بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Transcription
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
Edip-Layth
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
Muhammad Asad
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
Rashad Khalifa
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
Shabbir Ahmed
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Çeviriyazı
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Edip Yüksel
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Yaşar Nuri Öztürk
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
Muhammed Esed
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Ali Bulaç
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla

96:1 اقرا باسم ربك الذى خلق

Transcription (English)
96:1 Iqra/ bi-ismi rabbika allathee khalaqa
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:1 Read in the name of your Lord who has created.1

Note 1

This chapter is traditionally known to be the first revelation of the Quran, chronologically. Those who know Arabic will notice the different spellings of two homophone words, which we transliterate as bismi (in the name). A reflection on these two differently spelled homophones, together with the first word, is another proof that Muhammed was a literate man. See 2:78; 7:157. This chapter is the 19th chapter from the end of the Quran and has 19 verses.

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:1 Read in the name of your Lord who has created.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:1 READ1 in the name of thy Sustainer, who has-

Note 1
Sc., "this divine writ". The imperative iqra' may be rendered as "read" or "recite". The former rendering is, to my mind, by far the preferable in this context inasmuch as the concept of "reciting" implies no more than the oral delivery - with or without understanding - of something already laid down in writing or committed to memory, whereas "reading" primarily signifies a conscious taking-in, with or without an audible utterance but with a view to understanding them, of words and ideas received from an outside source: in this case, the message of the Qur'an.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:1 Read, in the name of your Lord, who created.1 ,

Note 1
From 96 to 114 is 19 suras. The first revelation ( 96:1)is 19 Arabic words, 76 letters (19x4). The sura consists of 19 verses and 304Arabic letters (Appendices1 &23).
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:1 Read! With the Name of your Lord Who created.1

Note 1


This is the 96th Surah of the Qur’an and it has 19 verses. ‘Alaq’ and ‘Alaqah’ have frequently been translated as ‘clot’, ‘leech-like flesh’, ‘something that clings’, ‘like chewed flesh’ etc. However, ‘Alaq’ also means the Germ cell or the Zygote which is the ovum from the female ovary that has been fertilized by the male sperm. I prefer this last meaning since the Qur’an very scientifically mentions the union of male and female gametes (Nutfah) resulting in the formation of Alaqa = The Germ cell or Zygote.



Historical accounts written two hundred years later claim that this was the very first revelation to the exalted Messenger, but we find this proposition of no practical importance at all. In fact, these fabricated accounts portray a picture of the exalted Messenger having been terrified by his encounter with the Angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira! Then he comes back home shivering in fright and his wife Khadijah r.a. reassures and covers him with a blanket. Then she takes him to her cousin Waraqah bin Nawfil who was a Christian scholar, and amazingly, he is portrayed as the first one confirming that the exalted Messenger had indeed received a revelation from God, and yet he himself does not embrace Islam! The story in itself concedes the ‘secret’ that it was fabricated by some Christians long after the era of the Prophet (S).



I think, QXP reasonably proves that the circumstances of a particular revelation, the when and where of it, carry no importance at all. On the contrary, this exercise only attempts to bind the Timeless Qur’an to some supposed events of the past and, in addition to spicing the revelation with some insults, it seeks to hamper the directness of the message to us.



The verses of this Surah, although addressed to the exalted Messenger, equally apply to all human beings.



Rejecters of the revelation have been symbolized in some verses of this Surah in the form of one man whom history reports to be Abu Jahl. But the phenomenon is timeless in that while some people simply reject the truth, others will actively fight against it.



With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness



96:2 خلق الانسن من علق

96:2 Klq alansn mn Alq
Transcription (English)
96:2 Khalaqa al-insana min AAalaqin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:2 He created the human being from an embryo.2

Note 2

The Arabic word alaq is a multiple-meaning word: (1) blood clot; (2) hanging thing; (3) leech. Medieval commentators preferred the first meaning because of its organic nature. However, Maurice Bucaille, a French medical doctor who converted to islam while serving as a medical doctor for the Saudi royal family, had a problem with this traditional rendering. As someone who had deep knowledge in human embryology (see 3:7), he became the first person who noticed the problem with the traditional understanding and he rightly reminded us of the right meaning of the word, which perfectly describes the embryo, the hanging fertilized cells on the wall of the uterus, like a leech. It is true that in the stages of creation of humans, starting from semen, fertilization of the egg until birth, there is no "clot" stage. The Quran locates alaq (hanging thing) as the stage after the semen (22:5; 23:14). In his landmark book, The Bible, the Quran, and Science, Dr. Bucaille discusses the scientific accuracy of the Quran and compares it with the Bible and archeological and scientific evidences. Though his book is celebrated by Sunni and Shiite mushriks, many are disappointed by his criticism against hadith; he argued that the hadith fails the tests of science. This brave voice, irritated the illusions of the followers of hadith and sunna. Thus, some publishing houses in the so-called Muslim countries, published the book after expunging the section containing his criticism of hadith, without the permission of the author.

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:2 He created man from an embryo.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:2 created man out of a germ-cell2

Note 2
The past tense in which the verb khalaqa appears in these two verses is meant to indicate that the act of divine creation (khalq) has been and is being continuously repeated. It is also noteworthy that this very first Qur'anic revelation alludes to man's embryonic evolution out of a "germ-cell.' - i.e., out of a fertilized female ovum - thus contrasting the primitiveness and simplicity of his biological origins with his intellectual and spiritual potential: a contrast which clearly points to the existence of a conscious design and a purpose underlying the creation of life.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:2 He created man from an embryo.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:2 Created man from a zygote.2

Note 2
And passed him through the embryonic stages 23:13. Endowed him with perceptual and conceptual faculties 32:7. Gave him the free will 76:2, 90:8. Distinguished him from the rest of the animal kingdom 47:12. For a comprehensive overview of man’s creation from the very beginning, water and the inorganic matter, and onward please see 22:5

96:3 اقرا وربك الاكرم

Transcription (English)
96:3 Iqra/ warabbuka al-akramu
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:3 Read, and your Lord is the Generous One.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:3 Read, and your Lord is the Generous One.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:3 Read - for thy Sustainer is the Most Bountiful One
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:3 Read, and your Lord, Most Exalted.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:3 Read! For, your Lord is Most Generous.3

Note 3
He has blessed humans with the capacity to learn and teach

96:4 الذى علم بالقلم

Transcription (English)
96:4 Allathee AAallama bialqalami
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:4 The One who taught by the pen.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:4 The One who taught by the pen.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:4 who has taught [man] the use of the pen –
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:4 Teaches by means of the pen.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:4 Who has taught the use of the pen.

96:5 علم الانسن ما لم يعلم

Transcription (English)
96:5 AAallama al-insana ma lamyaAAlam
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:5 He taught the human being what he did not know.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:5 He taught man what he did not know.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:5 taught man what he did not know!3

Note 3
"The pen" is used here as a symbol for the art of writing or, more specifically, for all knowledge recorded by means of writing: and this explains the symbolic summons "Read!" at the beginning of verses 1 and 3. Man's unique ability to transmit, by means of written records, his thoughts, experiences and insights from individual to individual, from generation to generation, and from one cultural environment to another endows all human knowledge with a cumulative character; and since, thanks to this God-given ability, every human being partakes, in one way or another, in mankind's continuous accumulation of knowledge, man is spoken of as being "taught by God" things which the single individual does not - and, indeed, cannot - know by himself. (This double stress on man's utter dependence on God, who creates him as a biological entity and implants in him the will and the ability to acquire knowledge, receives its final accent, as it were, in the next three verses.) Furthermore, God's "teaching" man signifies also the act of His revealing, through the prophets, spiritual truths and moral standards which cannot be unequivocally established through human experience and reasoning alone: and, thus, it circumscribes the phenomenon of divine revelation as such.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:5 He teaches man what he never knew.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:5 Taught man what he knew not.4

Note 4
The Pen symbolizes the transmission and exchange of knowledge through written records, unique to man. Since this is a Divine gift to mankind, “It is He Who taught.”

96:6 كلا ان الانسن ليطغى

Transcription (English)
96:6 Kalla inna al-insana layatgha
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:6 Alas, the human being is bound to transgress.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:6 Alas, man is bound to transgress.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:6 Nay, verily, man becomes grossly overweening
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:6 Indeed, the human transgresses.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:6 Nay, man tries to play God!5

Note 5
Tagha = Trying to be supreme = Being a false god = Grossly overweening = Arrogance beyond limits = Creating rebellion = Trespassing Permanent Values. Taaghoot= A false god = Tyrant = Humans claiming Divine powers = Priesthood

96:7 ان رءاه استغنى

96:7 an raah astğny
Transcription (English)
96:7 An raahu istaghna
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:7 When he achieves, he no longer has need!
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:7 When he achieves, he no longer has need!
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:7 whenever he believes himself to be self-sufficient:
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:7 When he becomes rich.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:7 (And) in that he considers himself self-sufficient (forgetting how indebted he is to the Creator and the society for all his mental and physical resources.)

96:8 ان الى ربك الرجعى

96:8 an aly rbk alrjAy
Transcription (English)
96:8 Inna ila rabbika alrrujAAa
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:8 To your Lord is the return.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:8 To your Lord is the return.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:8 for, behold, unto thy Sustainer all must return.4

Note 4
Lit., "is the return (ar-ruj'a)". This noun has here a twofold implication: "everyone will inescapably be brought before God for judgment", as well as "everything that exists goes back to God as its source". In ultimate analysis, the statement expressed in verses 6-8 rejects as absurd the arrogant idea that man could ever be self-sufficient and, hence, "master of his own fate"; furthermore, it implies that all moral concepts - that is, all discrimination between good and evil, or right and wrong - are indissolubly linked with the concept of man's responsibility to a Supreme Power: in other words, without such a feeling of responsibility - whether conscious or subconscious - the concept of "morality" as such loses all its meaning.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:8 To your Lord is the ultimate destiny.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:8 Indeed, to your Lord is the return.6

Note 6
Everything that exists goes back to the Creator as its Source and is bound by His law. All people will be returned to Him for Judgment. Mankind will eventually return to the Divinely Ordained System of Life

96:9 ارءيت الذى ينهى

Transcription (English)
96:9 Araayta allathee yanha
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:9 Have you seen the one who deters,
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:9 Have you seen the one who prohibits,
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:9 HAST THOU ever considered him who tries to prevent
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:9 Have you seen the one who enjoins.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:9 Have you seen the kind of man who forbids

96:10 عبدا اذا صلى

96:10 Abda aźa Sly
Transcription (English)
96:10 AAabdan itha salla
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:10 A servant from being supportive?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:10 A servant from making the contact?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:10 a servant [of God] from praying?5

Note 5
Lit., "who forbids a servant [of God] when he prays", implying an attempt at preventing. Since this seems to refer to praying in public, most of the classical commentators see in this passage (which was revealed at least a year later than the first five verses) an allusion to Abu Jahl, the Prophet's bitterest opponent in Mecca, who persistently tried to prevent Muhammad and his followers from praying before the Kabah. However, there is no doubt that the purport of the above passage goes far beyond any historical incident or situation inasmuch as it applies to all attempts, at all times, to deny to religion (symbolized in the term "praying") its legitimate function in the shaping of social life - attempts made either in the conviction that religion is every individual's "private affair" and, therefore, must not be allowed to "intrude" into the realm of social considerations, or, alternatively, in the pursuit of the illusion that man is above any need of metaphysical guidance.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:10 Others from praying?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:10 A servant when he follows the Divine Commands?

96:11 ارءيت ان كان على الهدى

96:11 arayt an kan Aly alhdy
Transcription (English)
96:11 Araayta in kana AAala alhuda
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:11 Have you seen if he was being guided,
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:11 Have you seen if he was being guided,
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:11 Hast thou considered whether he is on the right way,
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:11 Is it not better for him to follow the guidance?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:11 Have you considered if such a person is on the road of guidance?

96:12 او امر بالتقوى

96:12 aw amr baltqwy
Transcription (English)
96:12 Aw amara bialttaqwa
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:12 Or he ordered righteousness?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:12 Or he ordered righteousness?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:12 or is concerned with God-consciousness?6

Note 6
Lit., "or enjoins God-consciousness (taqwa)" - i.e., whether his aim is to deepen his fellow-men's God-consciousness by insisting that religion is a purely personal matter: the obvious implication being that this is not his aim, and that he is not on the right way in thinking and acting as he does. - Throughout this work, the term taqwa - of which the present is the earliest instance in the chronology of Qur'anic revelation - has been rendered as "God-consciousness", with the same meaning attaching to the verbal forms from which this noun is derived. (See also surah 2, note 2.)
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:12 Or advocate righteousness?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:12 Or his affairs are leading him to security?

96:13 ارءيت ان كذب وتولى

96:13 arayt an kźb wtwly
Transcription (English)
96:13 Araayta in kaththaba watawalla
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:13 Have you seen if he lied and turned away?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:13 Have you seen if he lied and turned away?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:13 Hast thou considered whether he may [not] be giving the lie to the truth and turning his back [upon it]?7

Note 7
Sc., "because in his arrogance he cannot face it".
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:13 If he disbelieves and turns away.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:13 Do you see him denying the truth and turning away from all that is good?

96:14 الم يعلم بان الله يرى

96:14 alm yAlm ban allh yry
Transcription (English)
96:14 Alam yaAAlam bi-anna Allaha yara
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:14 Did he not know that God can see?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:14 Did he not know that God can see?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:14 Does he, then, not know that God sees [all]?
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:14 Does he not realize that GOD sees?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:14 Does he not know that God sees everything?

96:15 كلا لئن لم ينته لنسفعا بالناصية

Transcription (English)
96:15 Kalla la-in lam yantahi lanasfaAAanbialnnasiyati
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:15 Alas, if he does not cease, we will strike the frontal lobe.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:15 Alas, if he does not cease, We will strike the forelock.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:15 Nay, if he desist not, We shall most surely drag him down upon his forehead8

Note 8
Or: "by his forelock" - an ancient Arabian expression denoting a person's utter subjection and humiliation (see 11:56 and the corresponding note 80). However, as Razi points out, the term "forelock" (nasiyah) is here used metonymically for the place on which the forelock grows, i.e., the forehead (cf. also Taj al-'Arus).
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:15 Indeed, unless he refrains, we will take him by the forelock.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:15 Let him beware! If he does not desist, We will seize him by the forelock (to a state of humiliation).7

Note 7
Forelock, pointing to the frontal lobes of the brain, indicates all cognitive abilities. 11:56

96:16 ناصية كذبة خاطئة

Transcription (English)
96:16 Nasiyatin kathibatin khati-atin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:16 A frontal lobe which lies and errs.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:16 A forelock which lies and errs.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:16 the lying, rebellious forehead! –
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:16 A forelock that is disbelieving and sinful.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:16 A forelock that is given to denial and committing fault upon fault.

96:17 فليدع ناديه

96:17 flydA nadyh
Transcription (English)
96:17 FalyadAAu nadiyahu
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:17 So let him call on his assembly.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:17 So let him call on his supporter.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:17 and then let him summon [to his aid] the counsels of his own [spurious] wisdom,9

Note 9
Lit., "'his council". According to the commentators who tend to interpret verses such as this in purely historical terms, this may be a reference to the traditional council of elders (dar an- nadwah) in pagan Mecca; but more probably, I think, it is an allusion to the arrogance which so often deludes man into regarding himself as "self-sufficient" (verses 6-7 above).
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:17 Let him then call on his helpers.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:17 Let him, then, call upon his advisory council.

96:18 سندع الزبانية

Transcription (English)
96:18 SanadAAu alzzabaniyata
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:18 We will call on the guardians.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:18 We will call on the guardians.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:18 [the while] We shall summon the forces of heavenly chastisement!
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:18 We will call the guardians of Hell.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:18 We shall summon the apprehending forces.

96:19 كلا لا تطعه واسجد واقترب

Transcription (English)
96:19 Kalla la tutiAAhu waosjudwaiqtarib
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
96:19 So do not obey him, prostrate and come near.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
96:19 So do not obey him, prostrate and come near.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
96:19 Nay, pay thou no heed to him, but prostrate thyself [before God] and draw close [unto Him]!
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
96:19 You shall not obey him; you shall fall prostrate and draw nearer.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
96:19 Nay, never be intimidated by a man like this! But humble yourself in adoration to Divine Commands, and let every step of yours bring you closer (to your Lord).