration of the fact that everything belongs to God. The particular stress placed by salih on good treatment of this ownerless animal - referred to in several places in the Qur'an - was obviously due to the cruel high-handedness displayed by the tribe, who, as the next two verses show, were wont to "act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption" and "gloried in their arrogance towards all who were deemed weak": in other words, their treatment of the defenceless animal was to be a "token" of their change of heart or (as is made clear in 54:27) "a test for them".
Saaleh7:73 To Thamoud we sent their brother Saaleh. He said, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god beside Him. Proof has been provided for you from your Lord: here is GOD's camel, to serve as a sign for you. Let her eat from GOD's land, and do not touch her with any harm, lest you incur a painful retribution.,
7:73 The people of Thamud were successors to ‘Aad. To them We sent their brother, Saleh. He said, “O My people! Serve God. You have no other god but He. The clear truth has come to you from your Lord. This is the she-camel of God, a token for your obedience. So let her feed in God’s earth and harm her not lest painful torment seize you.”29
The feudal lords controlled land, crop, oases and water resources, and the weak were suffering. It appears that Prophet Saleh reached an agreement with them and assigned a she-camel as a symbol of their compliance
7:74 Waothkuroo ithjaAAalakum khulafaa min baAAdi AAadin wabawwaakumfee al-ardi tattakhithoona min suhooliha qusooranwatanhitoona aljibala buyootan faothkurooalaa Allahi wala taAAthaw fee al-ardimufsideena
7:74 "Recall that He made you successors after Aad, and He established you in the land so that you make palaces on its plains, and you carve homes in the mountains. So recall God's grace, and do not roam the earth as corrupters."
7:74 "And remember that He made you successors after 'Aad, and He established you in the land so that you make palaces on its plains, and you carve homes in the mountains. So remember the grace of God, and do not roam the earth as corrupters."
7:74 "And remember how He made you heirs to [the tribe of] `Ad58 and settled you firmly on earth, so that you [are able to] build for yourselves castles on its plains and hew out mountains [to serve you] as dwellings:59 remember, then, God's blessings, and do not act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption."
Cf. the parallel expression in verse 69 above - "heirs to Noah's people" - and the corresponding note. From all the historical references to the Thamud it is apparent that they were one of the greatest and most powerful Arab tribes of their time.
A reference to the elaborate rock-dwellings or tombs-to be seen to this day-which the Thamud carved out of the cliffs west of Al-Hijaz, in northern Hijaz, and embellished with sculptures of animals as well as many inscriptions attesting to the comparatively high degree of their civilization and power. In popular Arabian parlance, these rock-dwellings are nowadays called Mada'in salih ("The Towns of Salih").
7:74 "Recall that He made you inheritors after `Aad, and established you on earth, building mansions in its valleys, and carving homes from its mountains. You shall remember GOD's blessings, and do not roam the earth corruptingly.",
7:74 Saleh said, “Remember how He made you inherit the land after ‘Aad and established you therein. You build castles in the valleys and carve out homes in the mountains. So, remember God’s bounties and do not spread corruption in the land.”
7:75 Qala almalao allatheenaistakbaroo min qawmihi lillatheena istudAAifooliman amana minhum ataAAlamoona anna salihanmursalun min rabbihi qaloo inna bima orsilabihi mu/minoona
7:75 The leaders who were arrogant from among his people said to those who had acknowledged among the powerless: "How do you know that Saleh was sent from his Lord?" They said, "We acknowledge the message he has been sent with."
7:75 The leaders who were arrogant from among his people said to those who were weak and believed from among them: "How do you know that Saleh was sent from his Lord?" They said: "It is in that which he has been sent that we believe."
7:75 The great ones among his people, who gloried in their arrogance towards all who were deemed weak, said unto the believers among them: "Do you [really] know that salih has been sent by his Sustainer?" They answered: "Verily, we believe in the message which he bears."60
The contents of his message (lit., "that with which he has been sent") appeared to them justification enough to accept it on its merits, without the need of any esoteric "proof" of Salih's mission. In a subtle way, this statement of faith has a meaning which goes far beyond the story of the Thamud. It is an invitation to the sceptic who is unable to believe in the divine origin of a religious message, to judge it on its intrinsic merits and not to make his acceptance dependent on extraneous, and objectively impossible, proofs of its origin: for only through the contents of a message can its truth and validity be established.
The Message: Proof of Messengership7:75 The arrogant leaders among his people said to the common people who believed, "How do you know that Saaleh is sent by his Lord?" They said, "The message he brought has made us believers.",
7:75 Their leaders said to the believers, "How do you know that Saleh is sent from his Lord?" They responded, "We believe in the message he has brought.”30
The bearer of such a sublime message cannot be a liar
7:76 Qala allatheena istakbaroo innabiallathee amantum bihi kafiroona
7:76 Those who were arrogant said, "We reject what you acknowledge!"
7:76 Those who were arrogant said: "In that which you believe, we reject!"
7:76 [But] the arrogant ones said: "Behold, what you have come to believe in we refuse to regard as true!"
7:76 The arrogant ones said, "We disbelieve in what you believe in.",
7:76 (The arrogant leaders and the feudal lords could see their personal interests getting hit, so they decided to reject the message.) The arrogant ones said to the believers, “We reject what you believe in.”
7:77 FaAAaqaroo alnnaqata waAAatawAAan amri rabbihim waqaloo ya salihui/tina bima taAAiduna in kunta minaalmursaleena
7:77 They thus killed the camel and defied their Lord's command, and they said, "O Saleh, bring us what you promised us if you are of the messengers!"
7:77 They thus killed the camel and defied the command of their Lord, and they said: "O Saleh, bring us what you promised us if you are of the messengers!"
7:77 And then they cruelly slaughtered the she-camel61 and turned with disdain from their Sustainer's commandment, and said: "O Salih! Bring about that [punishment] with which thou hast threatened us, if thou art truly one of God's message bearers!"
The verb `aqara primarily denotes "he hamstrung [an animal]"-i.e., before slaughtering it, so that it might not run away. This barbarous custom was widely practiced in pre-Islamic Arabia , so that `aqr ("hamstringing") gradually became synonymous with slaughtering in a cruel manner (Razi; see also Lane V, 2107 f.).
7:77 Subsequently, they slaughtered the camel, rebelled against their Lord's command, and said, "O Saaleh, bring the doom you threaten us with, if you are really a messenger.",
7:77 They killed the she-camel, rebelled against their Lord’s command and challenged, “O Saleh! Bring the doom you threaten us with, if you are truly a Messenger.”
7:78 Faakhathat-humu alrrajfatu faasbahoofee darihim jathimeena
7:78 The earthquake took them, so they fell motionless in their homes.
7:78 The earthquake took them, thus they became lifeless in their home.
7:78 Thereupon an earthquake overtook them: and then they lay lifeless, in their very homes, on the ground.62
Lit., "they became, in their homes, prostrate on the ground'". The term rajfah which occurs at the beginning of this sentence signifies any violent commotion or trembling, and is often, though not always, applied to an earthquake (rajfat al-ard). It is possible that the earthquake mentioned here was accompanied by the volcanic eruption which at some time overtook the historical dwelling-places of the Thamud tribe, and to which the extensive black lava-fields (harrah) of northern Hijaz, and particularly near Mada'in Salih (see note 59 above), bear eloquent witness to this day.
7:78 Consequently, the quake annihilated them, leaving them dead in their homes.,
7:78 (In their life of luxury, like other strong nations, they felt invincible.) The destruction came from under their feet. A powerful earthquake annihilated them, leaving them lifeless in their homes.
7:79 Fatawalla AAanhum waqala yaqawmi laqad ablaghtukum risalata rabbee wanasahtulakum walakin la tuhibboona alnnasiheena
7:79 Thus he turned away from them, and said, "My people, I had delivered to you the message of my Lord and advised you; but you do not like the advisers."
7:79 Thus he turned away from them, and said: "My people, I have delivered to you the message of my Lord and advised you; but you do not like the advisers."
7:79 And [Salih] turned away from them, and said: "O my people! Indeed, I delivered unto you my Sustainer's message and gave you good advice: but you did not love those who gave [you] good advice."
7:79 He turned away from them, saying, "O my people, I have delivered my Lord's message to you, and advised you, but you do not like any advisers.",
7:79 Saleh was grieved that his people disregarded the message of his Lord. He moved away from the township saying to himself, “O My people! I gave my Lord’s message to you, and advised you sincerely, but you never liked good advisers.”
7:80 Walootan ith qalaliqawmihi ata/toona alfahishata ma sabaqakum bihamin ahadin mina alAAalameena
Lot7:80 And Lot, when he said to his people: "Do you commit lewdness to an extend that none in the worlds had surpassed you?"
7:80 And Lot, he said to his people: "Do you commit immorality such as none of those of the worlds had done before?"
7:80 AND [remember] Lot ,63 when he said unto his people: "Will you commit abominations such as none in all the world has ever done before you?
The story of Lot , Abraham's nephew (Lut in Arabic), is given in greater detail in 11:69.
Lot: Homosexuality Condemned7:80 Lot said to his people, "You commit such an abomination; no one in the world has done it before!,
7:80 Lot told them, “You commit such an abomination that no one in the worlds has (openly) done before you.”31
Hud, Saleh, Lot and their respective followers, escaped destruction because they believed in the revelation and took appropriate precautions. The people of Prophet Lot lived by the Dead Sea in Sodom. Also see 26:165 Of all the creatures in the worlds, you approach males. The people of Lot were probably the first to ‘normalize’ homosexuality. ‘Of all creatures’, contrary to universal laws
7:81 Innakum lata/toona alrrijalashahwatan min dooni alnnisa-i bal antum qawmunmusrifoona
7:81 "You come to men with desire instead of women; you are a transgressing people."
7:81 "You are approaching the men out of desire instead of the women! Indeed, you are a transgressing people."
7:81 Verily, with lust you approach men instead of women: nay, but you are people given to excesses!"
7:81 "You practice sex with the men, instead of the women. Indeed, you are a transgressing people.",
7:81 You approach men with lust in preference to women. Nay, but you are a people crossing all bounds."
7:82 Wama kana jawabaqawmihi illa an qaloo akhrijoohum min qaryatikuminnahum onasun yatatahharoona
7:82 The only response of his people was, "Drive them out of your town; they are a people who wish to be pure!"
7:82 The only response of his people was: "Drive them out of your town; they are a people who wish to be pure!"
7:82 But his people's only answer was this:64 "Expel them from your land! Verily, they are folk who make themselves out to be pure!"65
Lit., "their answer was nothing but that they said".
Lit., "who purify themselves"; also, "who keep aloof from unclean things": here obviously used ironically. The plural relates to Lot , his family and his followers (cf. 27:56).
7:82 His people responded by saying, "Evict them from your town. They are people who wish to be pure.",
7:82 They said, "Drive them out of your town! These people want to be models of purity.”
7:83 Faanjaynahu waahlahu illaimraatahu kanat mina alghabireena
7:83 We saved him and his family, except for his wife; she was of those who lagged behind.
7:83 We saved him and his family, except for his wife; she was of those who were destroyed.
7:83 Thereupon We saved him and his household except his wife, who was among those that stayed behind66
7:83 Consequently, we saved him and his family, but not his wife; she was with the doomed.,
7:83 We saved him and his followers. But his wife who lagged behind in belief stayed with the crowd, and was destroyed.
7:84 Waamtarna AAalayhim mataranfaonthur kayfa kana AAaqibatualmujrimeena
7:84 We showered them with a shower, so see what the punishment for the criminals was.
7:84 And We rained down upon them a rain, so see how was the punishment for the criminals.
7:84 the while We rained a rain [of destruction] upon the others: and behold what happened in the end to those people lost in sin!
7:84 We showered them with a certain shower; note the consequences for the guilty.,
7:84 And We rained a rain upon them (a huge shower of stones). See now how grievous was the end of the guilty.32
A huge volcano was about to erupt. The Prophet of God had advance knowledge and he moved out at the right time, along with his followers
7:85 Wa-ila madyana akhahumshuAAayban qala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu qad jaatkum bayyinatunmin rabbikum faawfoo alkayla waalmeezana walatabkhasoo alnnasa ashyaahum walatufsidoo fee al-ardi baAAda islahiha thalikumkhayrun lakum in kuntum mu/mineena
Shuayb7:85 To Midian, their brother Shuayb, he said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. Proof has come to you from your Lord, so give full weight and measure, and do not hold back from the people what belongs to them, and do not make mischief on the earth after it has been reformed. That is better for you if you acknowledge."
7:85 And to Midyan, their brother Shu'ayb, he said: "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. Clarity has come to you from your Lord, so give full weight and measure, and do not hold back from the people what belongs to them, and do not make corruption on the earth after it has been set right. That is better for you if you believe."
7:85 AND UNTO [the people of] Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu'ayb .67 He said: "O my people! Worship God alone: you have no deity other than Him. Clear evidence of the truth has now come unto you from your Sustainer. Give, therefore, full measure and weight [in all your dealings], and do not deprive people of what is rightfully theirs;68 and do not spread corruption on earth after it has be, en so well ordered: [all] this is for your own good, 'if you would but believe.
Shu'ayb is said to be identical with Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, also called in the Bible Reú-el (Exodus ii, 18), meaning "Faithful to God". The region of Madyan - the Midian of the Bible-extended from the present-day Gulf of Aqabah westwards deep into the Sinai Peninsula and to the mountains of Moab east of the Dead Sea ; its inhabitants were Arabs of the Amorite group of tribes.
Lit., "do not diminish to people their things" - an expression which applies to physical possessions as well as to moral and social rights. Regarding my interpolation of "in all your dealings", see surah 6, note 150.
Shu`aib: Cheating, Dishonesty Condemned7:85 To Midyan we sent their brother Shu`aib. He said, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god beside Him. Proof has come to you from your Lord. You shall give full weight and full measure when you trade. Do not cheat the people out of their rights. Do not corrupt the earth after it has been set straight. This is better for you, if you are believers.,
7:85 To Midyan, We sent Sho’aib (Jethro), their brother, to them (around 1400 BC). He said, “O My people! Obey God. There is none else worthy of obedience and law-giving. Now has come to you the clear evidence of truth from your Lord. Give just measure and weight and do not withhold from people the things that are rightfully theirs. And do no corruption (and crimes) in the land after it has been set in order. This will be best for you if you are believers.33
The Nation of Midyan lived between Madinahand Damascus since around 2000 BC. They were the descendants of Prophet Abraham's son Midyan from his third wife Qatoora. Most of them were traders but they squandered justice and equity in business
7:86 Wala taqAAudoo bikulli siratintooAAidoona watasuddoona AAan sabeeli Allahi man amanabihi watabghoonaha AAiwajan waothkuroo ithkuntum qaleelan fakaththarakum waonthurookayfa kana AAaqibatu almufsideena
7:86 "Do not stand on every road to threaten and repel from the path of God those who acknowledged Him, by attempting to distort it. Recall that you were few and He multiplied you; and see what the retribution of the troublemakers is."
7:86 "And do not stand on every path, robbing, and turning away from the path of God those who believe in Him, and you seek to make it crooked. And remember that you were few and He multiplied you; and see how is the retribution of the corrupters."
7:86 And do not lie in ambush by every road [that leads to the truth69 ], threatening and trying to turn away from God's path all who believe in Him, and trying to make it appear crooked. And remember [the time] when you were few, and [how] He made you many: and behold what happened in the end to the spreaders of corruption!
Thus Zamakhshari and Razi, stressing the metaphorical meaning of the above phrase. Cf. a similar expression, attributed to Satan, in verse 16 of this surah.
7:86 "Refrain from blocking every path, seeking to repel those who believe from the path of GOD, and do not make it crooked. Remember that you used to be few and He multiplied your number. Recall the consequences for the wicked.,
7:86 Lurk not on every road threatening travelers and hinder not from the path of God those who believe in Him, nor seek to make it crooked. Remember, when you were few and weak and how He multiplied and strengthened you. And see how (miserable) was the end of the corrupters.
7:87 Wa-in kana ta-ifatun minkum amanoobiallathee orsiltu bihi wata-ifatun lamyu/minoo faisbiroo hatta yahkumaAllahu baynana wahuwa khayru alhakimeena
7:87 "If a group of you acknowledges what I have been sent with, and another group rejects, then wait until God judges between us. He is the best of judges."
7:87 "And if a group of you believes in what I have been sent with, and a group disbelieves, then wait until God judges between us. He is the best of judges."
7:87 "And if there be some among you who have come to believe in the message which I bear, the while the others do not believe, then have patience in adversity till God shall judge between us [and them]: for He is the best of all judges!"
7:87 "Now that some of you have believed in what I was sent with, and some have disbelieved, wait until GOD issues His judgment between us; He is the best judge.",
7:87 A group among you has believed in what I have been sent with and the other group has not believed. Then have patience (let the believers work their program of reform), until God judges between us. He is the Best of deciders."
7:88 Qala almalao allatheenaistakbaroo min qawmihi lanukhrijannaka ya shuAAaybu waallatheenaamanoo maAAaka min qaryatina aw lataAAoodunna feemillatina qala awa law kunna kariheena
7:88 The leaders who became arrogant from among his people said, "We will evict you Shuayb, along with those who acknowledged, or else you will return to our creed!" He said, "Even though we detest?"
7:88 And the leaders who became arrogant from among his people said: "We will drive you out of our town Shu'ayb, along with those who have believed with you, or you shall return to our creed!" He said: "Will you force us?"
7:88 Said the great ones among his people, who gloried in their arrogance: "Most certainly, O Shu'ayb, we shall expel thee and thy fellow-believers from our land, unless you indeed return to our ways!" Said [Shu'ayb]: "Why, even though we abhor [them]?
7:88 The arrogant leaders among his people said, "We will evict you, O Shu`aib, together with those who believed with you, from our town, unless you revert to our religion." He said, "Are you going to force us?,
7:88 The arrogant leaders of his community said, "O Sho’aib! We will certainly drive you and those who believe with you out of our town unless you return to our ways.” Sho’aib said, "Why, even though we detest your ways?”
7:89 قد افترينا على الله كذبا ان عدنا فى ملتكم بعد اذ نجىنا الله منها وما يكون لنا ان نعود فيها الا ان يشاء الله ربنا وسع ربنا كل شىء علما على الله توكلنا ربنا افتح بيننا وبين قومنا بالحق وانت خير الفتحين
7:89 Qadi iftarayna AAala Allahikathiban in AAudna fee millatikum baAAda ithnajjana Allahu minha wamayakoonu lana an naAAooda feeha illa an yashaaAllahu rabbuna wasiAAa rabbuna kulla shay-inAAilman AAala Allahi tawakkalna rabbanaiftah baynana wabayna qawmina bialhaqqiwaanta khayru alfatiheena
7:89 "We would then be inventing lies about God if we return to your creed after God had saved us from it; and we would not return to it except if God our Lord wishes. Our Lord encompasses everything with knowledge. In God we put our trust. Our Lord, separate between us and between our people with truth, you are the best separator."
7:89 "We will then be inventing lies about God if we return to your creed after God has saved us from it; and we will not return to it except if God our Lord wills, our Lord encompasses everything with knowledge, in God we put our trust. Our Lord, make an opening between us and between our people with the truth, you are the best of openers."
7:89 We should be guilty of blaspheming against God70 were we to return to your ways after God has saved us from them! It is not conceivable that we should return to them-unless God, our Sustainer, so wills.71 All things does our Sustainer embrace within His knowledge; in God do we place our trust. O our Sustainer! Lay Thou open the truth between us and our people -for Thou art the best of all to lay open the truth!"72
Lit., "inventing a lie about God".
An expression of humility, and not of the idea that God might "will" them to blaspheme.
Or: "Thou art the best of all deciders" - since the verb fataha can also be rendered as "he decided". However, Shu'ayb's prayer could not have implied a request for God's "decision" (for there was no doubt in his mind as to who was right), and therefore the primary significance of iftah ("lay open") and fatih ("one who lays open", i.e., the truth) is preferable.
7:89 "We would be blaspheming against GOD if we reverted to your religion after GOD has saved us from it. How could we revert back to it against the will of GOD our Lord? Our Lord's knowledge encompasses all things. We have put our trust in GOD. Our Lord, grant us a decisive victory over our people. You are the best supporter.",
7:89 “We will be inventing a lie against God if we reverted to your religion after God has saved us from it. It is not for us to return to it against the will of God, our Lord. Our Lord comprehends all things in knowledge. In God do we put our trust. Our Lord! Decide with truth between us and our people. You are the Best of deciders.”
7:90 Waqala almalao allatheenakafaroo min qawmihi la-ini ittabaAAtum shuAAayban innakum ithanlakhasiroona
7:90 The leaders who rejected from among his people said, "If you follow Shuayb, then you are losers."
7:90 And the leaders who rejected from among his people said: "If you follow Shu'ayb, then you are losers."
7:90 But the great ones among his people, who were bent on denying the truth, said [to his followers]: "Indeed, if you follow Shu'ayb, you will, verily, be the losers!"
7:90 The disbelieving leaders among his people said, "If you follow Shu`aib, you will be losers.",
7:90 But the disbelieving chiefs of his nation said, "O People! If you follow Sho’aib, then be sure, you will be ruined” (as you lose the big profits in trade).
7:91 Faakhathat-humu alrrajfatu faasbahoofee darihim jathimeena
7:91 The earthquake took them, thus they fell motionless in their homes.
7:91 The earthquake took them, thus they became lifeless in their home.
7:91 Thereupon an earthquake overtook them: and then they lay lifeless, in their very homes, on the ground73 -
See note 62 above. Like the harrah once inhabited by the Thamud tribe, the adjoining region of Madyan (the Biblical Midian) shows ample evidence of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.
7:91 The quake annihilated them, leaving them dead in their homes.,
7:91 A tremendous earthquake seized them and the morning found them dead in their homes, on the ground.
7:92 Allatheena kaththabooshuAAayban kaan lam yaghnaw feeha allatheena kaththabooshuAAayban kanoo humu alkhasireena
7:92 Those who denied Shuayb, it is as if they never prospered therein. Those who denied Shuayb, they were the losers.
7:92 Those who denied Shu'ayb, it is as if they had never prospered therein. Those who denied Shu'ayb, they were the losers.
7:92 they who had given the lie to Shu'ayb - as though they had never lived there: they who had given the lie to Shu'ayb -it was they who were the losers!
7:92 Those who rejected Shu`aib vanished, as if they never existed. Those who rejected Shu`aib were the losers.,
7:92 Those who denied Sho’aib became as though they had never lived there. Those who denied Sho’aib were the losers.
7:93 Fatawalla AAanhum waqala yaqawmi laqad ablaghtukum risalati rabbee wanasahtulakum fakayfa asa AAala qawmin kafireena
7:93 Thus he turned away from them, and said, "My people, I had delivered to you the messages of my Lord and advised you. How can I feel sorry over a rejecting people?"
7:93 Thus he turned away from them, and said: "My people, I have delivered to you the messages of my Lord and advised you. How can I feel sorry over a rejecting people?"
7:93 And he turned away from them, and said: "O my people! Indeed, I delivered unto you my Sustainer's message and gave you good advice: how, then, could I mourn for people who have denied the truth?"
7:93 He turned away from them, saying, "O my people, I have delivered to you the messages of my Lord, and I have advised you. How can I grieve over disbelieving people.",
7:93 (The Prophet of God had been forewarned of the oncoming catastrophe and he moved out into the valley along with his followers.) As he was leaving, he said, "O My people! I delivered my Lord’s messages to you and gave you sincere advice. How could I mourn for people who rejected the truth?”
7:94 Wama arsalna fee qaryatin minnabiyyin illa akhathna ahlaha bialba/sa-iwaalddarra-i laAAallahum yaddarraAAoona
A Majority Fail the Test That Determines Their Eternity7:94 Whenever We sent a prophet to any town, We would afflict its people with hardship and adversity so that they may implore.
7:94 And We do not send a prophet to any town, except afterwards We afflict its people with adversity and hardship that they may implore.
7:94 AND NEVER YET have We sent a prophet unto any community without trying its people with misfortune and hardship, so that they might humble themselves;
Blessings in Disguise7:94 Whenever we sent a prophet to any community, we afflicted its people with adversity and hardship, that they may implore.,
7:94 We sent no Prophet to a community without Our Law of Requital trying them with adversity and tribulation for their wrongdoings that they become humble.
7:95 Thumma baddalna makana alssayyi-atialhasanata hatta AAafaw waqaloo qadmassa abaana alddarraowaalssarrao faakhathnahum baghtatanwahum la yashAAuroona
7:95 Then We replaced the bad with the good until they had plenty and they said, "Our fathers were the ones afflicted by hardship, and adversity." We then take them suddenly, while they do not perceive.
7:95 Then We replaced the bad with good, until they neglected and said: "Our fathers were touched by both hardship and prosperity." We then take them suddenly, while they are unaware.
7:95 then We transformed the affliction into ease of life,74 so that they throve and said [to themselves], "Misfortune and hardship befell our forefathers as well75 -whereupon We took them to task, all of a sudden, without their being aware [of what was coming].76
Lit., "then We put good [things] in place of the bad".
Le., they regarded it as a normal course of events and did not draw any lesson from it.
Cf. 6:42 -45.
7:95 Then we substituted peace and prosperity in place of that hardship. But alas, they turned heedless and said, "It was our parents who experienced that hardship before prosperity." Consequently, we punished them suddenly when they least expected.,
7:95 Then We changed their plight for better until they became affluent. Then they said, “Even our forefathers were touched by suffering and affluence.” We seized them all of a sudden when they least expected it.34
They thought that hardships and prosperity were just a matter of chance. To them the requital appeared sudden, but unjust systems insidiously move toward disaster
7:96 Walaw anna ahla alqura amanoowaittaqaw lafatahna AAalayhim barakatinmina alssama-i waal-ardi walakinkaththaboo faakhathnahum bima kanooyaksiboona
7:96 If the people of the towns had only acknowledged and been aware, then We would have opened for them blessings from the sky and the land; but they denied, so We took them for what they used to earn.
7:96 And if only the people of the towns had believed and been aware, then We would have opened for them blessings from the heavens and the earth; but they denied, so We took them for what they had earned.
7:96 Yet if the people of those communities had but attained to faith and been conscious of Us, We would indeed have opened up for them blessings out of heaven and earth: but they gave the lie to the truth - and so We took them to task through what they [themselves] had been doing.77
Thus the discourse returns to its starting-point at the beginning of this surah (verses 4-5): namely, that the destruction which is bound to overtake any community (the proper significance of the term qaryah in this context) which lives in opposition to the eternal moral verities amounts, in the last resort, to self-annihilation: for this is the real meaning of God's "taking them to task through what (bi-ma) they themselves were doing".
Most People Make the Wrong Choice7:96 Had the people of those communities believed and turned righteous, we would have showered them with blessings from the heaven and the earth. Since they decided to disbelieve, we punished them for what they earned.,
7:96 If the people of the townships had believed in Divine laws and run their system right, We would have opened for them (the gates of) blessings from the heavens and earth. But they denied and Our law seized them for what they had earned with their deeds.
7:97 Afaamina ahlu alqura an ya/tiyahumba/suna bayatan wahum na-imoona
7:97 Are the people of the towns sure that Our punishment will not come to them at night while they are sleeping?
7:97 Are the people of the towns sure that Our punishment will not come to them at night while they are sleeping?
7:97 Can, then, the people of any community ever feel secure that Our punishment will not come upon them by night, while they are asleep?
7:97 Did the people of the present communities guarantee that our retribution will not come to them in the night as they sleep?,
7:97 Can the people of any community ever feel secure that Our requital will not come upon them at night, while they are asleep?
7:98 Awa amina ahlu alqura an ya/tiyahumba/suna duhan wahum yalAAaboona
7:98 Or are the people of the towns sure that Our punishment will not come to them during the late morning while they are playing?
7:98 Or are the people of the towns sure that Our punishment will not come to them during the late morning while they are playing?
7:98 Why, can the people of any community ever feel secure that Our punishment will not come upon them in broad daylight, while they are engaged in (worldly] play?78
I.e., while they enjoy ease and a sense of security, and are unaware of any danger that may threaten them (cf. verse 4 of this surah).
7:98 Did the people of today's communities guarantee that our retribution will not come to them in the daytime while they play?,
7:98 Or do the people of townships feel secure from the coming of Our requital upon them in the daytime while they play?
7:99 Afaaminoo makra Allahi falaya/manu makra Allahi illa alqawmu alkhasiroona
7:99 Have they become sure about God's scheming? None feels secure about God's scheming except the losing people.
7:99 Have they become secure about the scheming of God? None are secure about the scheming of God except the people who are the losers.
7:99 Can they, then, ever feel secure from God's deep devising? But none feels secure from God's deep devising save people who are [already] lost.79
7:99 Have they taken GOD's plans for granted? None takes GOD's plans for granted except the losers.,
7:99 Do they feel secure from the subtle progression of the Divine laws? Do they think that the Divine law grants them unconditional security? Only the losers feel secure from the subtle progression of God’s Law of Requital.
7:100 Awa lam yahdi lillatheena yarithoonaal-arda min baAAdi ahliha an law nashao asabnahumbithunoobihim wanatbaAAu AAala quloobihimfahum la yasmaAAoona
7:100 Is it not clear for those who inherited the land after them, that if We wished, We could have punished them immediately for their sins and We could have stamped on their hearts, so they would not hear.
7:100 Is it not a guide for those who inherited the land after them, that if We wished We could have punished them immediately for their sins? And We stamp on their hearts, so they do not hear.
7:100 Has it, then, not become obvious unto those who have inherited the earth in the wake of former generations80 that, if We so willed, We could smite them [too] by means of their sins, sealing their hearts so that they cannot hear [the truth]?81
Lit., "after its [former] people". The people "who have inherited the earth" are those now living.
See surah 2, note 7. Here, again, we have an affirmation that what the Qur'an describes as "God's punishment" (as well as "God's reward") is, in reality, a consequence of man's own doings, and not an arbitrary act of God: it is "by means of their sins" (bi-dhunubihim) that God "sets a seal" upon the hearts of men. This statement is further elucidated at the end of verse 101.
7:100 Does it ever occur to those who inherit the earth after previous generations that, if we will, we can punish them for their sins, and seal their hearts, causing them to turn deaf?,
7:100 Is it not a lesson for those who inherit the earth from previous generations that they could suffer similar consequences? Trailing behind in the community of nations is a tribulation in itself. And Our law can cause their intellectual and perceptual faculties to be sealed and blunted for their failings.
7:101 Tilka alqura naqussu AAalaykamin anba-iha walaqad jaat-hum rusuluhum bialbayyinatifama kanoo liyu/minoo bima kaththaboomin qablu kathalika yatbaAAu Allahu AAalaquloobi alkafireena
7:101 These are the towns whose stories We relate to you; their messengers had come to them with proofs, but they would not acknowledge what they had denied before. It is such that God stamps on the hearts of the ingrates.
7:101 These are the towns whose news We told to you; their messengers had come to them with proofs, but they would not believe in what they had denied before. It is such that God stamps on the hearts of the rejecters.
7:101 Unto those [earlier] communities - some of whose stories We [now] relate unto thee -there had indeed come apostles of their own with all evidence of the truth; but they would not believe in anything to which they had once given the lie:82 thus it is that God seals the hearts of those who deny the truth;
Lit., "to which they had given the lie aforetime": an allusion to the instinctive unwillingness of most people to give up the notions - positive or negative - to which they are accustomed.
7:101 We narrate to you the history of those communities: their messengers went to them with clear proofs, but they were not to believe in what they had rejected before. GOD thus seals the hearts of the disbelievers.,
7:101 Such were the communities whose historical accounts We relate to you (O Prophet). Their Messengers came to them with clear evidence of truth. But they rejected it, and then stuck to rejection. Or they denied the truth in blind following since their ancestors had denied it. This is how the rejecters cause God’s law to seal their hearts to reason.
7:102 Wama wajadna li-aktharihimmin AAahdin wa-in wajadna aktharahum lafasiqeena
7:102 We did not find most of them up to their pledge, rather, We found most of them corrupt.
7:102 And We did not find most of them up to their pledge, rather, We found most of them wicked.
7:102 and in most of them We found no [inner] bond with anything that is right83 -and most of them We found to be iniquitous indeed.
Thus Raghib explains the term `ahd occurring in this sentence. Its usual rendering as "covenant" or "loyalty to their covenant" is entirely meaningless in this context. Rashid Rida' widens Raghib's interpretation and includes in the above term man's instinctive ability to discern between right and wrong and, thus, to follow the dictates of his own conscience (Manar IX, 33 ff.). Regarding the deeper implications of this expression, see surah 2, note 19.
7:102 We found that most of them disregard their covenant; we found most of them wicked.,6
This life is our last chance to redeem ourselves, but most people are proven to be stubbornly rebellious and evil (see theINTRODUCTION).
7:102 And in most of them We found no bond with their honored stature of humanity (17:70). And We found that most of them slipped away from the Permanent Values.
7:103 Thumma baAAathna min baAAdihim moosabi-ayatina ila firAAawna wamala-ihifathalamoo biha faonuthurkayfa kana AAaqibatu almufsideena
Moses7:103 Then after them We sent Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his entourage. But they treated them with prejudice, so see what the end of the corrupters is.
7:103 Then after them We sent Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his commanders. But they did wrong in them, so see how is the end of the corrupters.
7:103 AND AFTER those [early people] We sent Moses with Our messages unto Pharaoh and his great ones, and they wilfully rejected them:84 and behold what happened in the end to those spreaders of corruption!
Lit., "they did wrong to them".
Moses7:103 After (those messengers,) we sent Moses with our signs to Pharaoh and his people, but they transgressed. Note the consequences for the wicked.,
7:103 (Here is another historical account. Moses was the next generation to Sho’aib, after the Midyans had risen and declined in the previous millennium) We sent Moses to Pharaoh and his chiefs with Our revelations and they degraded them. Now see the consequence for the corrupters.
7:104 Waqala moosa yafirAAawnu innee rasoolun min rabbi alAAalameena
7:104 Moses said, "O Pharaoh, I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds."
7:104 And Moses said: "O Pharaoh, I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds."
7:104 And Moses said: "O Pharaoh! Verily, I am an apostle from the Sustainer of all the worlds,
7:104 Moses said, "O Pharaoh, I am a messenger from the Lord of the universe.,
7:104 Moses said, "O Pharaoh! I am a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds.
7:105 Haqeequn AAala an laaqoola AAala Allahi illa alhaqqa qadji/tukum bibayyinatin min rabbikum faarsil maAAiya banee isra-eela
7:105 "It is not proper for me to say about God except the truth; I have come to you with proof from your Lord. So send with me the Children of Israel."
7:105 "It is not proper for me to say about God except the truth; I have come to you with a proof from your Lord. So send with me the Children of Israel."
7:105 so constituted that I cannot say anything about God but the truth. I have now come unto you with a clear evidence from your Sustainer: let, then, the children of Israel go with me!"
7:105 "It is incumbent upon me that I do not say about GOD except the truth. I come to you with a sign from your Lord; let the Children of Israel go.",
7:105 It is incumbent upon me that I say about God nothing but the truth. I come to you with clear evidence of the truth from your Lord. So let the Children of Israel go with me.”
7:106 Qala in kunta ji/ta bi-ayatinfa/ti biha in kunta mina alssadiqeena
7:106 He said, "If you have come with a sign then bring it, if you are of the truthful?"
7:106 He said: "If you have come with a sign then bring it, if you are of the truthful?"
7:106 Said [Pharaoh]: "If thou hast come with a sign, produce it-if thou art a man of truth!"
7:106 He said, "If you have a sign, then produce it, if you are truthful.",
7:106 Pharaoh said, “If you have come with clear evidence, produce it if you are of the truthful.”
7:107 Faalqa AAasahu fa-ithahiya thuAAbanun mubeenun
7:107 He threw down his staff and there it was an obvious serpent.
7:107 He cast down his staff and it manifested into a serpent.
7:107 Thereupon [Moses] threw down his staff, and lo! it was a serpent, plainly visible;
7:107 He threw down his staff, and it turned into a tremendous serpent.,
7:107 Moses presented his argument that he held fast, with vibrant confidence and logic.
7:108 WanazaAAa yadahu fa-itha hiya baydaolilnnathireena
7:108 He drew out his hand, and it became pure white for the spectators.
7:108 And he drew out his hand, and it became pure white for the onlookers.
7:108 and he drew forth his hand, and lo! it appeared [shining] white to the beholders.85
As is evident from 20:22 , 27:12 and 28:32, the hand of Moses was "[shining] white, without blemish", i.e., endowed with transcendent luminosity in token of his prophethood-and not, as stated in the Bible (Exodus iv, 6), "leprous as snow". Regarding the possible mystic significance of the miracle of the staff, see note 14 on 20:21 .
7:108 He took out his hand, and it was white to the beholders.,
7:108 The strength of his conviction shone bright to those present. [20:17-21]
7:109 Qala almalao min qawmi firAAawnainna hatha lasahirun AAaleemun
7:109 The commanders among the people of Pharaoh said, "This is a knowledgeable magician!"
7:109 The commanders from among the people of Pharaoh said: "This is a knowledgeable magician!"
7:109 The great ones among Pharaoh's people said: "Verily, this is indeed a sorcerer of great knowledge,
7:109 The leaders among Pharaoh's people said, "This is no more than a clever magician.,
7:109 The chiefs of Pharaoh's nation said, "This is some knowing wizard!
7:110 Yureedu an yukhrijakum min ardikumfamatha ta/muroona
7:110 "He wishes to drive you out of your land; what do you recommend?"
7:110 "He wishes to drive you out of your land; what is your command?"
7:110 who wants to drive you out of your land! "86 [Said Pharaoh:] "What, then, do you advise?"
I.e., "deprive you of your rule". The plural "you" relates to Pharaoh and the ruling class.
7:110 "He wants to take you out of your land; what do you recommend?",
7:110 It appears to us that Moses, after gaining some following, plans to throw you out of your land.” Said Pharaoh, “Now, what do you advise?”
7:111 Qaloo arjih waakhahu waarsilfee almada-ini hashireena
7:111 They said, "Delay him and his brother, and send gatherers to the cities."
7:111 They said: "Delay him and his brother, and send gatherers to the cities."
7:111 They answered: "Let him and his brother87 wait awhile, and send unto all cities heralds
I.e., Aaron, who-as is mentioned in several other places in the Qur'an-accompanied Moses on his mission.
7:111 They said, "Respite him and his brother, and send summoners to every city.,
7:111 (After consulting) they said, "Put him and his brother off for a while and send to the cities men to summon.
7:112 Ya/tooka bikulli sahirin AAaleemin
7:112 "They will come to you with every knowledgeable magician."
7:112 "They will come to you with every knowledgeable magician."
7:112 who shall bring before thee every sorcerer of great knowledge."
7:112 "Let them summon every experienced magician.",
7:112 To bring all debaters to your court.”35
Saahir from Sihr = Magician, liar, stunningly eloquent, smart poet, deceitful, trickster, cheater, defrauder, dodger, hoaxer, swindler
7:113 Wajaa alssaharatufirAAawna qaloo inna lana laajran in kunnanahnu alghalibeena
7:113 The magicians came to Pharaoh and said, "There should be a reward for us if we are the victors."
7:113 And the magicians came to Pharaoh, they said: "We require a reward if we are the victors."
7:113 And the sorcerers came unto Pharaoh [and] said: "Verily, we ought to have a great reward88 if it is we who prevail."
The particle la preceding the noun ajr ("reward'') indicates an emphasis which gives to this combination the meaning of "great reward".
7:113 The magicians came to Pharaoh and said, "Do we get paid if we are the winners?",
7:113 The debaters came to Pharaoh. They said, “Will there be reward for us if we are victors?”
7:114 Qala naAAam wa-innakum laminaalmuqarrabeena
7:114 He said, "Yes, and you will be made close to me."
7:114 He said: "Yes, and you will be made close to me."
7:114 Answered [Pharaoh]: "Yes; and, verily, you shall be among those who are near unto me."
7:114 He said, "Yes indeed; you will even become close to me.",
7:114 He answered, “Yes, and you will be among those who are close to me.”
7:115 Qaloo ya moosa immaan tulqiya wa-imma an nakoona nahnu almulqeena
7:115 They said, "O Moses, either you cast, or shall we cast?"
7:115 They said: "O Moses, either you cast, or we will cast?"
7:115 They said: "O Moses! Either thou shalt throw [thy staff first], or we shall [be the first to] throw."
7:115 They said, "O Moses, either you throw, or we are throwing.",
7:115 The debaters said, “O Moses! Either you begin or let us be the first to present our case.”
7:116 Qala alqoo falamma alqaw saharooaAAyuna alnnasi waistarhaboohum wajaoobisihrin AAatheemin
Magic Has No Objective Reality: It Is Merely the Product Of Illusion and Suggestion7:116 He said, "You cast." So when they cast, they deceived the people's eyes, intimidated them, and they produced a great magic.20
Magic, according to the description of the Quran, is not a paranormal phenomenon. Magic is a tool employed by people with devious intentions to manipulate individuals and societies via trickery and suggestion. These verses refer to both its physical and psychological components.
7:116 He said: "You cast." So when they cast, they bewitched the eyes of the people, and instilled terror in them, and they came with a great magic.
7:116 He answered: "You throw [first]." And when they threw down [their staffs], they cast a spell upon the people's eyes, and struck them with awe, and produced mighty sorcery.
7:116 He said, "You throw." When they threw, they tricked the people's eyes, intimidated them, and produced a great magic.,
7:116 Moses asked them to begin. When they began they cast a spell on the people’s eyes, and struck them with awe, and stunned the assembly with their spellbinding eloquence.
7:117 Waawhayna ila moosaan alqi AAasaka fa-itha hiya talqafu maya/fikoona
7:117 We inspired Moses: "Throw down your staff;" and soon it was swallowing what they had invented.
7:117 And We inspired Moses: "Cast down your staff;" and it swallowed what they invented.
7:117 And [then] We inspired Moses, "Throw down thy staff!" -and lo! it swallowed up all their deceptions:89
Implying that the act of Moses was a genuine miracle, whereas that of the sorcerers was a feat of make-believe (cf. 20:66).
7:117 We then inspired Moses: "Throw down your staff," whereupon it swallowed whatever they fabricated.,
7:117 So, We inspired Moses, “Respond with conviction. And then see how it swallows their deceptive rhetoric.”36
‘Asaa = Staff = Cane = Strength = Conviction = Authority = Power = Strong logic = Convincing argument
7:118 FawaqaAAa alhaqqu wabatala makanoo yaAAmaloona
7:118 Thus the truth was confirmed, and what they were doing was falsified.
7:118 Thus the truth was set, and what they did was made of no effect.
7:118 whereupon the truth was established, and vain was proved all that they had been doing.
The Truth Recognized by the Experts7:118 Thus, the truth prevailed, and what they did was nullified.,
7:118 The truth prevailed and their arguments were manifestly proven false.
7:119 Faghuliboo hunalika wainqalaboosaghireena
7:119 They were thus defeated there, and they turned in disgrace.
7:119 They were thus defeated there and then, and they turned in disgrace.
7:119 And thus were they vanquished there and then, and became utterly humiliated.
7:119 They were defeated then and there; they were humiliated.,
7:119 Thus, they were defeated right there and humiliated.
7:120 Waolqiya alssaharatu sajideena
7:120 The magicians fell down prostrating.
7:120 And the magicians went down prostrating.
7:120 And down fell the sorcerers,90 prostrating themselves
Lit., "the sorcerers were thrown down" -i.e., they fell to the ground as if thrown by a superior force (Zamakhshari).
7:120 The magicians fell prostrate.,
7:120 The debaters fell down prostrate.
7:121 Qaloo amanna birabbialAAalameena
7:121 They said, "We acknowledge the Lord of the worlds."
7:121 They said: "We believe in the Lord of the worlds."
7:121 [and] exclaiming: "We have come to believe in the Sustainer of all the worlds,
7:121 They said, "We believe in the Lord of the universe.,
7:121 They were convinced and said, "We believe in the Lord of the Worlds.
7:122 Rabbi moosa waharoona
7:122 "The Lord of Moses and Aaron."
7:122 "The Lord of Moses and Aaron."
7:122 the Sustainer of Moses and Aaron!"
7:122 "The Lord of Moses and Aaron.",
7:122 The Lord of Moses and Aaron.”
7:123 Qala firAAawnu amantum bihiqabla an athana lakum inna hatha lamakrunmakartumoohu fee almadeenati litukhrijoo minha ahlahafasawfa taAAlamoona
7:123 Pharaoh said, "Did you acknowledge him before I have given you permission? This is surely some scheme which you have schemed in the city to drive its people out; but soon you shall know."
7:123 Pharaoh said: "Have you become believers before I have given you permission? This is surely some scheme which you have schemed in the city to drive its people out; you will reveal what you know."
7:123 Said Pharaoh: "Have you come to believe in him91 ere I have given you permission? Behold, this is indeed a plot which you have cunningly devised in this [my] city in order to drive out its people hence! But in time you shall come to know, [my revenge]:
7:123 Pharaoh said, "Did you believe in him without my permission? This must be a conspiracy you schemed in the city, in order to take its people away. You will surely find out.,
7:123 Pharaoh got annoyed, "You believe in Him before I give you permission! This is a conspiracy you all have planned in the city to drive out its people (in rebellion). But soon you will know (the consequences).
7:124 LaoqatiAAanna aydiyakum waarjulakummin khilafin thumma laosallibannakum ajmaAAeena
7:124 "I will cut off your hands and feet from alternate sides; then I will crucify you all."
7:124 "I will cut off your hands and feet from alternate sides, then I will crucify you all."
7:124 most certainly shall I cut off your hands and your feet in great numbers, because of [your] perverseness, and then I shall most certainly crucify you, in great numbers, all together! "92
The grammatical forms la-ugatti' anna and la-usallibannakum must be rendered as "most certainly shall I cut off [your hands and feet] in great numbers" and "crucify you in great numbers": and this indicates that either the repentant sorcerers thus addressed were many or, alternatively, that they had a large following among the people of Egypt . The latter assumption seems to be corroborated by the Biblical reference to the fact that many Egyptians joined the Israelites in their exodus from Egypt : "And a mixed multitude went up also with them" (Exodus xii, 38). As regards my rendering of min khilaf as "because of [your] perverseness", see surah 5, note 44 (last sentence).
7:124 "I will cut your hands and feet on alternate sides, then I will crucify you all.",
7:125 Qaloo inna ila rabbinamunqaliboona
7:125 They said, "To our Lord shall we return."
7:125 They said: "It is to our Lord that we will return."
7:125 They answered: "Verily, unto our Sustainer do we turn-
7:125 They said, "We will then return to our Lord.,
7:125 They responded, "We are determined to turn to our Lord.
7:126 Wama tanqimu minna illaan amanna bi-ayati rabbinalamma jaatna rabbana afrigh AAalaynasabran watawaffana muslimeena
7:126 "You are only seeking revenge on us because we acknowledged our Lord's signs when they came to us. Our Lord, grant us patience and let us die having peacefully surrendered."
7:126 "And you are only seeking revenge on us because we believed in the signs of our Lord when they came to us. Our Lord, provide us with patience, and let us die as submitters."
7:126 for thou takest vengeance on us only because we have come to believe in our Sustainer's messages as soon as they came to us. O our Sustainer! Shower us with patience in adversity, and make us die as men who have surrendered themselves unto Thee!"
7:126 "You persecute us simply because we believed in the proofs of our Lord when they came to us." "Our Lord, grant us steadfastness, and let us die as submitters.",
7:126 Do you take vengeance on us simply because we believed in the revelations of our Lord when they came to us? Our Lord! Bestow on us steadfastness and let us die as submitters.” [2:250]
7:127 Waqala almalao min qawmi firAAawnaatatharu moosa waqawmahu liyufsidoo fee al-ardiwayatharaka waalihataka qala sanuqattilu abnaahumwanastahyee nisaahum wa-inna fawqahum qahiroona
7:127 The leaders among the people of Pharaoh said, "Will you let Moses and his people corrupt the land, and abandon you and your gods?" He said, "We will kill their children and shame their women; we will be supreme over them."
7:127 And the commanders from among the people of Pharaoh said: "Will you let Moses and his people corrupt the land, and abandon you and your gods?" He said: "We will kill their children and rape their women; we will be supreme over them."
7:127 And the great ones among Pharaoh's people said: "Wilt thou allow Moses and his people to spread corruption on earth, and to [cause thy people to] forsake thee and thy gods?" [Pharaoh] replied: "We shall slay their sons in great numbers and shall spare [only] their women: for, verily, we hold sway over them!"
7:127 The leaders among Pharaoh's people said, "Will you allow Moses and his people to corrupt the earth, and forsake you and your gods?" He said, "We will kill their sons, and spare their daughters. We are much more powerful than they are.",
7:127 The chiefs among Pharaoh's people said, "Will you allow Moses and his people to create disorder in the land, and forsake your rule and your gods?” He said, "We will slay their sons and spare their women. We are in power over them.”
7:128 Qala moosa liqawmihiistaAAeenoo biAllahi waisbiroo innaal-arda lillahi yoorithuha man yashaomin AAibadihi waalAAaqibatu lilmuttaqeena
7:128 Moses said to his people: "Seek help with God, and be patient; for the land is God's. He will inherit it to whom He pleases of His servants; and the victory belongs to the righteous."
7:128 Moses said to his people: "Seek help with God, and be patient; the earth is for God, He will inherit it to whom He pleases of His servants; and the ending will be for the righteous."
7:128 [And] Moses said unto his people: "Turn unto God for aid, and have patience in adversity. Verily, all the earth belongs to God: He gives it as a heritage - to such as He wills of His servants; and the future belongs to the God-conscious!"
7:128 Moses said to his people, "Seek GOD's help, and steadfastly persevere. The earth belongs to GOD, and He grants it to whomever He chooses from among His servants. The ultimate victory belongs to the righteous.",
7:128 Moses assured his people, “Seek help in God and patiently persevere. Remember that the earth belongs to God. He grants it as a heritage to His servants according to His laws. And the ultimate end belongs to the upright.” [21:105]
7:129 Qaloo ootheena minqabli an ta/tiyana wamin baAAdi ma ji/tana qalaAAasa rabbukum an yuhlika AAaduwwakum wayastakhlifakum feeal-ardi fayanthura kayfa taAAmaloona
7:129 They said, "We were being harmed before you came to us and since you have come to us." He said, "Perhaps your Lord will destroy your enemy, and make you successors in the land, so He sees how you behave."
7:129 They said: "We were being harmed before you came to us and since you have come to us." He said: "Perhaps your Lord will destroy your enemy, and make you successors in the land, so He sees how you work?"
7:129 [But the children of Israel ] said: "We have suffered hurt ere thou camest to us and since thou hast come to us!93 [Moses] replied: "It may well be that your Sustainer will destroy your foe and make you inherit the earth: and thereupon he will behold how you act."94
This is, in the above context, the first hint of the inconstancy and weakness of faith for which the Qur'an so often blames the children of Israel: and this, together with what follows in verses 138-140 and 148 ff., is the reason why the story of Moses has been included here among the stories of the earlier prophets whose warnings were neglected by their communities.
I.e., "He will judge you by your actions". As is evident from the reference, in verse 137 below, to the "patience in adversity" which the children of Israel subsequently displayed, it would seem that the hope held out to them by Moses helped them, once again, to overcome their moral weakness; but, at the same time, his words "God will behold how you act" imply a distinct warning.
7:129 They said, "We were persecuted before you came to us, and after you came to us." He said, "Your Lord will annihilate your enemy and establish you on earth, then He will see how you behave.",
7:129 Fearing persecution they said, "We suffered before you came to us and after you have come to us.” Moses said, “Your Lord will annihilate your enemy, and you will inherit the earth. Then He will see what kind of works you do.”
7:130 Walaqad akhathna alafirAAawna bialssineena wanaqsin mina alththamaratilaAAallahum yaththakkaroona
Disasters7:130 We then afflicted the people of Pharaoh with years of drought, a shortage in crops, so that they might take heed.
7:130 And We afflicted the people of Pharaoh with years of drought, and a shortage in crops, perhaps they would remember.
7:130 And most certainly did We overwhelm Pharaoh's people with drought and scarcity of fruits, so that they might take it to heart.
The Plagues7:130 We then afflicted Pharaoh's people with drought, and shortage of crops, that they may take heed.,
7:130 The unjust system of Pharaoh and his people began to waver (7:94). When Our requital struck them with famine, and scanty crop (they found themselves ill prepared for the relief efforts). They should have stopped to think.
7:131 Fa-itha jaat-humu alhasanatuqaloo lana hathihi wa-in tusibhumsayyi-atun yattayyaroo bimoosa waman maAAahu alainnama ta-iruhum AAinda Allahi walakinnaaktharahum la yaAAlamoona
7:131 When any good comes to them, they say, "This is ours," and when any bad afflicts them, they blame it on Moses and those with him. Their blame is with God, but most of them do not know.
7:131 When any good came to them, they said: "This is ours," and when any bad afflicted them, they blamed it on Moses and those with him. Their blame is with God, but most of them do not know.
7:131 But whenever good fortune alighted upon them, they would say, "This is [but] our due"; and whenever affliction befell them, they would blame their evil fortune on Moses and those who followed him.95 Oh, verily, their [evil] fortune had been decreed by God-but most of them knew it not.
The phrase tatayyara bihi signifies "he attributed an evil omen to him" or "he augured evil, from him". It is based on the pre-Islamic Arab custom of divining the future or establishing an omen from the flight of birds. Thus, the noun ta'ir (lit., "a flying creature" or "a bird") is often used in classical Arabic to denote "destiny" or "fortune", both good and evil, as in the next sentence of the above verse ("their [evil] fortune had been decreed by [lit., "was with"] God"). Instances of this tropical employment of the expressions ta'ir and tayr and their verbal derivations are also found in 3:49 , 5:110, 17:13 , 27:47, 36:18.
7:131 When good omens came their way, they said, "We have deserved this," but when a hardship afflicted them, they blamed Moses and those with him. In fact, their omens are decided only by GOD, but most of them do not know.,
7:131 (Instead of reflecting and taking corrective action, they sought the easy way out.) All good that came along, they said, “It is from us.” and if an affliction struck them, they blamed it on the bad omen of Moses and his companions. All omens (good or bad consequences of actions) follow Divine laws but most of them know not.
7:132 Waqaloo mahma ta/tinabihi min ayatin litasharana biha famanahnu laka bimu/mineena
7:132 They said, "No matter what you bring us of a sign to bewitch us with, we will never acknowledge you."
7:132 And they said: "No matter what you bring us of a sign to bewitch us with, we will never believe in you."
7:132 And they said [unto Moses]: "Whatever sign thou mayest produce before us in order to cast a spell upon us thereby, we shall not believe thee!"
7:132 They said, "No matter what kind of sign you show us, to dupe us with your magic, we will not believe.",
7:132 They kept telling Moses, “Whatever the verses might say, whatever bad omens you could bring, or bewitch us with your logic, we will not believe in you.” (And will not consider reformation).
7:133 Faarsalna AAalayhimu alttoofanawaaljarada waalqummala waalddafadiAAawaalddama ayatin mufassalatinfaistakbaroo wakanoo qawman mujrimeena
7:133 So We sent them the flood, the locust, the lice, the frogs, and the blood; all detailed signs; but they turned arrogant, they were a criminal people.21
We are receiving warning signs in our times too. AIDS and many other sexually transmitted diseases that became epidemics as a consequence of our transgression and indulgence in sexual promiscuity; deformed frogs providing signs of the hazards of toxic chemicals contaminating our lakes, groundwater, and environment; the greenhouse effect and related climatic disasters caused by our wasteful lifestyle and irresponsible consumption of coal, petroleum and forests; putting the entire planet at risk of destruction by stockpiling nuclear weapons in a frenzy; these and many other problems are divine warnings for our irresponsible and unappreciative ways of life.
The Quran mentions numerous animals, each being witnesses to God's creative and intelligent design and signs, which started from a single cell: mosquito (2:26); calf (2:51; 4:153; 7:148; 11:69; 20:88; 51:26); monkey (2:65; 5:60; 7:166); cow, heifer (2:67; 6:144; 12:43); pig (2:173; 5:3; 6:145; 16:115); donkey (2:259; 16:8; 31:19; 62:5); horse (3:14; 8:60; 16:8; 17:64; 59:6); falcon (5:4); dog, (5:4; 7:176; 18:18); crow (5:31); bird (6:38; 27:20); goat, sheep (6:143); camel (6:144; 88:17); adult he camel (7:40); she camel (7:73; 11:64; 17:59; 26:155; 54:27; 91:13); snake (7:107; 26:32), locust (7:133; 54:7); lice (7:133); frog (7:133); fish, whale (7:163; 18:61; 37:142; 68:48); wolf (12:17); bee (16:68); sheep/goat/ewe (20:18); fly (22:73); ant (27:18); hoopoe (27:20); spider (29:41); termite (34:14); ewe/sheep (38:23); lion (74:51); zebra (74:50); butterfly (101:4); elephant (105:1).
7:133 So We sent them the flood, and the locust, and the lice, and the frogs, and the blood; all detailed signs; but they turned arrogant, they were a criminal people.
7:133 Thereupon We let loose upon them floods, and [plagues of] locusts, and lice, and frogs, and [water turning into] blood96 -distinct signs [all]: but they gloried in their arrogance, for they were people lost in sin.
For a description of these plagues, see Exodus vii-x.
The Warnings Go Unheeded7:133 Consequently, we sent upon them the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, and the blood - profound signs. But they maintained their arrogance. They were evil people.,
7:133 Their System was too inefficient to fight off natural calamities, such as, floods, swarms of locusts, and diseases of crops, livestock and humans. These were open signs for them to wake up to reform, but Pharaoh and his chiefs were too arrogant to accept responsibility, and too involved in luxury to take action. They were guilty of misrule.
7:134 Walamma waqaAAa AAalayhimu alrrijzuqaloo ya moosa odAAu lana rabbaka bimaAAahida AAindaka la-in kashafta AAanna alrrijzalanu/minanna laka walanursilanna maAAaka banee isra-eela
7:134 When the plague befell them, they said, "O Moses, call on your Lord for what pledge He gave you. If you remove this plague from us, then we will acknowledge you and we will send with you the Children of Israel."
7:134 And when the affliction befell them, they said: "O Moses, call on your Lord for what He has pledged with you, that if you remove this affliction from us, then we will believe in you and we will send with you the Children of Israel."
7:134 And whenever a plague struck them, they would cry: "O Moses, pray for us to thy Sustainer on the strength of the covenant [of prophethood] which He has made with thee! If thou remove this plague from us, we will truly believe in thee. and will let the children of Israel go with thee!"
7:134 Whenever a plague afflicted them, they said, "O Moses, implore your Lord - you are close to Him. If you relieve this plague, we will believe with you, and will send the Children of Israel with you.",
7:134 (The irrational Egyptians continued to remain sunken in superstition.) Whenever hardship struck, they turned to Moses for prayer stating that God had a pledge with him, and promising that they would believe and let the Children of Israel go with him.38
They did not understand that the pledge of God with His Messengers was only that of obeying His commands and His blessings in return. It did not involve any supernatural phenomena such as miracles
7:135 Falamma kashafna AAanhumu alrrijzaila ajalin hum balighoohu itha humyankuthoona
7:135 So when We removed from them the plague until a future time; they broke their pledge.
7:135 So when We removed from them the affliction, until a future time, they broke their pledge.
7:135 But whenever We removed the plague from them, giving them time to make good their promise,97 lo, they would break their word.
Lit., "until a term which they should reach".
7:135 Yet, when we relieved the plague for any length of time, they violated their pledge.,
7:135 When the hardship ran its course according to Our laws, they would break their promise with Moses.
7:136 Faintaqamna minhum faaghraqnahumfee alyammi bi-annahum kaththaboo bi-ayatinawakanoo AAanha ghafileena
Children of Israel Tested After Receiving Divine Support7:136 For their denial and disregard of Our signs, We thus inflicted them with punishment by drowning them in the sea,
7:136 We thus took vengeance upon them by drowning them in the sea, for their denial of Our signs, and their disregard of them.
7:136 And so We inflicted Our retribution on them, and caused them to drown in the sea, because they had given the lie to Our messages and had been heedless of them;
The Inevitable Retribution7:136 Consequently, we avenged their actions, and drowned them in the sea. That is because they rejected our signs, and were totally heedless thereof.,
7:136 So, We sent Our requital on them and drowned them in the sea, for they had been denying Our messages and remained heedless.
7:137 Waawrathna alqawma allatheenakanoo yustadAAafoona mashariqa al-ardiwamagharibaha allatee barakna feehawatammat kalimatu rabbika alhusna AAalabanee isra-eela bima sabaroo wadammarnama kana yasnaAAu firAAawnu waqawmuhu wamakanoo yaAArishoona
7:137 We let the people who were oppressed inherit the east and the west of the land which We have blessed, and good word of your Lord was completed towards the Children of Israel. For they were patient, and We destroyed what Pharaoh and his people were doing, and what they contrived.
7:137 And We let the people who were weak inherit the east of the land and the west of it which We have blessed. And the good word of your Lord was completed towards the Children of Israel for their patience; and We destroyed what Pharaoh and his people were doing, and what they contrived.
7:137 whereas unto the people who [in the past] had been deemed utterly low, We gave as their heritage the eastern and western parts of the land that We had blessed.98 And [thus] thy Sustainer's good promise unto the children of Israel was fulfilled in result of their patience in adversity;99 whereas We utterly destroyed all that Pharaoh and his people had wrought, and all that they had built.100
Palestine is spoken of as "blessed" because it was the land in which Abraham, Isaac and Jacob had lived, and because so many other prophets were to appear there.
The promise of God referred to here is the one given to the children of Israel through Moses (see verses 128 and 129).
The story of the suffering of the Israelites during their bondage in Egypt, their deliverance through Moses, their crossing of the Red Sea (or, more probably, of what today is known as the Gulf of Suez) and the destruction of Pharaoh and his hosts is narrated in considerable detail in the Bible (Exodus i-xiv). The Qur'an, on the other hand, does not give us a consecutive narrative: for historical narrative as such is never its purpose. Whenever the Qur'an refers to past events-whether recorded in the Bible or alive in Arabian tradition-it does so exclusively with a view to bringing out elements that are relevant to the ethical, teachings which it propounds.
7:137 We let the oppressed people inherit the land, east and west, and we blessed it. The blessed commands of your Lord were thus fulfilled for the Children of Israel, to reward them for their steadfastness, and we annihilated the works of Pharaoh and his people and everything they harvested.,
7:137 We made the oppressed people inherit the east and the west of the land that We had blessed with abundant provision. The commands of your Lord were fulfilled for the Children of Israel to reward them for their steadfastness. Pharaoh and his people eventually met destruction for violating Our laws. And We leveled to the ground (the great works and fine buildings, temples, palaces, tombs, statues and stately) structures of all kinds that Pharaoh and his people had built with so much skill and pride.39
The Children of Israel later inherited a sizeable and highly prosperous kingdom including Syria and Palestine under David and Solomon
7:138 Wajawazna bibanee isra-eelaalbahra faataw AAala qawmin yaAAkufoona AAalaasnamin lahum qaloo ya moosaijAAal lana ilahan kama lahum alihatunqala innakum qawmun tajhaloona
7:138 We let the Children of Israel cross the sea, then they passed by a people who were devoted to idols they had. They said, "O Moses, make for us a god like the gods they have." He said, "You are an ignorant people!"
7:138 And We let the Children of Israel cross the sea, then they came upon a people who were devoted to statues made for them; they said: "O Moses, make for us a god like they have gods?" He said: "You are an ignorant people!"
7:138 AND WE BROUGHT the children of Israel across the sea; and thereupon they came upon people who were devoted to the worship of some idols of theirs.101 Said [the children of Israel ]: "O Moses, set up for us a god even as they have gods!" He replied: "Verily, you are people without any awareness [of right and wrong]!
The Qur'an does not say who those people were. It is, however, probable that they belonged to the group of Arabian tribes described in the Bible as "Amalekites", who inhabited southernmost Palestine , the adjoining regions of the Hijaz, and parts of the Sinai Peninsula .
After All the Miracles7:138 We delivered the Children of Israel across the sea. When they passed by people who were worshipping statues, they said, "O Moses, make a god for us, like the gods they have." He said, "Indeed, you are ignorant people.,
7:138 After they crossed the sea (into Sinai 2:50-51), the Children of Israel passed by some people who were worshiping statues. They said, ‘O Moses! Make a god for us, like the gods they have.” Moses said, "You are a people who wish to lurk in darkness.
7:139 Inna haola-i mutabbarun mahum feehi wabatilun ma kanoo yaAAmaloona
7:139 "These people are ruined for what they are in, and worthless is what they do."
7:139 "These people are ruined for what they are in, and evil is what they do."
7:139 As for these here -verily, their way of life is bound to lead to destruction; and worthless is all that they have ever done!"
7:139 "These people are committing a blasphemy, for what they are doing is disastrous for them.,
7:139 What these idol worshipers are doing is senseless and vain.
7:140 Qala aghayra Allahi abgheekumilahan wahuwa faddalakum AAala alAAalameena
7:140 He said, "Shall I seek other than God as a god for you when He has preferred you over the worlds?"
7:140 He said: "Shall I seek other than God as a god for you when He has preferred you over the worlds?"
7:140 [And] he said: "Am I to seek for you a deity other than God, although it is He who has favoured you above all other people?"102
I.e., by having raised so many prophets out of their midst.
7:140 "Shall I seek for you other than GOD to be your god, when He has blessed you more than anyone else in the world?",
7:140 Shall I seek a god for you other than God, when He has blessed you more than the other existing nations?"
7:141 Wa-ith anjaynakum min alifirAAawna yasoomoonakum soo-a alAAathabi yuqattiloona abnaakumwayastahyoona nisaakum wafee thalikum balaonmin rabbikum AAatheemun
7:141 When We saved you from the people of Pharaoh, who were afflicting you with the worst punishment, killing your children and shaming your women; and in that was a great trial from your Lord.
7:141 And We had saved you from the people of Pharaoh, they were afflicting you with the worst punishment; they used to kill your children and rape your women; and in that was a great test from your Lord.
7:141 And [he reminded them of this word of God]: "Lo, We saved you from Pharaoh's people who afflicted you with cruel suffering, slaying your sons in great numbers and sparing [only] your women - which was an awesome trial from your Sustainer."103
Cf. 2:49 . It appears that this passage is part of Moses' reminder to his people (Manar IX, 115 ff.); I have brought this out by interpolating "he reminded them of this word of God" between brackets.
Reminder to the Children of Israel7:141 Recall that we delivered you from Pharaoh's people, who inflicted the worst persecution upon you, killing your sons and sparing your daughters. That was an exacting trial for you from your Lord.,
7:141 Also remember when We saved you from Pharaoh’s people. They used to persecute you by selecting (the strong ones) for a dreadful torment. They slaughtered your sons and let your women live. That emancipation was a great turn of events from your Lord Supreme.40
In addition to killing the newborn boys, as a matter of state policy, Pharaoh humiliated the strong and left the vulnerable for slavery and shameful acts. Abna = Sons = Strong ones. Nisaa = Females = Women = Weak ones. Yastahyoon carries the connotation of ‘letting live’ as well as ‘in shame’. Yasoomoon = Selecting, choosing. This is what a tyrannical system does. 2:49, 27:34, 28:4, 40:25. Exodus 1:15-22 . Balaaun: Turn of events. Wa fi zalikum points to saving mentioned early in the verse
7:142 WawaAAadna moosa thalatheenalaylatan waatmamnaha biAAashrin fatamma meeqaturabbihi arbaAAeena laylatan waqala moosa li-akheehiharoona okhlufnee fee qawmee waaslih walatattabiAA sabeela almufsideena
Moses Receives The Commandments7:142 We appointed for Moses thirty nights and completed them with ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was completed at forty nights. Moses said to his brother Aaron: "Be my successor with my people and reform, and do not follow the path of the corrupters."22
One of the reasons that the number "forty" is expressed curiously as "thirty plus ten" is the role that numbers play in the numerical structure of the Quran.
7:142 And We set a meeting for Moses in thirty nights, and We complemented them with ten, so the appointed time of his Lord was set at forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron: "Be my successor with my people and be upright, and do not follow the path of the corrupters."
7:142 AND [then] We appointed for Moses thirty nights [on Mount Sinai ]; and We added to them ten, whereby the term of forty nights set bye, his Sustainer was fulfilled.104 And Moses said unto his brother Aaron: "Take thou my place among my people; and act righteously, and follow not the path of the spreaders of corruption."
According to several of the Prophet's Companions, and particularly Ibn `Abbas, the first thirty nights were to be spent by Moses in spiritual preparation, including fasting, whereupon the Law would be revealed to him in the remaining ten (Zamakhshari and Razi); see also Manar IX, 119 ff.). In Arabic usage, a period of time designated as "nights" comprises the days as well.
Our World Cannot Stand the Physical Presence of God7:142 We summoned Moses for thirty7 nights, and completed them by adding ten. Thus, the audience with his Lord lasted forty * nights. Moses said to his brother Aaron, "Stay here with my people, maintain righteousness, and do not follow the ways of the corrupters.",
The manner in which these numbers are mentioned is significant. As detailed in Appendix 1, all the numbersmentioned in the Quran add up to 162146,19x8534.
7:142 We summoned Moses for thirty nights and completed them by adding ten. Thus We completed the term with His Lord, forty nights. Before leaving for Mount Sinai, Moses assigned his brother Aaron, as his deputy and told him to keep social order after him and not to be intimidated by trouble makers. [2:51]
7:143 ولما جاء موسى لميقتنا وكلمه ربه قال رب ارنى انظر اليك قال لن ترىنى ولكن انظر الى الجبل فان استقر مكانه فسوف ترىنى فلما تجلى ربه للجبل جعله دكا وخر موسى صعقا فلما افاق قال سبحنك تبت اليك وانا اول المؤمنين
7:143 Walamma jaa moosalimeeqatina wakallamahu rabbuhu qala rabbiarinee anthur ilayka qala lan taraneewalakini onthur ila aljabali fa-iniistaqarra makanahu fasawfa taranee falammatajalla rabbuhu liljabali jaAAalahu dakkan wakharra moosasaAAiqan falamma afaqa qala subhanakatubtu ilayka waana awwalu almu/mineena
7:143 So when Moses came to Our appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him, he said, "My Lord, let me look upon you." He said, "You will not see Me, but look upon the mountain, if it stays in its place then you will see Me." So, when his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He caused it to crumble; thus Moses fell unconscious. When he recovered, he said, "Glory be to You, I repent to You and I am the first of those who acknowledge."23
People in paradise will see God (39:69; 75:23, 89:22). Some critics claim that the last statement of this verse contradicts 39:12 and 2:132. If we check a search engine with the following words: Olympic first place 100-meters, we will find many names of athletes who got first place. If we use the logic of the critics, we would think there is a great confusion and contradictory claims regarding the first place winner of the 100-meters race. What is wrong with that logic? Obviously, we need to consider the two important dimensions: time and space! Abraham was the first Muslim (submitter and promoter of peace) in his time and location. Similarly, Moses and Muhammed were too pioneer muslims of their times and location.
7:143 So when Moses came to Our appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him, he said: "My Lord, let me look upon you." He said: "You will not see Me, but look upon the mountain, if it stays in its place then you will see Me." So when his Lord revealed Himself to the mountain, He caused it to crumble; thus Moses fell unconscious. When he awoke, he said: "Glory to You, I repent to You and I am the first of those who believe."
7:143 And when Moses came [to Mount Sinai] at the time set by Us, and his Sustainer spoke unto him, he said: "O my Sustainer! Show [Thyself] unto me, so that I might behold Thee!" Said [God]: "Never canst thou see Me. However, behold this mountain: if it remains firm in its place, then - only then - wilt thou see Me.105 And as soon as his Sustainer revealed His glory to the mountain, He caused it to crumble to dust; and Moses fell down in a swoon. And when he came to himself, he said: "Limitless art Thou in Thy glory! Unto Thee do I turn in repentance; and I shall [always] be the first to believe in Thee!"106
Lit., "then, in time (sawfa) wilt thou see Me". As these words express the impossibility of man's seeing God-which is clearly implied in the Arabic construction -a literal rendering would not do justice to it.
Since Moses was already a believer, his words do not merely allude to belief in God's existence but, rather, belief in the impossibility of man's seeing God (Ibn Kathir, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas).
7:143 When Moses came at our appointed time, and his Lord spoke with him, he said, "My Lord, let me look and see You." He said, "You cannot see Me. Look at that mountain; if it stays in its place, then you can see Me." Then, his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, and this caused it to crumble. Moses fell unconscious. When he came to, he said, "Be You glorified. I repent to You, and I am the most convinced believer.",
7:143 When Moses arrived at the appointed time, and his Lord spoke to him, Moses said, "My Lord! Give me the power to better perceive You." His Lord said, "You will not perceive Me unless you look pensively at the mountain. If it remains firm in its place, then shall you perceive Me." (You will realize that even a single mountain is made of countless particles that were scattered as dust and it is your Lord Who has made it stand firm.) Thus did his Lord choose for the mountain to be a manifestation of His glory. Moses pictured the mountain as dust and was stunned! When he recovered his senses, he said, "Infinite are You in Your glory! I turn to you repentant and I am among the foremost believers.”
7:144 Qala ya moosa innee istafaytukaAAala alnnasi birisalateewabikalamee fakhuth ma ataytuka wakunmina alshshakireena
7:144 He said, "O Moses, I have chosen you over people with My message and My words; so take what I have given you and be of the thankful."
7:144 He said: "O Moses, I have chosen you over the people with My message and My words; so take what I have given you and be of the thankful."
7:144 Said [God]: "O Moses! Behold, I have raised thee above all people by virtue of the messages which I have entrusted to thee,107 and by virtue of My speaking [unto thee]: hold fast, therefore, unto what I have vouchsafed thee, and be among the grateful!"
Lit., "by virtue of My messages".
7:144 He said, "O Moses, I have chosen you, out of all the people, with My messages and by speaking to you. Therefore, take what I have given you and be appreciative.",
7:144 God said, “O Moses! I have chosen you, out of all people, with My messages and by speaking to you. Therefore, take what I have given you and be among the grateful.”
7:145 Wakatabna lahu fee al-alwahimin kulli shay-in mawAAithatan watafseelanlikulli shay-in fakhuthha biquwwatin wa/mur qawmakaya/khuthoo bi-ahsaniha saoreekum daraalfasiqeena
7:145 We wrote for him on the tablets from everything a lesson, and detailing all things. You shall uphold them firmly and order your people to take the best from it. I will show you the abode of the corrupt.24
7:145 And We wrote for him on the tablets from all things a lesson, and detailing all things. Take it with strength and order your people to take the best from it. I will show you the abode of the wicked.
7:145 And We ordained for him in the tablets [of the Law] all manner of admonition, clearly spelling out everything.108 And [We said:] "Hold fast unto them with [all thy] strength, and bid thy people to hold fast to their most goodly rules." I will show you the way the iniquitous shall go.109
See surah 6, note 156.
Lit., "I will show you the abode of the iniquitous". The rendering adopted by me corresponds to the interpretations given by Tabari (on the authority of Mujahid and Al-Hasan al-Basri) and by Ibn Kathir; regarding the meaning of dar ("abode") in this context, see surah 6, note 118. Some of the commentators are of the opinion that the above sentence concludes God's admonition to Moses, but the plural form of address in "I will show you" makes it more probable that it is the beginning of a parenthetic passage connected, no doubt, with the preceding one, but having a general import not confined to Moses.
7:145 We wrote for him on the tablets all kinds of enlightenments and details of everything: "You shall uphold these teachings strongly, and exhort your people to uphold them - these are the best teachings. I will point out for you the fate of the wicked.",
7:145 We ordained for him, in the Tablets of law, Enlightenment and clearly spelled out guidance. And told him, “Uphold these teachings strongly, and tell your people to uphold them. These are excellent teachings. I will soon let you and your people see (how blessed the end of compliance will be and) to which abode the drifters will be headed.” [39:18]
7:146 Saasrifu AAan ayatiyaallatheena yatakabbaroona fee al-ardi bighayri alhaqqiwa-in yaraw kulla ayatin la yu/minoo bihawa-in yaraw sabeela alrrushdi la yattakhithoohusabeelan wa-in yaraw sabeela alghayyi yattakhithoohusabeelan thalika bi-annahum kaththaboo bi-ayatinawakanoo AAanha ghafileena
Those Who Deny Signs and Miracles7:146 I will divert from My signs those who are arrogant on earth unjustly, and if they see every sign they do not acknowledge it, and if they see the path of guidance they do not take it as a path; and if they see the path of straying, they take it as a path. That is because they have denied Our signs and were heedless of them.25
Religious clerics who oppose the numerical miracle of the Quran are one example. See 74:1.
7:146 I will turn away from My revelations those who are arrogant on the earth without right, and if they see every sign they do not believe in it, and if they see the path of guidance they do not take it as a path; and if they see the path of mischief, they take it as a path. That is because they have denied Our revelations and were heedless of them.
7:146 From My messages shall I cause to turn away all those who, without any right, behave haughtily on earth: for, though they may see every sign [of the truth], they do not believe in it, and though they may see the path of rectitude, they do not choose fo follow it-whereas, if they see a path of error, they take it for their own: this, because they have given the lie to Our messages, and have remained heedless of them,"110
As so often in the Qur'an, God's "causing" the sinners to sin is shown to be a consequence of their own behaviour and the result of their free choice. By "those who, without any right, behave haughtily on earth". are obviously meant people who think that their own judgment as to what constitutes right and wrong is the only valid one, and who therefore refuse to submit their personal concerns to the criterion of absolute (i.e., revealed) moral standards; cf. 96:6 - "man becomes grossly overweening whenever he believes himself to be self-sufficient".
Divine Intervention Keeps the Disbelievers in the Dark7:146 I will divert from My revelations those who are arrogant on earth, without justification. Consequently, when they see every kind of proof they will not believe. And when they see the path of guidance they will not adopt it as their path, but when they see the path of straying they will adopt it as their path. This is the consequence of their rejecting our proofs, and being totally heedless thereof.,
7:146 Even if they went through the entire script, and saw clear evidence of the truth, their arrogance will keep them from believing. When they see the right guidance, they do not accept it, but they readily accept straying. This is because they choose to deny Our revelations and remain unaware of the wisdom in them.41
The law stands that those who are arrogant without justification will turn away from Divine revelations. Takabbur bil-Haqq rightful pride with gratitude to God is different from Takabbur bighairil-Haqq Pride against all right. God ascribes to Himself, the consequences according to His Law of Requital, such as, “God did it.”
7:147 Waallatheena kaththaboobi-ayatina waliqa-i al-akhiratihabitat aAAmaluhum hal yujzawna illama kanoo yaAAmaloona
7:147 Those who deny Our signs and the meeting of the Hereafter, their work has collapsed. Will they not be rewarded except for what they used to do?
7:147 And those who deny Our revelations and the meeting of the Hereafter, their works have collapsed. Will they not be recompensed except for what they used to do?
7:147 Hence, all who give the lie to Our messages, and [thus] to the truth111 of the life to come -in vain shall be all their doings: [for] are they to be rewarded for aught but what they were wont to do?112
Lit., "to the meeting (liqa')" - in the sense of its being a pre-ordained fact.
This is the end of the parenthetic passage beginning with the words, "I will show you the way the iniquitous shall go".
7:147 Those who reject our revelations and the meeting of the Hereafter, their works are nullified. Are they requited only for what they committed?,
7:147 Those who deny Our messages and the meeting of the Hereafter, their works are fruitless. Are they rewarded anything but what they deserved for their decisions?42
Human beings should remember that every action has a consequence and it gets imprinted on the ‘self’. While every tomorrow is the Aakhirah after of today, the final Judgment and Recompense for us rests with the life to come
7:148 Waittakhatha qawmu moosamin baAAdihi min huliyyihim AAijlan jasadan lahu khuwarunalam yaraw annahu la yukallimuhum wala yahdeehimsabeelan ittakhathoohu wakanoo thalimeena
Children of Israel are Tested With the Symbol Of Their Former Masters7:148 The people of Moses, in his absence, made from their ornaments the statue of a calf which had a sound. Did they not see that it could not speak to them, nor guide them to any way. They took it and turned wicked.26
The verse does not say the calf made a sound; but a calf that had a sound, indicating its mechanical function. This sound was most likely created by wind passing through its holes. Indeed, archeologists discovered in Egyptian temples calf statues that created sound by the help of wind. See 20:83.
7:148 And the people of Moses, in his absence, made from their ornaments a sculpture of a calf that emitted a cry. Did they not see that it could not speak to them, nor guide them to any way? They took it and they were wicked.
7:148 AND IN his absence the people of Moses took to worshipping the effigy of a calf [made] of their ornaments, which gave forth a lowing sound."113 Did they not see that it could neither speak unto them nor guide them in any way? [And yet] they took to worshipping it, for they were evildoers:
The golden calf of the Israelites was obviously a result of centuries-old Egyptian influences. The Egyptians worshipped at Memphis the sacred bull, Apis, which they believed to be an incarnation of the god Ptah. A new Apis was supposed always to be born at the moment when the old one died, while the soul of the latter was believed to pass into Osiris in the Realm of the Dead, to be henceforth worshipped as Osiris-Apis (the "Serapis" of the Greco-Egyptian period). The "lowing sound" (khuwar) which the golden calf emitted was probably produced by wind effects, as was the case with some of the hollow Egyptian temple effigies.
The Golden Calf7:148 During his absence, Moses' people made from their jewelry the statue of a calf, complete with the sound of a calf. Did they not see that it could not speak to them, or guide them in any path? They worshipped it, and thus turned wicked.,8
How the golden calf acquired the sound of a calf is explained in Footnote 20:96.
7:148 The people of Moses made up a calf out of their ornaments while Moses was at the Mount Sinai. They made it such that blowing into it produced a lowing sound. They did not even see that it could not talk to them or show them any path. Still they chose it as a god, and thus wronged their own ‘self’.
7:149 Walamma suqita fee aydeehimwaraaw annahum qad dalloo qaloo la-in lam yarhamnarabbuna wayaghfir lana lanakoonanna mina alkhasireena
7:149 When they were smitten with remorse and they saw that they had gone astray, they said, "If our Lord will not have mercy on us and forgive us, then we will be of the losers!"
7:149 And when they realized what their hands had done, and they saw that they had gone astray, they said: "If our Lord will not have mercy on us and forgive us, then we will be of the losers!"
7:149 although [later,] when they would smite their hands in remorse,114 having perceived that they had gone astray, they would say, "Indeed, unless our Sustainer have mercy on us and grant us forgiveness, we shall most certainly be among the lost!"115
Lit., "when it was made to fall upon their hands"-an idiomatic phrase denoting intense remorse, probably derived from the striking ("falling") of hand upon hand as an expression of grief or regret.
The whole of verse 149 is a parenthetic clause (jumlah mu'taridah) referring to a later time-for the repentance of the Israelites came after Moses' return from Mount Sinai, of which the next verse speaks.
7:149 Finally, when they regretted their action, and realized that they had gone astray, they said, "Unless our Lord redeems us with His mercy, and forgives us, we will be losers.",
7:149 When they regretted their action and realized that they had gone astray, they said, “Unless our Lord have mercy on us and forgive us, we will be lost.”
7:150 ولما رجع موسى الى قومه غضبن اسفا قال بئسما خلفتمونى من بعدى اعجلتم امر ربكم والقى الالواح واخذ براس اخيه يجره اليه قال ابن ام ان القوم استضعفونى وكادوا يقتلوننى فلا تشمت بى الاعداء ولا تجعلنى مع القوم الظلمين
7:150 Walamma rajaAAa moosa ilaqawmihi ghadbana asifan qala bi/samakhalaftumoonee min baAAdee aAAajiltum amra rabbikum waalqa al-alwahawaakhatha bira/si akheehi yajurruhu ilayhi qalaibna omma inna alqawma istadAAafoonee wakadooyaqtuloonanee fala tushmit biya al-aAAdaa walatajAAalnee maAAa alqawmi alththalimeena
7:150 When Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved, he said, "Miserable is what you have done after me; do you wish to hasten the action of your Lord?" He cast down the tablets, and took his brother by his head dragging him towards him. He said, "Son of my mother, the people overpowered me and nearly killed me, so do not make the enemies rejoice over me, and do not make me with the wicked people."27
The tablets containing God's commandments were not sacred or important but the commandments themselves were. Thus, as a reaction to the Children of Israel's disobedience to the first commandment, Moses reacted in anger. His throwing away the physical medium carrying the commandments and interrogating his brother for letting his people regress into idolatry has a message. There are those who ignore many commandments of the Quran, including its first commandment, yet demonstrate extreme respect to the paper and ink comprising the manuscript of the Quran. This behavior is materialistic and totemic.
7:150 And when Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved, he said: "Miserable is what you have done after I was gone; do you wish to hasten the action of your Lord?" And he cast down the tablets, and took his brother by his head dragging him towards him. He said: "Son of my mother, the people overpowered me and nearly killed me, so do not make the enemies rejoice over me, and do not make me with the wicked people."
7:150 And when Moses returned to his people, full of wrath and sorrow, he exclaimed: "Vile is the course which you have followed in my absence! Have you forsaken116 your Sustainer's commandment?" And he threw down the tablets [of the Law], and seized his brother's head, dragging him towards himself. Cried Aaron: "O my mother's son! Behold, the people brought me low117 and almost slew me: so let not mine enemies rejoice at my affliction, and count me not among the evildoing folk!"
Lit., "outrun". The expression "one has outrun a forsaken it" or "left it undone" (Zamakhshari).
Lit., "made me [or "deemed me"] utterly weak". Contrary. to the Biblical account (Exodus xxxii, 1-5), the Qur'an does not accuse Aaron of having actually participated in making or worshipping the golden calf; his guilt consisted in having remained passive in the face of his ,people's idolatry for fear of causing a split among them (cf. 20:92).
7:150 When Moses returned to his people, angry and disappointed, he said, "What a terrible thing you have done in my absence! Could you not wait for the commandments of your Lord?" He threw down the tablets, and took hold of his brother's head, pulling him towards himself. (Aaron) said, "Son of my mother, the people took advantage of my weakness, and almost killed me. Let not my enemies rejoice, and do not count me with the transgressing people.",
7:150 Moses returned to his people and was upset and grieved. He said, “You have chosen a terrible thing after me. Do you wish your Lord’s requital to smite you soon? He put down the tablets of the commands among them and questioned his brother, Aaron, very strictly. Aaron explained, "O Son of my mother! These people treated me harshly and took my patience as weakness, and almost killed me. Let not my opponents rejoice, and do not count me among the wrongdoers."43
7:151 Qala rabbi ighfir lee wali-akheewaadkhilna fee rahmatika waanta arhamu alrrahimeena
7:151 He said, "My Lord, forgive me and my brother, and admit us in your mercy; you are the most Compassionate of the compassionate."
7:151 He said: "My Lord, forgive me and my brother, and admit us in Your mercy; and you are the Most Merciful of those who show mercy."
7:151 Said [Moses]: "O my Sustainer! Grant Thou forgiveness unto me118 and my brother, and admit us unto Thy grace: for Thou art the most merciful of the merciful!"
Sc., "for my anger and my harshness" (Razi).
7:151 (Moses) said, "My Lord, forgive me and my brother, and admit us into Your mercy. Of all the merciful ones, You are the Most Merciful.",
7:151 Moses said, “My Lord! Forgive me and my brother and admit us in Your grace. Of all the merciful ones, You are the Most Merciful.”
7:152 Inna allatheena ittakhathooalAAijla sayanaluhum ghadabun min rabbihim wathillatunfee alhayati alddunya wakathalikanajzee almuftareena
7:152 Those who took up the calf will be dealt with a wrath from their Lord and a humiliation in this worldly life. We thus punish the fabricators.
7:152 Those who took the calf will be dealt with a wrath from their Lord and a humiliation in this worldly life. It is such that We punish the fabricators.
7:152 [And to Aaron he said:] "Verily, as for those who have taken to worshipping the [golden] - calf - their Sustainer's condemnation will overtake them, and ignominy [will be their lot] in the -life of this world!" For thus do We requite all who invent [such] falsehood.119
Throughout the Qur'an, this expression is used to describe (a) the attribution of divine qualities to any concrete or imaginary object. or person, and"(b) the making of false statements about God, His attributes, or the contents of His messages. In the above context it refers to any false imagery which deflects man from the worship of the One God.
7:152 Surely, those who idolized the calf have incurred wrath from their Lord, and humiliation in this life. We thus requite the innovators.,
7:152 Those who chose the calf for worship, were seized by their Lord’s Law of Requital, and faced humiliation in the life of this world. Thus do We recompense those who invent lies.
7:153 Waallatheena AAamiloo alssayyi-atithumma taboo min baAAdiha waamanoo innarabbaka min baAAdiha laghafoorun raheemun
7:153 As for those who commit sin but then repent afterwards and acknowledge; your Lord afterward is Forgiving, Compassionate.
7:153 As for those who commit sin but then repent afterwards and believe; your Lord after that is Forgiving, Merciful.
7:153 But as for those who do bad deeds and afterwards repent and [truly] believe-verily, after such repentance120 thy Sustainer is indeed much forgiving, a dispenser of grace!
Lit., "after it".
7:153 As for those who committed sins, then repented thereafter and believed, your Lord - after this - is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
7:153 Those who have done ill deeds, but then repent and attain belief, for them, afterward, God is Forgiving, Merciful.
7:154 Walamma sakata AAan moosaalghadabu akhatha al-alwaha wafee nuskhatihahudan warahmatun lillatheena hum lirabbihimyarhaboona
7:154 When the anger subsided from Moses, he took the tablets; and in its inscription was a guidance and mercy for those who revere their Lord.
7:154 And when the anger subsided from Moses, he took the tablets; and in its inscription was a guidance and a mercy for those who reverence their Lord.
7:154 And when Moses' wrath as stilled, he took up the tablets, in the writing whereof there was guidance and grace for all who stood in awe of their Sustainer.121
According to the Bible (Exodus xxxii, 19), Moses broke the tablets when he threw them down in anger; the Qur'anic narrative, however, shows them as having remained intact.
7:154 When Moses' anger subsided, he picked up the tablets, containing guidance and mercy for those who reverence their Lord.,
7:154 When Moses calmed down, he picked up the tablets, on which was inscribed merciful guidance for those who fear violating the law of their Lord.
7:155 واختار موسى قومه سبعين رجلا لميقتنا فلما اخذتهم الرجفة قال رب لو شئت اهلكتهم من قبل وايى اتهلكنا بما فعل السفهاء منا ان هى الا فتنتك تضل بها من تشاء وتهدى من تشاء انت ولينا فاغفر لنا وارحمنا وانت خير الغفرين
7:155 Waikhtara moosaqawmahu sabAAeena rajulan limeeqatina falammaakhathat-humu alrrajfatu qala rabbi lawshi/ta ahlaktahum min qablu wa-iyyaya atuhlikunabima faAAala alssufahao minna in hiyailla fitnatuka tudillu biha man tashaowatahdee man tashao anta waliyyuna faighfirlana wairhamna waanta khayru alghafireena
7:155 Moses selected from his people seventy men for Our appointed time; so when the quake seized them, he said, "My Lord, if You wished You could have destroyed them before this, and me as well. Will you destroy us for what the foolish amongst us have done? It is all Your test, You misguide with it whom You please and You guide with it whom You please. You are our supporter, so forgive us and have mercy on us; You are the best forgiver."28
Compare it with the Old Testament, Numbers 11:16-30 .
7:155 And Moses selected from his people seventy men for Our appointed time; so when the earthquake seized them, he said: "My Lord, if You wished You could have destroyed them before this, and me as well. Will you destroy us for what the foolish among us have done? It is all Your test, You misguide with it whom You please and You guide with it whom You please. You are our Supporter, so forgive us and have mercy on us; You are the Best Forgiver."
7:155 And Moses chose out of his people seventy men to come [and pray for forgiveness] at a time set by Us. Then, when violent trembling seized them,122 he prayed: "O my Sustainer! Hadst Thou so willed, Thou wouldst have destroyed them ere this, and me [with them]. Wilt Thou destroy us for what the weak-minded among us have done? (All] this is but a trial from Thee, whereby Thou allowest to go astray whom Thou willest, and guidest aright whom Thou willest. Thou art near unto us: grant us, then, forgiveness and have mercy on us - for Thou art the best of all forgivers!
Most of the commentators take rajfah to mean here "earthquake", as it evidently does in matter" is synonymous with "he has other places in the Qur'an (e.g., in verses 78 and 91 of this surah). However, it should be remembered that this noun denotes any "violent commotion" or "trembling", from whatever cause; and since there is no reason to suppose that in this context an earthquake is meant, we may assume that the violent trembling which seized the seventy elders was caused by their intense regret and fear of God's punishment.
7:155 Moses then selected seventy men from among his people, to come to our appointed audience. When the quake shook them, he said, "My Lord, You could have annihilated them in the past, together with me, if You so willed. Would You annihilate us for the deeds of those among us who are foolish? This must be the test that You have instituted for us. With it, You condemn whomever You will, and guide whomever You will. You are our Lord and Master, so forgive us, shower us with Your mercy; You are the best Forgiver.,
7:155 Then, Moses selected seventy of his people for Our place of meeting. When they were seized with violent quaking, he said, “My Lord! You could have destroyed them and me long before, if You so willed. Would You destroy us for the actions of the foolish ones among us? This must be Your trial. By such trials, You let go astray those who will to go astray, and You guide those who will to be guided. You are our Protector. So, forgive us and grant us mercy. You are the Best of forgivers. [2:55]
7:156 Waoktub lana fee hathihialddunya hasanatan wafee al-akhiratiinna hudna ilayka qala AAathabee oseebubihi man ashao warahmatee wasiAAat kulla shay-infasaaktubuha lillatheena yattaqoona wayu/toona alzzak