بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
16:1 Ata amru Allahi falatastaAAjiloohu subhanahu wataAAala AAammayushrikoona
16:1 God's command has come; so do not hasten it. Glorified is He and High above the partners they have set up.1
16:1 The command of God will come, so do not hasten it. Be He glorified and exalted above the partners they set up.
16:1 GOD'S JUDGMENT is [bound to] come: do not, therefore, call for its speedy advent!1 Limitless is He in His glory and sublimely exalted above anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!
16:1 GOD's command has already been issued (and everything has already been written), so do not rush it. Be He glorified; the Most High, far above any idols they set up.,1
Everything is already recorded (57:22).See also Appendix 14
16:1 God’s command has come. Stop and think over these messages and hasten not in comprehending the Qur’an. Glorified, Exalted He is, High above what people associate with Him.1
This is the 16th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 128 verses. An-Nahl signifies the Bee. The honeybee is a remarkable creature. It works hard through the processes of making honey and then turns up its labor for the common benefit of all. What a beautiful token of selflessness, and organized Way of Life!
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
16:2 Yunazzilu almala-ikata bialrroohimin amrihi AAala man yashao min AAibadihi ananthiroo annahu la ilaha illa anafaittaqooni
16:2 He sends down the controllers with the Spirit by His command upon whom He wishes of His servants: "That you shall warn that there is no god but I, so be aware of Me."
16:2 He sends down the angels with the Spirit by His command upon whom He wishes of His servants: "That you shall warn that there is no god except I, so be aware of Me."
16:2 He causes the angels to descend with this divine inspiration,2 [bestowed] at His behest upon whomever He wills of His servants: "Warn [all human beings] that there is no deity save Me: be, therefore, conscious of Me!"
The term ruh (lit., "spirit", "soul" or "breath of life") is often used in the Qur'an in the sense of "inspiration" - and, more particularly, "divine inspiration" - since, as Zamakhshari points out in connection with the above verse as well as with the first sentence of 42:52, "it gives life to hearts that were [as] dead in their ignorance, and has in religion the same function as a soul has in a body". A very similar explanation is given by Razi in the same context. The earliest instance in which the term ruh has been used in this particular sense is 97:4.
16:2 He sends down the angels with the revelations, carrying His commands, to whomever He chooses from among His servants: "You shall preach that there is no other god beside Me; You shall reverence Me.",
16:2 He sends down His angels with revelation of His command, to such of His servants as He wills - Saying, "Proclaim that there is no one worthy of obedience but Me, so be mindful of My laws."
16:3 Khalaqa alssamawati waal-ardabialhaqqi taAAala AAammayushrikoona
16:3 He created the heavens and the earth with the truth. He is High above the partners they have set up.
16:3 He has created the heavens and the earth with the truth. Be He exalted above the partners they set up.
16:3 He has created the heavens and the earth in accordance with [an inner] truth;3 sublimely exalted is He above anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!4
I.e., in accordance with a meaning and a purpose known only to Him. See also 10:5 and, in particular, the corresponding note 11.
This repetition of part of verse 1 is meant to stress the uniqueness of God's creative powers.
16:3 He created the heavens and the earth for a specific purpose. He is much too High, far above any idols they set up.,
16:3 He has created the heavens and the earth with purpose. He is High, Exalted above all that they associate with Him.
16:4 Khalaqa al-insana min nutfatinfa-itha huwa khaseemun mubeenun
16:4 He created the human being from a seed, but then he becomes a clear opponent.
16:4 He has created man from a seed, but then he becomes clearly in opposition.
16:4 He creates man out of a [mere] drop of sperm: and lo! this same being shows himself endowed with the power to think and to argue!5
Lit., "he becomes an open contender in argument (khasim)". According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the above phrase is liable to two interpretations:' In the words of Zamakhshari, "one interpretation is that after. having been a (mere] drop of sperm, a particle of matter without consciousness or motion, man becomes highly articulate (mintiq); able to argue on his own [for or against a proposition], courageously facing-disputes, and clearly formulating his arguments: [and herein lies] an indication of God's creative power. The., other -[interpretation] is that man is [prone to become] a contender in `argument against his.' Sustainer, refusing to acknowledge his [very] Creator." Razi, on his part, gives- his. unqualified. support' to the first of these two interpretations, "because the above verses -are meant .to stress the evidence of the existence of a wise Creator, and not the ;fact of men's insolence and their proneness to blasphemy and ingratitude". However, in view of 36:77 ('revealed at a considerably earlier period), I am of the opinion that the above two interpretations are not mutually: exclusive but, rather, complementary, inasmuch as this passage' is meant to bring out man's unique quality as a rational being -a quality that may lead him to great heights. of achievement, but may equally well lead him utterly astray: hence my free rendering of this_ profound elliptic phrase.
16:4 He created the human from a tiny drop, then he turns into an ardent opponent.,
16:4 He created the human being out of male and female gametes. They should be humble before their Creator's messages instead of being contentious.
16:5 Waal-anAAama khalaqahalakum feeha dif-on wamanafiAAu waminhata-kuloona
16:5 The livestock He created for you, in them is warmth and benefits, and from them you eat.
16:5 And the livestock He has created them for you, in them is warmth and benefits, and from them you eat.
16:5 And He creates cattle: you derive warmth from them, and [various other] uses; and from them you obtain food;
16:5 And He created the livestock for you, to provide you with warmth, and many other benefits, as well as food.,
16:5 And cattle He has created for you. From them you derive warmth, and numerous benefits, and from them you obtain food.
16:6 Walakum feeha jamalun heenatureehoona waheena tasrahoona
16:6 For you in them is attraction, when you relax and when you travel.
16:6 And for you in them is beauty, when you relax and when you travel.
16:6 and you find beauty in them when you drive them home in the evenings and when you take them out to pasture in the mornings.
16:6 They also provide you with luxury during your leisure, and when you travel.,
16:6 And you find beauty in them when you drive them home in the evenings and when you take them out to pasture in the mornings.
16:7 Watahmilu athqalakum ilabaladin lam takoonoo baligheehi illa bishiqqial-anfusi inna rabbakum laraoofun raheemun
16:7 They carry your loads to a place you would not have been able to reach except with great strain. Your Lord is Kind, Compassionate.
16:7 And they carry your loads to a land that you would not have been able to reach except with great strain. Your Lord is Compassionate, Merciful.
16:7 And they carry your loads to [many] a place which [otherwise] you would be unable to reach without great hardship to yourselves. Verily, your Sustainer is most compassionate, a dispenser of grace!
God's Blessings16:7 And they carry your loads to lands that you could not reach without a great hardship. Surely, your Lord is Compassionate, Most Merciful.,
16:7 They carry your loads to places you could not reach without much hardship. Surely, your Lord is Compassionate, Merciful.
16:8 Waalkhayla waalbighalawaalhameera litarkabooha wazeenatanwayakhluqu ma la taAAlamoona
16:8 The horses, the mules, and the donkeys, that you may ride them and as an adornment. He creates what you do not know.2
God creates new means of transportation we do not yet know about. According to the teaching of the Quran, God is the ultimate creator of everything, including our actions (37:96). We are only given a limited freedom of choice. This verse refers to all transportation vehicles that were not available during the time of revelation, such as, trains, automobiles, airplanes, helicopters, rockets, and spaceships. Since we are also the Quran's audience, it refers to many more to come in the future.
16:8 And the horses and the mules and the donkeys, that you may ride them and as an adornment; and He creates what you do not know.
16:8 And (it is He who creates] horses and mules and asses for you to ride, as well as for [their] beauty: and He will yet create things of which [today] you have no knowledge.6
The use, in this context, of the aorist yakhluqu implies the future tense ("He will create") in contrast with the past tense khalaqa employed in the-preceding passages. Since this reference to God's continuing creation comes immediately after, a mention of primitive means of transport (i.e., of animals domesticated by man to this end), it-obviously relates to other-as yet unknown-things of the same category: that is to say, to new means of transport which God unceasingly creates through the instrumentality of the inventiveness with which He has endowed man's mind (cf. 36:42). Inasmuch as every successive stage of human development bears witness to new, previously undreamt-of inventions in the realm of transport, the Qur'anic statement that "He will yet create things of which [today] you have no knowledge" is valid for every period - past, present and future - of man's history.
16:8 And (He created) the horses, the mules, and the donkeys for you to ride, and for luxury. Additionally, He creates what you do not know.,
16:8 And He created horses, mules, and donkeys for you to ride and for joyful decor. And He will yet create things of which (today) you have no knowledge.
16:9 WaAAala Allahi qasdu alssabeeliwaminha ja-irun walaw shaa lahadakumajmaAAeena
16:9 To God shall be the path, but some are mislead. If He wished, He could have guided you all.
16:9 And upon God the path is sought; and from it are deviations. And if He had wished, He could have guided you all.
16:9 And [because He is your Creator,] it rests with God alone to show you the right path:7 yet there is [many a one] who swerves from it. However, had He so willed, He would have guided you all aright.8
Lit., "upon God rests the [showing of the] goal of the path" - i.e., the establishing of the goals of ethics and morality implied in the concept of the "right path". In further analysis of this phrase, the expression "it rests upon God" (`ala 'llah) is similar in intent to the statement in 6:12 and 54 that He "has willed upon Himself the law of grace and mercy": in other words, God invariably shows the right path to everyone who is willing to follow it.
Since the concept of morality is linked with man's God-given freedom of choice between good and evil, God does not "impose" His guidance upon man but leaves it to him to accept or reject it.
16:9 GOD points out the paths, including the wrong ones. If He willed, He could have guided all of you.,
16:9 (You see that these animals serve you and follow their instinct). God alone can show the right path, but there are ways that turn aside towards wrong. If God willed, He could have guided all of you.2
He could have created you driven by instinct without the ability to make choices
16:10 Huwa allathee anzala mina alssama-imaan lakum minhu sharabun waminhu shajarun feehituseemoona
16:10 He is the One who sent down water from the sky for you, from it you drink, and from it emerge the trees that you wander around in.
16:10 He is the One who has sent down water from the sky for you, from it you drink, and from it are woods in which you pasture.
16:10 It is He who sends down water from the skies; you drink thereof, and thereof [drink] the plants upon which you pasture your beasts;
16:10 He sends down from the sky water for your drink, and to grow trees for your benefit.,
16:10 He is the One Who sends down water from the sky for you to drink from it, and out of it grow trees for you to graze your cattle.
16:11 Yunbitu lakum bihi alzzarAAa waalzzaytoonawaalnnakheela waal-aAAnaba wamin kulli alththamaratiinna fee thalika laayatan liqawmin yatafakkaroona
16:11 He brings forth with it vegetation, olives, palm trees, grapes and from all the fruits. In that are signs for a people who think.
16:11 He brings forth with it the vegetation and the olives and the palm trees and the grapes, and of all the fruits; in that are signs for a people who think.
16:11 [and] by virtue thereof He causes crops to grow for you, and olive trees, and date palms, and grapes, and all [other] kinds of fruit: in this, behold, there is a message indeed for people who think!
16:11 With it, He grows for you crops, olives, date palms, grapes, and all kinds of fruits. This is (sufficient) proof for people who think.,
16:11 Therewith He causes to grow for you crops, olives, date palms, grapes, vineyards, and all kinds of fruit. This is a convincing sign for those who reflect (on the universal order).3
ZAR'A = Crops, agriculture, vegetation, plants, corn.
16:12 Wasakhkhara lakumu allayla waalnnaharawaalshshamsa waalqamara waalnnujoomumusakhkharatun bi-amrihi inna fee thalika laayatinliqawmin yaAAqiloona
16:12 He committed for you the night, the day, the sun, the moon. Also the stars are committed by His command. In that are signs for a people who reason.
16:12 And He has commissioned for you the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, and the stars are commissioned by His command. In that are signs for a people who comprehend.
16:12 And He has made the night and the day and the sun and the moon subservient [to His laws, so that they be of use] to you;9 and all the stars are subservient to His command: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who use their reason!
See 14:33 and the corresponding note 46.
16:12 And He commits, in your service, the night and the day, as well as the sun and the moon. Also, the stars are committed by His command. These are (sufficient) proofs for people who understand.,
16:12 He has committed to your service the night and the day, as well as the sun and the moon. And the stars are committed by His command. These are sufficient signs for people who use their intellect.
16:13 Wama tharaa lakum fee al-ardimukhtalifan alwanuhu inna fee thalika laayatanliqawmin yaththakkaroona
16:13 What He has placed for you on earth in various colors. In that are signs for a people who remember.
16:13 And what He has placed for you on the earth in various colors.In that are signs for a people who remember.
16:13 And all the [beauty of] many hues-which He has created for you on earth: in this, behold, there is a message for people who (are willing to] take it to heart!
16:13 And (He created) for you on earth things of various colors. This is a (sufficient) proof for people who take heed.,
16:13 And all that He has created for you on earth is of diverse colors and qualities. Therein is a message for people who would reflect (and study the Book of Nature).4
My rendition of Yatazakkaroon= Those who study the Book of Nature; Root word Zikr = Reflection = Remembrance = Observation = Reminder. Dr. Ghulam Jeelani Barq rightly points out that there are two Books of God: The scripture and the Universe around us. The other two sources of knowledge: Human ‘self’ and History
16:14 Wahuwa allathee sakhkhara albahralita/kuloo minhu lahman tariyyan watastakhrijoominhu hilyatan talbasoonaha watara alfulkamawakhira feehi walitabtaghoo min fadlihiwalaAAallakum tashkuroona
16:14 He is the One who committed the sea, that you may eat from it a tender meat, and that you may extract from it pearls that you wear. You see the ships flowing through it, so that you may seek from His bounty, and that you may be thankful.
16:14 And He is the One who has commissioned the sea, that you may eat from it a tender meat, and that you may extract from it pearls that you wear. And you see the ships flowing through it, so that you may seek from His bounty, and that you may be thankful.
16:14 And He it is who has made the sea subservient [to His laws], so that you might eat fresh meat from it, and take from it gems which you may wear. And on that [very sea] one sees10 ships ploughing through the waves, so that you might [be able to] go forth in quest of some of His bounty, and thus have cause to be grateful [to Him].
Lit., "thou seest".
16:14 And He committed the sea to serve you; you eat from it tender meat, and extract jewelry which you wear. And you see the ships roaming it for your commercial benefits, as you seek His bounties, that you may be appreciative.,
16:14 And He it is Who has made the sea subservient that you eat from it tender fresh meat and extract from it gems and ornaments to wear. And you see the ships roaming through the waves that you may seek of His bounty and be appreciative.
16:15 Waalqa fee al-ardi rawasiyaan tameeda bikum waanharan wasubulan laAAallakum tahtadoona
16:15 He has cast into the earth stabilizers so that it does not sway with you, and rivers, and paths, perhaps you will be guided.
16:15 And He has cast onto the earth stabilizers so that it would not tumble with you, and rivers, and paths, perhaps you will be guided.
16:15 And he has placed firm mountains on earth, lest it sway with you,11 and rivers and paths, so that you might find your way,
This is apparently an allusion to the fact that the mountains owe their rise to the gradual balancing process to which the solid crust of the earth is subject -a process which, in its turn, is the result of stresses and disturbances due to the cooling and hardening, progressing from the -surface towards the centre, of the presumably molten or perhaps even gaseous matter of which the earth's interior seems to be composed. It appears that part of this interior is kept solid only by the enormous pressure of the overlaying material, of which the mountains are the most vivid evidence: and this explains the Qur'anic reference (in 78:7) to mountains as "pegs" (awtad), i.e., symbols of the firmness and relative equilibrium which the surface of the earth has gradually achieved in the course of its geological history. Notwithstanding the fact that this equilibrium is not absolute (as is evidenced by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions), it is the solidity of the earth's crust - as contrasted with its possibly fluid but certainly very unstable interior - which makes life on earth possible: and this, to my mind, is the meaning of the phrase "lest it sway with you" (or "with them") occurring in the above verse as well as in 21:31 and 31:10.
16:15 And He placed stabilizers (mountains) on earth, lest it tumbles with you, as well as rivers and roads, that you may be guided.,
16:15 And He has placed mountains firm like stabilizing pegs in the earth, lest it sway with you; and made streams and paths, so that you may find your way.5
21:31, 31:10. Mountains are the most vivid evidence of the geological history of the earth. With the earth’s interior still being almost a molten fluid, the earth crust cooled off becoming hard, and mountains came into being like pegs as the crest shrank. Mountains clench different plates of the earth together like a peg. In this way, they create more stability in the earth’s crust and take away much energy from earthquakes. 78:6
16:16 WaAAalamatin wabialnnajmihum yahtadoona
16:16 As well as landmarks, and by the stars people navigate.
16:16 And landmarks, and by the star they are guided.
16:16 as well as [various other] means of orientation: for [it is] by the stars that men find their way.12
Lit., "they find their way". This passage rounds off the preceding description of God's favours to man by returning, in a subtle manner, to the theme introduced in verse 4 and alluded to, indirectly, in the last sentence of verse 8 as well as in verse 14: namely, the consideration of man's intellectual potential-the greatest of all the gifts bestowed upon him by God. (See in this connection note 5 above, as well as the allegory of the creation of man enunciated in 2:30.)
16:16 And landmarks, as well as the stars; to be used for navigation.,
16:16 And the natural landmarks as well as the stars to help people navigate.
16:17 Afaman yakhluqu kaman la yakhluquafala tathakkaroona
16:17 Is the One who creates the same as one who does not create? Will you not remember?
16:17 Is He who creates the same he who does not create? Will you not remember?
16:17 IS, THEN, HE who creates comparable to any [being] that cannot create? Will you not, then, bethink yourselves?
16:17 Is One who creates like one who does not create? Would you now take heed?,
16:17 Is the One Who creates comparable to anyone that cannot create? Will you then not reflect?
16:18 Wa-in taAAuddoo niAAmata Allahi latuhsooha inna Allaha laghafoorun raheemun
16:18 If you count the blessings of God you will not be able to fathom them. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
16:18 And if you count the blessings of God, you will not be able to number them. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
16:18 For, should you try to count God's blessings, you could never compute them! Behold, God is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace;
16:18 If you count GOD's blessings, you cannot possibly encompass them. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
16:19 WaAllahu yaAAlamu matusirroona wama tuAAlinoona
16:19 God knows what you hide and what you declare.
16:19 And God knows what you conceal and what you reveal.
16:19 and God knows all that you keep secret as well as all that you bring into the open.
16:19 And GOD knows whatever you conceal and whatever you declare.,
16:19 And God knows which of His blessings you keep hidden and which of them you bring into the open.
16:20 Waallatheena yadAAoona mindooni Allahi la yakhluqoona shay-an wahumyukhlaqoona
The Dead-servants16:20 As for those they call on besides God, they do not create anything, but are themselves created!
16:20 As for those they call on besides God, they do not create a thing, but are themselves created!
16:20 Now those beings that some people invoke13 beside God cannot create anything, since they themselves are but created:
Lit., "those whom they invoke": this refers-as is obvious from verse 21 below-to dead saints invested by their followers with divine or semi-divine qualities.
The Dead Prophets and Saints16:20 As for the idols they set up beside GOD, they do not create anything; they themselves were created.,
16:20 Those whom they invoke besides God create nothing and are themselves created.
16:21 Amwatun ghayru ahya-inwama yashAAuroona ayyana yubAAathoona
16:21 They are dead, not alive, and they will not know when they are resurrected.
16:21 They are dead, not alive, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.
16:21 they are dead, not living,14 and they do not [even] know when they will be raised from the dead!
16:21 They are dead, not alive, and they have no idea how or when they will be resurrected.,
16:21 (Powerless are the so-called saints, mystics and monks, whom you make holier and holier with the passage of time.) They are dead, disintegrated bodies, not living. They are not even aware when they will be raised.7
And you still call upon them for help!
16:22 Ilahukum ilahun wahidunfaallatheena la yu/minoona bial-akhiratiquloobuhum munkiratun wahum mustakbiroona
16:22 Your god is One god. Those who do not acknowledge the Hereafter, their hearts are denying, and they are arrogant.
16:22 Your god is One god. Those who do not believe in the Hereafter, their hearts are denying, and they are arrogant.
16:22 Your God is the One God: but because of their false pride, the hearts of those who do not believe in the life to come refuse to admit this [truth].15
I.e., they are too arrogant to accept the idea of man's utter dependence on, and responsibility to, a Supreme Being.
16:22 Your god is one god. As for those who do not believe in the Hereafter, their hearts are denying, and they are arrogant.,
16:22 Your God is One God. Those who do not believe in the Afterlife, their hearts refuse to admit, for they are proud.8
The very thought of accountability before a Supreme Being hurts their arrogance
16:23 La jarama anna Allaha yaAAlamuma yusirroona wama yuAAlinoona innahu la yuhibbualmustakbireena
16:23 Certainly, God knows what they hide and what they declare. He does not like the arrogant.
16:23 Certainly, God knows what they hide and what they reveal. He does not like the arrogant.
16:23 Truly, God knows all that they keep secret as well as all that they bring into the open -[and,] behold, He does not love those who are given to arrogance,
16:23 Absolutely, GOD knows everything they conceal and everything they declare. He does not love those who are arrogant.,
16:23 (They deceive people with fancy words and contrived rituals but) God knows their intentions and actions, and what they conceal and what they reveal. Surely, He does not love the arrogant.
16:24 Wa-itha qeela lahum mathaanzala rabbukum qaloo asateeru al-awwaleena
16:24 If they are told: "What has your Lord sent down?" They say, "Fairytales of the past."3
The language of the verse is interesting. It refers to the unappreciative people who reject the message of the Quran by labeling it a myth, and it also refers to the modern polytheists who follow hadith mythologies and consider them to be "revelation."
16:24 And if they are told: "What has your Lord sent down?" They say: "Fictional tales of old!"
16:24 and [who], whenever they are asked, "What is it that your Sustainer has bestowed from on high?"-are wont to answer, "Fables of ancient times!"16
Sc., "and not divine revelations" (cf. 8:21).
16:24 When they are asked, "What do you think of these revelations from your Lord," they say, "Tales from the past.",
16:24 And when it is said to them, “What has your Lord revealed?” They say, “Fables of ancient times!”9
When the Qur’an is presented to them, their clergy claim that its verses apply not to them, but only to Jews, Christians and the idolaters of Arabia
16:25 Liyahmiloo awzarahum kamilatanyawma alqiyamati wamin awzari allatheena yudilloonahumbighayri AAilmin ala saa ma yaziroona
16:25 They will carry their burdens in full on the day of Resurrection, and also from the burdens of those whom they misguided without knowledge. Evil indeed is what they bear.4
16:25 They will carry their burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection, and also from the burdens of those whom they misguided without knowledge. Evil indeed is what they bear.
16:25 Hence,17 on Resurrection Day they shall bear the full weight of their own burdens, as well as some of the burdens of those ignorant ones whom they have led astray:18 oh, how evil the load with which they shall be burdened!
The conjunction li prefixed to the verb yahmilu ("they shall carry") has here obviously -as pointed out by Razi -the function of what the grammarians call a lam al-'aqibah, indicating no more than a causal sequence (`aqibah); it may be appropriately rendered by means of the conjunctive particle "and" or - as in this context - by the adverb "hence".
Lit., "those whom they are leading astray without knowledge" - i.e., without knowledge or understanding on the latters' part (Zamakhshari).
16:25 They will be held responsible for their sins on the Day of Resurrection, all of them, in addition to sins of all those whom they misled by their ignorance. What a miserable load!,
16:25 They shall bear their burdens undiminished on the Resurrection Day, with part of the burdens of those whom they misled without this revealed knowledge. Ah, evil is what they bear!
16:26 Qad makara allatheena min qablihimfaata Allahu bunyanahum mina alqawaAAidifakharra AAalayhimu alssaqfu min fawqihim waatahumualAAathabu min haythu la yashAAuroona
16:26 Those before them have schemed, but God came to their buildings from the foundation, thus the roof fell on top of them, and the retribution came to them from where they did not know.
16:26 Those before them had schemed, so God came to their buildings from the foundation, thus the roof fell on top of them; and the retribution came to them from where they did not know.
16:26 Those who lived before them did, too, devise many a blasphemy19 -whereupon God visited with destruction all that they had ever built,20 [striking] at its very foundations, so that the roof fell in upon them from above21 and suffering befell them without their having perceived whence it came.
Lit., "schemed" (makara): i.e., they blasphemed by describing the divine revelations as "fables of ancient times" and by refusing to admit the truth of God's existence or of His oneness and uniqueness.
Lit., "their building" (see next note).
This is obviously a metaphor (Razi) describing the utter collapse of all endeavours - both individual and social - rooted in godlessness and false pride.
16:26 Others like them have schemed in the past, and consequently, GOD destroyed their building at the foundation, causing the roof to fall on them. The retribution struck them when they least expected.,
16:26 Those who lived before them, had also plotted (against God’s way) whereupon God struck at the very foundations of all they had built and contrived; such that the roofs caved in upon them from above. And the doom befell them from directions they had not even perceived.
16:27 Thumma yawma alqiyamati yukhzeehimwayaqoolu ayna shuraka-iya allatheena kuntum tushaqqoonafeehim qala allatheena ootoo alAAilma inna alkhizyaalyawma waalssoo-a AAala alkafireena
16:27 Then, on the day of Resurrection He will humiliate them, and say, "Where are My partners whom you used to dispute regarding them?" Those who have received the knowledge said, "The humiliation today and misery is upon the ingrates."
16:27 Then, on the Day of Resurrection He will humiliate them, and say: "Where are My partners regarding whom you used to dispute?" Those who have received the knowledge said: "The humiliation today and the misery are upon the rejecters."
16:27 And then, on Resurrection Day, He will cover them [all] with ignominy,22 and will say: "Where, now, are those beings to whom you ascribed a share in My divinity,23 [and] for whose sake you cut yourselves off [from My guidance]?"24 [Whereupon] those who [in their lifetime] were endowed with knowledge25 will say: "Verily, ignominy and misery [have fallen] this day upon those who have been denying the truth-
Le., finally and utterly-for, "only on the Day of Resurrection will you be requited in full for whatever you have done" (3:185). Since the pronoun "them" refers not only to the earlier sinners mentioned parenthetically in the preceding verse but also to those spoken of in verses 22-25, 1 have interpolated the word "all".
Lit., "those [alleged] partners of Mine". Regarding the Qur'anic use of the term sharik (pl. shuraka') in connection with religious beliefs, see surah 6, note 15.
Or: "you were wont to contend [against My guidance]". See in this connection surah 8, note 16.
Le., those who had availed themselves of the knowledge of good and evil which God offers to mankind through His prophets.
16:27 Then, on the Day of Resurrection, He will disgrace them and ask, "Where are My partners that you had set up beside Me, and had opposed Me for their sake?" Those blessed with knowledge will say, "Today, the shame and misery have befallen the disbelievers.",
16:27 On the Resurrection Day He will cover them with shame and say, “Where are My ‘partners’ for whose sake you opposed My guidance?” Men and women blessed with knowledge will say, “This Day are humiliation and misery upon the rejecters.”
16:28 Allatheena tatawaffahumu almala-ikatuthalimee anfusihim faalqawoo alssalamama kunna naAAmalu min soo-in bala inna AllahaAAaleemun bima kuntum taAAmaloona
16:28 Those whom the controllers take while they had wronged themselves: "Amnesty, we did not do any evil!" "Alas, God is aware of what you had done."
16:28 Those whom their lives are terminated by the angels, while they had wronged themselves: "Amnesty, we have not done any evil!" "Alas, God is aware of what you have done."
16:28 those whom the angels have gathered in death while they were still sinning against themselves!" Then will they [who are thus arraigned] proffer their submission, [saying:] "We did not [mean to] do any evil!26 [But they will be answered:] "Yea, verily, God has full knowledge of all that you were doing!27
Sc., "and He will judge you on the basis of your motivation" -implying that their plea of ignorance is rejected in view of the fact that they were offered God's guidance through His revealed messages, which they deliberately scorned in their false pride and dismissed out of hand as "fables of ancient times" (see verses 22-24 above).
Death for the Disbelievers16:28 The angels put them to death in a state of wronging their souls. That is when they finally submit, and say, "We did not do anything wrong!" Yes indeed. GOD is fully aware of everything you have done.,
16:28 Namely, those whose lives the angels take while they were doing wrong to their own ‘self’. They finally would offer submission and say, “We did not mean to do wrong.” “Yes indeed! God is Knower of all you were doing!”
16:29 Faodkhuloo abwaba jahannama khalideenafeeha falabi/sa mathwa almutakabbireena
16:29 "So enter the gates of hell, in it you shall reside; such is the abode of the arrogant."
16:29 "So enter the gates of Hell, in it you shall reside; such is the abode of the arrogant."
16:29 Hence, enter the gates of hell, therein to abide!" And evil, indeed, shall be the state of all who are given to false pride!
16:29 Therefore, enter the gates of Hell, wherein you abide forever. What a miserable destiny for the arrogant ones.,
16:29 Therefore, enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein.” A miserable abode for those who do wrong and take pride in it.
16:30 Waqeela lillatheena ittaqaw mathaanzala rabbukum qaloo khayran lillatheena ahsanoofee hathihi alddunya hasanatun waladarual-akhirati khayrun walaniAAma daru almuttaqeena
16:30 It was said to those who were righteous: "What has your Lord sent down?" They said, "All goodness." For those who have done good in this world there is good, and the Hereafter is even better. Excellent indeed is the home of the righteous.
16:30 And it was said to those who were righteous: "What has your Lord sent down?" They said: "All goodness." For those who have done good in this world there is good; and the Hereafter is goodness. Excellent indeed is the home of the righteous.
16:30 But [when] those who are conscious of God are asked, "What is it that your Sustainer has bestowed from on high?" -they answer, "Goodness supreme!" Good fortune awaits, in this world, all who persevere in doing good;28 but their ultimate state will be far better still: for, how excellent indeed will be the state of the God-conscious [in the life to come]!
This "good fortune" (hasanah) does not necessarily signify, in this context, material benefits but refers, rather, to the spiritual satisfaction and the feeling of inner security resulting from genuine God-consciousness
The Believers Do Not Really Die16:30 As for the righteous, when they are asked, "What do you think of these revelations from your Lord," they say, "Good." For those who lead a righteous life, happiness; and the abode of the Hereafter is even better. What a blissful abode for the righteous.*,
16:30 And to those who live upright, it is said, “What has your Lord sent down?” They say, “All that is good.” (The Qur’an ordains people to benefit others.) For those who do good to others in this world, is a goodly return here, and the home of the Hereafter will be better. Pleasant will be the home of those who live upright.
16:31 Jannatu AAadnin yadkhuloonahatajree min tahtiha al-anharu lahum feehama yashaoona kathalika yajzee Allahualmuttaqeena
16:31 The gardens of Eden, which they will enter, with rivers flowing beneath, in it they will have what they wish. It is such that God rewards the righteous.
16:31 Gardens of delight; which they will enter, with rivers flowing beneath them, in it they will have what they wish. It is such that God rewards the righteous.
16:31 Gardens of perpetual bliss will they enter - [gardens] through which running waters flow - having therein all that they might desire. Thus will God reward those who are conscious of Him-
16:31 The gardens of Eden are reserved for them, wherein rivers flow. They have anything they wish therein. GOD thus rewards the righteous.,
16:31 The Gardens of Eden they will enter, underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will have whatever they wish. This is how God rewards the upright.
16:32 Allatheena tatawaffahumu almala-ikatutayyibeena yaqooloona salamun AAalaykumu odkhulooaljannata bima kuntum taAAmaloona
16:32 Those whom the controllers take, while they had been good, they will say, "Peace be upon you, enter paradise because of what you have done."
16:32 Those whom their lives are terminated by the angels, while they had been good, they will say: "Peace be upon you, enter the Paradise because of that which you have done."
16:32 those whom the angels gather in death while they are in a state of inner purity, greeting them thus: "Peace be upon you! Enter paradise by virtue of what you were doing [in life]!"
They Go Straight to Paradise16:32 The angels terminate their lives in a state of righteousness, saying, "Peace be upon you. Enter Paradise (now) as a reward for your works.",2
16:32 (The upright are contented even as they depart from the world.) Angels cause them to die saying, “Peace unto you! Enter the Garden now because of what you used to do.”
16:33 Hal yanthuroona illa anta/tiyahumu almala-ikatu aw ya/tiya amru rabbika kathalikafaAAala allatheena min qablihim wama thalamahumuAllahu walakin kanoo anfusahum yathlimoona
16:33 Are they waiting for the controllers to come for them, or a command from your Lord? It was exactly the same as what those before them did. God did not wrong them, but it was their own selves that they wronged.
16:33 Are they waiting for the angels to come for them, or a command from your Lord? It was exactly the same as what those before them did. God did not wrong them, but it was their own souls that they wronged.
16:33 ARE THEY [who deny the truth] but waiting for the angels to appear unto them, or for God's judgment to become manifest?29 Even thus did behave those [stubborn sinners] who lived before their time; and [when they were destroyed,] it was not God who wronged them, but it was they who had wronged themselves:
Lit., "for the angels to come to them, or for God's judgment (amr) to come"- i.e., for the Day of Resurrection. The full meaning of this passage is forthcoming from 6:158, revealed at the same period as the present surah.
The Disbelievers16:33 Are they waiting for the angels to come to them, or until your Lord's judgment comes to pass? Those before them did the same thing. GOD is not the One who wronged them; they are the ones who wronged their own souls.,
16:33 (Those who violate human rights, wrong their own ‘self’.) Are they waiting for the angels to visit them, or that your Lord’s command comes (for their doom)? So did those who passed on before them. But God did not wrong them. Nay, they wronged their own ‘self’.
16:34 Faasabahum sayyi-atu maAAamiloo wahaqa bihim ma kanoo bihiyastahzi-oona
16:34 Thus, the evil of their work afflicted them, and they were surrounded by what they used to make fun of!
16:34 Thus is was, that the evil of their work has afflicted them, and they will be surrounded by that which they used to mock.
16:34 for all the evil that they had done fell [back] upon them, and they were overwhelmed by the very thing which they had been wont to deride.30
See 6:10 and the corresponding note. Similar phrases occur in many places in the Qur'an, always with reference to a derision of divine messages and, particularly, of predictions relating to God's chastisement of reprobate sinners. As so often, the Qur'an points out here that this "chastisement" or "suffering" (`adhab) is but a natural, unavoidable consequence of deliberate wrongdoing: hence, he who becomes guilty of it is, in reality, "doing wrong to himself" or "sinning against himself" inasmuch as he destroys his own spiritual integrity and must subsequently suffer for it.
16:34 They have incurred the consequences of their evil works, and the very things they ridiculed came back to haunt them.,
16:34 All the evil that they had done fell back upon them, and the very thing they used to mock, surrounded them.
16:35 Waqala allatheena ashrakoo lawshaa Allahu ma AAabadna min doonihimin shay-in nahnu wala abaonawala harramna min doonihi min shay-in kathalikafaAAala allatheena min qablihim fahal AAala alrrusuliilla albalaghu almubeenu
They Ascribe Their Polytheism to God16:35 Those who set up partners said, "If God had wished it, we would not have served anything besides Him; neither us nor our fathers; nor would we have forbidden anything without Him." Those before them did the exact same thing; so are the messengers required to do anything but deliver with proof?5
16:35 And those who were polytheists said: "If God had wished, we would not have served a thing other than Him; neither us nor our fathers; nor would we have made unlawful anything other than from Him." Those before them did exactly the same thing; so are the messengers required to do anything except deliver with clarity?
16:35 Now they who ascribe divinity to aught beside God say, "Had God so willed, we would not have worshipped aught but Him - neither we nor our forefathers; nor would we have declared aught as forbidden without a commandment from Him."31 Even thus did speak those [sinners] who lived before their time; but, then, are the apostles bound to do more than clearly deliver the message [entrusted to them] ?32
Lit., "apart from Him". See in this connection - 6:148 and the corresponding note 141. (The arbitrary, unwarranted prohibitions and taboos alluded to in that verse as well as in the present one are discussed in 6:136 and explained in my notes.) The derision of God's messages by the deniers of the truth is implied in their questioning His grant of free will to man - that is to say, the ability to choose between right and wrong, which is the basis of all morality.
Le., the apostles could not force anyone to make the right choice.
Famous Excuse16:35 The idol worshipers say, "Had GOD willed, we would not worship any idols besides Him, nor would our parents. Nor would we prohibit anything besides His prohibitions." Those before them have done the same. Can the messengers do anything but deliver the complete message?,
16:35 The idolaters say, “If God had so willed, we would not have worshiped anyone but Him, neither we nor our forefathers. Nor would we have forbidden things against His command.” Thus did those before them. But, are the Messengers responsible for other than conveying the message clearly?
16:36 Walaqad baAAathna fee kulli ommatinrasoolan ani oAAbudoo Allaha waijtaniboo alttaghootafaminhum man hada Allahu waminhum man haqqatAAalayhi alddalalatu faseeroo fee al-ardifaonthuroo kayfa kana AAaqibatualmukaththibeena
16:36 We have sent a messenger to every nation: "You shall serve God and avoid transgression." Some of them were guided by God, and some of them deserved to be misguided. So travel in the land, and see how the punishment was of those who denied.
16:36 And We have sent a messenger to every nation: "You shall serve God and avoid evil." Some of them were guided by God, and some of them deserved to be misguided. So travel the earth, and see how the punishment was of those who denied.
16:36 And indeed, within every community33 have We raised up an apostle [entrusted with this message]: "Worship God, and shun the powers of evil!"34 And among those [past generations] were people whom God graced with His guidance,35 just as there was among them [many a one] who inevitably fell prey to grievous error:36 go, then, about the earth and behold what happened in the end to those who gave the lie to the truth!
Or "at every period", since the term ummah has this significance as well. In its wider sense, it may also be taken here to denote "civilization", thus comprising a human groupment as well as a period of time.
For this rendering of the term at-taghut, see surah 2, note 250. It is to be borne in mind that, in Qur'anic terminology, "worship of God" invariably implies the concept of man's sense of responsibility before Him: hence, the above commandment comprises, in the most concise formulation imaginable, the sum-total of all ethical injunctions and prohibitions, and is the basis and source of all morality as well as the one unchanging message inherent in every true religion.
I.e., who availed themselves of the guidance offered by Him to all human beings.
Lit., "upon whom error came to be inevitably established (hagqa `alayhi)" or "against whom [a verdict of] error became inevitable": i.e., one whose heart "God has sealed" in consequence of his persistent, conscious refusal to submit to His guidance (see surah 2, note 7, as well as surah 14, note 4).
16:36 We have sent a messenger to every community, saying, "You shall worship GOD, and avoid idolatry." Subsequently, some were guided by GOD, while others were committed to straying. Roam the earth and note the consequences for the rejectors.,
16:36 We have raised in every community a Messenger, saying, “Serve God alone and shun false gods in any form.” Then God guided some of the people (since they followed the laws of guidance 4:88). And error took hold of others (who fell into arrogance or blind following 18:29). So, travel through the earth, and see what the end was of the deniers.
16:37 In tahris AAala hudahumfa-inna Allaha la yahdee man yudillu wamalahum min nasireena
16:37 If you are concerned for their guidance, God does not guide whom He misleads. They will have no victors.
16:37 If you are concerned for their guidance, God does not guide whom He misguides; and they will have no supporters.
16:37 [As for those who are bent on denying the truth-] though thou be ever so eager to show them the right way, [know that,] verily, God does not bestow His guidance upon any whom He judges to have gone astray;37 and such shall have none to succour them [on Resurrection Day].
See preceding note; also 8:55 and the corresponding note 58.
16:37 No matter how hard you try to guide them, GOD does not guide the ones He had committed to straying. Thus, no one can help them.,
16:37 (O Messenger) in your compassion you desire everyone to be rightly guided, but God does not guide those who choose straying. And they have no helpers.
16:38 Waaqsamoo biAllahi jahda aymanihimla yabAAathu Allahu man yamootu bala waAAdanAAalayhi haqqan walakinna akthara alnnasila yaAAlamoona
16:38 They swore by God, in their strongest oaths, that God will not resurrect whoever dies. No, it is a promise of truth upon Him, but most people do not know.
16:38 And they swore by God, in their strongest oaths, that God will not resurrect he who dies. No, it is a promise of truth upon Him, but most of the people do not know.
16:38 As it is,38 they swear by God with their most solemn oaths, "Never will God raise from the dead anyone who has died!"39 Yea indeed! [This very thing has God promised] by a promise which He has willed upon Himself; but most people know it not.
This categorical denial of resurrection-implying as it does a denial of God's ultimate judgment of good and evil - is characteristic of a mental attitude which refuses to admit the reality, or even possibility, of anything that lies beyond the range of man's actual or potential observation. Since such an attitude is an outcome of an intrinsically materialistic outlook on life and the "false pride" referred to in verses 22-23 above, it is anti-religious in the deepest sense of this word even if it is accompanied by a vague - because_ non-consequential - belief in the existence of God.
Deep In Their Minds16:38 They swore solemnly by GOD: "GOD will not resurrect the dead." Absolutely, such is His inviolable promise, but most people do not know.,
16:38 They most strongly swear by God that He will not raise the dead. Nay, but it is a promise binding upon Him in truth, but most people do not make use of whatever they know.
16:39 Liyubayyina lahumu allatheeyakhtalifoona feehi waliyaAAlama allatheena kafarooannahum kanoo kathibeena
16:39 So that He will make clear for them that in which they have disputed, and so that those who have rejected will know that they were liars.
16:39 So that He will clarify for them that in which they have disputed, and so that those who have rejected will know that they were liars.
16:39 [He will resurrect them] to the end that He might make clear unto them all whereon they [now] hold divergent views,40 and that they who are bent on denying the truth [of resurrection] might come to know that they were liars.
I.e., in the first instance, the truth of resurrection and judgment as such, and, in general, the final answers to all the metaphysical problems which perplex man during his life on earth.
16:39 He will then point out to everyone all the things they had disputed, and will let those who disbelieved know that they were liars.,
16:39 He will then make them understand wherein they differed, and the rejecters will realize that they were liars.
16:40 Innama qawluna lishay-in ithaaradnahu an naqoola lahu kun fayakoonu
16:40 When we want something, our word is only to say to it: "Be," and it is.6
Indeed the entire universe came into existence with an "abrupt" big bang. See 21:30.
16:40 Indeed, Our saying to a thing, if We wanted it, is that We say to it: 'Be,' and it is.
16:40 Whenever We will anything to be, We but say unto it Our word "Be" -and it is.
16:40 To have anything done, we simply say to it, "Be," and it is.,
16:40 Whenever We will anything to be, We say to it Our Word, “Be” and it is.10
The moment We pass a decree in the World of Command, it starts happening
16:41 Waallatheena hajaroofee Allahi min baAAdi ma thulimoolanubawwi-annahum fee alddunya hasanatanwalaajru al-akhirati akbaru law kanoo yaAAlamoona
Do not Accept Oppression16:41 Those who have emigrated for God, after they were oppressed, We will grant them good in the world, and the reward of the Hereafter will be greater, if they knew.
16:41 And those who have emigrated for God, after they were oppressed, We will grant them good in the world, and the reward of the Hereafter will be greater, if only they knew.
16:41 NOW as for those who forsake the domain of evil41 in the cause of God, after having suffered wrong [on account of their faith] - We shall most certainly grant them a station of good fortune in this world:42 but their reward in the life to come will be far greater yet. If they [who deny the truth] could but understand43
For an explanation of this rendering of alladhina hajaru, see surah 2, note 203, and surah 4, note 124. That the "forsaking of the domain of evil" has here a purely spiritual connotation is obvious from its juxtaposition with the "denial of the truth" referred to in the preceding verses.
See note 28 above.
The verb `alima, which primarily denotes "he knew", has also the meaning of "he came to know", i.e., "he understood"; and since-as pointed out by Baghawi, Zamakhshari and Razi -the pronoun "they" in the phrase law kanu ya'lamun relates to the deniers of the truth spoken of in the preceding passages, the rendering "if they could but understand" is here clearly indicated - the more so as it provides a self-evident connection with the subsequent, objective clause.
To Resurrect the Dead16:41 Those who emigrated for the sake of GOD, because they were persecuted, we will surely make it up to them generously in this life, and the recompense of the Hereafter is even greater, if they only knew.,
16:41 Those who emigrate in the cause of God because they were oppressed, We shall give them good lodging in the world, and the reward of the Hereafter is greater, if they but knew.
16:42 Allatheena sabaroo waAAalarabbihim yatawakkaloona
16:42 Those who are steadfast, and put their trust in their Lord.
16:42 Those who are patient, and put their trust in their Lord.
16:42 those who, having attained to patience in adversity, in their Sustainer place their trust!44
I.e., if they could really understand the spiritual motivation of the believers, they (the deniers of the truth) would themselves begin to believe.
16:42 This is because they steadfastly persevere, and in their Lord they trust.,
16:42 They have been steadfast, and have put their trust in their Lord.
16:43 Wama arsalna min qablika illarijalan noohee ilayhim fais-aloo ahla alththikriin kuntum la taAAlamoona
16:43 We did not send any except men/walkers before you whom We inspired, so ask the people who received the Reminder if you do not know.
16:43 And We did not send any except men before you whom We inspired, so ask the people who have received the Reminder if you do not know.
16:43 AND [even] before thy time, [O Muhammad,] We never sent [as Our apostles] any but [mortal] men, whom We inspired:45 and if you have not [yet] realized this, ask the followers of [earlier] revelation,"46
This passage has a double purport: firstly, it connects with the statement enunciated in verse 36 to the effect that God's apostles have appeared, at one time or another, within every civilization, and that, consequently, no substantial human groupment has ever been left without divine guidance; secondly, it answers the objection frequently raised by unbelievers that Muhammad could not be God's message-bearer since he was "a mere mortal man". (As regards the Qur'anic doctrine that no created being, not even a prophet, has ever been endowed with "supernatural" powers or qualities, see 6:50 and 7:188, as well as the notes relating to those verses; also note 94 on 6:109.)
Lit., "reminder"-because every divine message is meant to remind one of the truth. The people to be asked for enlightenment in this respect are apparently the Jews and the Christians (Tabari, Zamakhshari).
16:43 We did not send before you except men whom we inspired. Ask those who know the scripture, if you do not know.,
16:43 (O Prophet) before you We sent none but men to whom We granted revelation. (Tell the deniers), “If you do not know this, ask the bearers of the reminder (People of the Book).”
16:44 Bialbayyinati waalzzuburiwaanzalna ilayka alththikra litubayyina lilnnasima nuzzila ilayhim walaAAallahum yatafakkaroona
16:44 With proof and the scriptures. We sent down to you the Reminder to proclaim to the people what was sent to them, and perhaps they would think.7
The Arabic word BaYaNa means (1) explain an ambiguous message; or (2) declare a hidden message. This multiple-meaning verse is one of the most abused verses by the followers of hadith hearsay. They choose the first meaning. Their rendering, however, contradicts many verses of the Quran: the Quran is explained not by Muhammed, but by its author, God Himself (75:19). Thus it is described as a "clarified/explained book" (5:15; 12:1; 26:195; 44:6), and we are reminded over and over that it is "easy to understand" (54:17). Thus, the second alternative is the intended meaning, since the Quran was received by Muhammed in a private session called revelation, and his job was to deliver and declare the message he received. God orders Muhammed to proclaim the revelation which is revealed to him personally. Indeed, this is the whole mission of the messengers (16:35). Thus, the word "litubayyena" of 16:44 is similar to the one in 3:187. Verse 3:187 tells us that the people who received the revelation should "proclaim the scripture to the people, and never conceal it." See 2:159; 3:187 and 16:64. For a comparative discussion on verse 16:44, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction.
The Quran is simple to understand (54:17). Whoever opens his/her mind and heart as a monotheist and takes the time to study it, will understand it. This understanding will be enough for salvation. Beyond this, to understand the multiple-meaning verses you do not need to be a messenger of God. If you have a good mind and have studied the Quran as a believer, that is, if you have a deep knowledge, then you will be able to understand the true meanings of multiple-meaning verses. The verse 3:7, which is about the multiple-meaning verses, points this fact in a multiple-meaning way (this is an interesting subject warranting another article): ". . . No one knows their true meaning except God and those who possess knowledge. . ."
16:44 With proofs and the scriptures. And We sent down to you the Reminder to reveal to the people what was sent to them, and perhaps they will think.
16:44 [and they will tell you that their prophets, too, were but mortal men whom We had endowed] with all evidence of the truth and with books of divine wisdom.47 And upon thee [too] have We bestowed from on high this reminder, so that thou might make clear unto mankind all that has ever been thus bestowed upon them,48 and that they might take thought.
The above sentence is addressed, parenthetically, to all who question the divine origin of the Qur'an on the grounds mentioned in note 45 above. For an explanation of the term zubur ("books of divine wisdom"), see surah 21, note 101.
Sc., "through revelation" -implying that moral values are independent of all time-bound changes and must, therefore, be regarded as permanent.
16:44 We provided them with the proofs and the scriptures. And we sent down to you this message, to proclaim for the people everything that is sent down to them, perhaps they will reflect.,
16:44 With clear evidence of the truth and Books of Divine wisdom, We sent them. And now (O Prophet) We have revealed this Reminder to you for you to convey to mankind what has been revealed for them, so that they may think.
16:45 Afaamina allatheena makaroo alssayyi-atian yakhsifa Allahu bihimu al-arda aw ya/tiyahumualAAathabu min haythu la yashAAuroona
16:45 Have those who schemed evil guaranteed that God will not make the earth swallow them, or the retribution come to them from where they do not expect?
16:45 Have those who schemed evil guaranteed that God will not make the earth swallow them, or the retribution come to them from where they do not expect?
16:45 Can, then, they who devise evil schemes49 ever feel sure that God will not cause the earth to swallow them,50 or that suffering will not befall them without their perceiving whence [it came]? -
To my mind, by "evil schemes" are meant here systems of God-denying philosophy and of perverted morality.
I.e., destroy them utterly.
16:45 Did those who scheme evil schemes guarantee that GOD will not cause the earth to swallow them, or that the retribution will not come to them when they least expect it?,
16:45 Can those who devise evil schemes ever feel sure that God will not cause the earth to swallow them, or that suffering will not befall them in ways they could least anticipate?
16:46 Aw ya/khuthahum fee taqallubihim famahum bimuAAjizeena
16:46 Or that He will take them in their actions as they cannot escape?
16:46 Or that He will take them in their sleep? For they cannot stop it.
16:46 or that He will not take them to task [suddenly] in the midst of their comings and goings,51 without their being able to elude [Him],
I.e., in the midst of their habitual occupations. My interpolation of the word "suddenly" is warranted by the reference, in the next verse, to the alternative of gradual decay.
16:46 It may strike them while they are asleep; they can never escape.,
16:46 Or that His Law of Requital will not take them to task suddenly in the midst of their comings and goings? Then there is no escape for them.
16:47 Aw ya/khuthahum AAalatakhawwufin fa-inna rabbakum laraoofun raheemun
16:47 Or that He will take them while they are in fear? Your Lord is Kind, Compassionate.
16:47 Or that He will take them while they are in a state of fear? Your Lord is Compassionate, Merciful.
16:47 or take them to task through slow decay?52 And yet, behold, your Sustainer is most compassionate, a dispenser of grace!53
One of the meanings of takhawwuf is "gradual diminution" or "decay" or "slow destruction" (Lisan al'Arab, art. khawafa; thus also Tabari and Zamakhshari); in the above context, the term has obviously both a social and a moral connotation: a gradual disintegration of all ethical values, of power, of civic cohesion, of happiness and, finally, of life itself.
Sc., "seeing that He offers you guidance through His prophets, and gives you time to reflect and mend your ways before you do irreparable harm to yourselves".
16:47 Or it may strike them while they are fearfully expecting it. Your Lord is Compassionate, Most Merciful.,
16:48 Awa lam yaraw ila ma khalaqaAllahu min shay-in yatafayyao thilaluhuAAani alyameeni waalshshama-ili sujjadan lillahiwahum dakhiroona
16:48 Did they not see that what God has created, its shadow inclines to the right and the left prostrating to God, willingly?
16:48 Have they not seen that what God has created of a thing, its shadow inclines to the right and the left in prostration to God; and they are humbled!
16:48 HAVE, THEN, they [who deny the truth] never considered any of the things that God has created54 _ (how] their shadows turn right and left, prostrating themselves before God and utterly submissive [to His will]?55
In view of the separate mention, in the next verse, of animals and angels, the "things" referred to here apparently denote inanimate objects and perhaps also living organisms like plants.
Lit., "and they are utterly lowly" or "submissive". The "prostration" referred to in this and the next verse is obviously a symbolism expressing the intrinsic subjection of all created beings and things to God's will. See also 13:15 and the corresponding notes 33 and 34.
16:48 Have they not seen all the things created by GOD? Their shadows surround them right and left, in total submission to GOD, and willingly.,
16:48 Have they not observed the things that God has created? Their shadows incline to the right and to the left; that is their utter submission to God, in all humility.12
Even the shadows can show you that the entire Cosmos, with its celestial bodies, is submitting to His laws
16:49 Walillahi yasjudu ma fee alssamawatiwama fee al-ardi min dabbatin waalmala-ikatuwahum la yastakbiroona
16:49 To God prostrate all those in the heavens and all those on the earth, from the creatures as well as the controllers, and they are not arrogant.8
The human body, whether belonging to an appreciative or unappreciative person, as a whole has peacefully surrendered to its Creator, and thus is a muslim (submitter/peaceful surrenderer to God).
It is true that SaJDa means obedience, submission to God's law (16:49). From this verse we should not necessarily infer that everything has a mind like humans. Even if we subscribe to such a fancy assumption, mental events too are physical events; they are the consequence of interactions of electrons. In fact, the prostration of all the creatures we perceive is physical. Any event that can be sensed by our five senses is a physical event. Atoms peacefully surrender to God's laws when they interact with each other. When water freezes it peacefully surrenders to God's law and expands; when it is heated to a certain degree it evaporates. When Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen atoms come together in a particular order they create bases called Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine; and when these bases join each other in a particular order, pre-ordained by God, they create DNAs that produce new qualities and events, including life. Every cell and organ in our bodies submits to God's law. These are all physical demonstration of SaJDa to God. No wonder, the entire universe is stated to have submitted to God (3:83; 13:15). Interestingly, in these two verses the same idea is depicted yet in 3:83 the verb aSLaMa (submitted) is used while in 13:15 the verb yaSJuDu (prostrating) is used. This is strong evidence that both verbs belong to the same semantic field. As we know, submission to God is not just a mental activity but also a physical action, such as working hard, delivering God's message, feeding the poor, etc.
The word SaJDa in some verses means ONLY mental (in quantum, electronic or neural level) prostration while in other verses it means ONLY bodily (atomic and molecular level) prostration. The prostration mentioned in 27:20 must be bodily, and the one in verse 77:48 most likely refers to mental prostration.
As for verse 22:18, it describes both mental and bodily submission to God. One might argue, "Has anyone ever seen any of these creations bow and prostrate on the ground (animals excluded)? Since all things in heavens and earth do not prostrate to God by casting themselves face down on the ground in humility, then we should not prostrate that way either." This conclusion is based on a false assumption that ALL creatures prostrate the same way. Every creature in the heavens and the earth glorifies God (24:41; 57:1; 59:1; 61:1; 62:1; 64:1). But we may not understand their glorification (17:44). We are also instructed to glorify our Lord day and night, not like birds or planets, but like humans, in our language and according to our natural design (3:41; 5:98; 7:206; 19:11; 20:130; 32:15; 40:55; 50:39; 52:48; 56:74; 69:52; 76:26; 87:1; 110:3).
Hence: "Do you not see that everything in the heavens and the earth glorify God, including the birds in columns. Each knows his/her/its prayer (sala) and glorification. God is fully aware of everything you do." (24:41).
The following verse is also important: "Are they seeking other than God's system, when everything has submitted (aSLaMa) to Him in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, and to Him they will be returned?" (3:83). Now those who reject that sala prayer includes bodily bowing and prostration should ask a similar question about how to be a muslim just as they ask about how to perform prostration: "Has anyone ever seen any of these creations give charity or deliver God's message or study the Quran?" Perhaps, according to those who object physical prostration besides mental one, we should not give charity, should not deliver the message, should not study the Quran, and should not use computers!
One might refer to 2:62 and ask: "No, not all the listed groups bow and prostrate on the ground. Will they lose? No, it is the people who do not submit to God and follow His commands that will deserve His punishment." This is a hasty conclusion. The groups mentioned in the verse (believers, Jews, Nazarenes, and those from other religions) attain salvation as long as they believe in God, do righteous work and believe in the hereafter. Perhaps not all bow and prostrate, and perhaps not all believe and follow the Quran, either. First, we should remember that God holds each responsible depending on their circumstances. As those who witnessed Moses' miracles will be held responsible for their reaction to them, similarly those who are instructed to bow and prostrate will be held responsible for their reaction. Each nation received a messenger and each received their instruction (10:47; 22:34; 40:28).
Referring to verse 18:50, one might conclude: "There is no need to get on the ground to worship your Lord because He has not commanded us to do this. He wants us to bow and prostrate our wills to that of His will." This is a reasonable conclusion. However, knowing that the word prostration was also used to mean humbly getting on the ground, we cannot equate the prostration in this verse to all others. The verse refers to an event which took place before the creation of life on earth. Besides, the instruction is to Satan, a creature made of energy, not matter like us. The nature of the prostration asked of Perverse or the controllers might be a little different than the one asked of us; or, more accurately, the form, way or style of our prostration might not necessarily be expected to be the same as that of the controllers.
David, who was observing sala prayer, is described by the Quran as: "… He then implored his Lord for forgiveness, bowed down (KhaRra RuKka'An), and repented." (38:24). David's repentance is clearly described as bowing down, both mentally and bodily.
We should remind those who are trying hard to eliminate the formal component of sala prayer of the following verse: "… When the revelations of the Gracious are recited to them, they fall prostrate (KhaRRu SuJjaDan), weeping" (19:58). See 41:37; 13:15; 3:83.
16:49 And to God prostrate all those in the heavens and all those on the earth, from the creatures and the angels, and they are not arrogant.
16:49 For, before God prostrates itself all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth - every beast that moves, and the angels:56 [even] these do not bear themselves with false pride:
I.e., the lowest as well as the highest. The term dabbah denotes any sentient, corporeal being capable of spontaneous movement, and is contrasted here with the non-corporeal, spiritual beings designated as "angels" (Razi).
16:49 To GOD prostrates everything in the heavens and everything on earth - every creature - and so do the angels; without the least arrogance.,3
The human body, whether it belongs to a believer or a disbeliever, submits to God; the heartbeats, the lungs' movement, and peristalsis illustrate thissubmission.
16:49 Indeed, before God, bows in submission all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, whether living beings or the angels, for none are arrogant.13
'All that is' includes three classes of God’s creation: Inanimate things, living beings, and angels. Angels, here, represent God’s forces in nature
16:50 Yakhafoona rabbahum min fawqihimwayafAAaloona ma yu/maroona
16:50 They fear their Lord from above them, and they do what they are commanded.
16:50 They fear their Lord from above them, and they do what they are commanded.
16:50 they fear their Sustainer high above them, and do whatever they are bidden to do.57
I.e., they must, by virtue of their nature, obey the impulses implanted in them by God and are, therefore, incapable of what is described as "sinning". Man, however, is fundamentally different in this respect. In contrast with the natural sinlessness of "every beast that moves, and the angels", man is endowed with free will in the moral sense of this term: he can choose between right and wrong and therefore he can, and often does, sin. But even while he sins he is subject to the universal law of cause and effect instituted by God and referred to in the Qur'an as sunnat Allah ("God's way"): hence the Qur'anic statement that "before God prostrate themselves, willingly or unwillingly, all [things and beings] that are in the heavens and on earth" (13:15).
16:50 They reverence their Lord, high above them, and they do what they are commanded to do.,
16:50 They all fear their Lord, High above them, and they do all that they are commanded. [24:41]
16:51 Waqala Allahu latattakhithoo ilahayni ithnayni innama huwailahun wahidun fa-iyyaya fairhabooni
16:51 God said, "Do not take-up two gods, there is only One god, so it is Me that you shall revere."
16:51 And God said: "Do not take two gods, there is only One god, so it is Me that you shall reverence."
16:51 And God has said: "Do not take to worshipping two [or more] deities.58 He is the One and Only God: hence, of Me, of Me alone stand in awe !"59
The double dual in ilahayn ithnayn ("two deities") serves to emphasize the prohibition of worshipping "more than one deity"-i.e., anything but the One God.
This is a striking example of the fluctuation to which personal pronouns are subjected in the Qur'an whenever they refer to God. As already pointed out in my Foreword, note 2. as well as in other places, such abrupt changes of pronoun ("He", "I", "We", "Us", "Me", etc.) indicate that God is limitless and, therefore, beyond the range of definition implied in the use of "personal" pronouns.
16:51 GOD has proclaimed: "Do not worship two gods; there is only one god. You shall reverence Me alone.",
16:51 And God has said, “Do not take two gods. There is only One God. So Me, only Me, shall you fear.”14
16:52 Walahu ma fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi walahu alddeenu wasibanafaghayra Allahi tattaqoona
The Only Source of the System16:52 To Him is what is in the heavens and the earth, and the system shall always be to Him. Is it other than God that you shall be aware of?9
See 39:11. Compare it to the New Testament: "And I say unto you, my friends, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear. Fear Him, which after He hath killed, hath the power to cast into Hell. Yea, I say unto you, fear Him!" (Luke 12:4-5 ).
16:52 And to Him is what is in the heavens and the earth, and the system shall be to Him. Is it other than God that you shall be aware of?
16:52 And His is all that is in the heavens and on earth, and to Him [alone] obedience is always due: will you, then, pay reverence to aught but Him?
16:52 To Him belongs everything in the heavens and the earth and therefore, the religion shall be devoted absolutely to Him alone. Would you worship other than GOD?,
16:52 Unto Him belongs all that is in the heavens and earth. Therefore, the Religion belongs eternally to Him (as the Source).Will you then fear other than God?15
The entire Cosmos follows HisSystem
16:53 Wama bikum min niAAmatin famina Allahithumma itha massakumu alddurru fa-ilayhitaj-aroona
16:53 Any blessings that are with you are from God. Then, when harm afflicts you, to Him you cry out.
16:53 And any blessing that is with you is from God. Then, when harm afflicts you, to Him you cry out.
16:53 For, whatever good thing comes to you, comes from God; and whenever harm befalls you, it is unto Him that you cry for help*
16:53 Any blessing you enjoy is from GOD. Yet, whenever you incur any adversity you immediately complain to Him.,
16:53 And whatever blessings you enjoy are from God, and when touched by distress, to Him you turn for help.
16:54 Thumma itha kashafa alddurraAAankum itha fareequn minkum birabbihim yushrikoona
16:54 Then, when He removes the harm from you, a group of you set up partners with their Lord!
16:54 Then, when He removes the harm from you, a group of you set up partners with their Lord!
16:54 yet as soon as He has removed the harm from you, lo! some of you [begin to] ascribe to other powers a share 'in their Sustainer's divinity61
Lit., "associate [other powers] with their Sustainer": i.e., by attributing the. change in their "luck" to what they regard as "extraneous" factors and influences, they invest the latter, as it were, with divine qualities and powers.
16:54 Yet, as soon as He relieves your affliction, some of you revert to idol worship.,
16:54 Yet as soon as He relieves you from the distress, some of you fall back into associating others with their Lord,
16:55 Liyakfuroo bima ataynahumfatamattaAAoo fasawfa taAAlamoona
16:55 So they reject what We have given them. Enjoy, for you will come to know.
16:55 So they reject what We have given them. Enjoy, for you will come to know.
16:55 [as if] to prove their ingratitude for all that We have granted them! Enjoy, then, your [brief] life: but in time you will come to know [the truth]!
16:55 Let them disbelieve in what we have given them. Go ahead and enjoy temporarily; you will surely find out.,
16:55 As if to show their ingratitude to what We have given them. Enjoy yourselves while you can. Soon the reality will dawn upon you.
16:56 WayajAAaloona lima layaAAlamoona naseeban mimma razaqnahum taAllahilatus-alunna AAamma kuntum taftaroona
16:56 They allocate a portion from what We provide to them to what they did not have knowledge of. By God, you will be asked about the lies you have invented!
16:56 And they allocate a portion from what We provide for them to that which they have no knowledge of. By God, you will be asked about the lies you have invented!
16:56 As it is, they ascribe - out of what We provide for them as sustenance - a share unto things of which they know nothing.62 By God, you shall most certainly be called to account for all your false imagery!
According to most of the classical commentators, this relates to the custom of the pagan Arabs - mentioned in 6:136 - to dedicate a part of their agricultural produce and cattle to their deities; and because those deities were mere figments of imagination, they are described here as "things of which they know nothing". However, as I have pointed out in note 120 on 6:136, the above statement bears a much wider, more general meaning: it connects directly with the three preceding verses of this surah-namely, with the attribution of a share (nasib) in God's creativeness - and thus of a decisive influence on one's life - to "causes" or "powers" other than Him. This view has also been advanced by Razi (with a specific reference to astrological speculations) in the concluding sentence of his commentary on the above verse.
16:56 They designate for the idols they set up out of ignorance, a share of the provisions we bestow upon them. By GOD, you will be held accountable for your innovations.,
16:56 They set aside a portion of what We have provided them with, for those about whom they know nothing (idols and fictitious gods.) By God! You will be asked concerning all that you fabricate.
16:57 WayajAAaloona lillahi albanatisubhanahu walahum ma yashtahoona
Misogynistic Culture Condemned16:57 They assign their daughters to God; be He glorified; and to them is what they desire.
16:57 And they assign daughters to God; be He glorified; and to them is what they desire.
16:57 And [thus, too,] they ascribe daughters unto God, who is limitless in His glory63 - whereas for themselves [they would choose, if they could, only] what they desire:64
The pre-Islamic Arabs believed that the goddesses Al-Lat, Al-`Uzza and Manat (see note 13 on 53:19), as well as the angels, whom they conceived as females, were "God's daughters". As against this, the Qur'an states that God is utterly remote from every imperfection (subhanahu), complete in Himself, and therefore free from the incompleteness inherent in the concept of "progeny" as an extension of one's own being (cf. 6:100 and the corresponding notes 87 and 88). This parenthetic passage, comprising verses 57-59, is explained in note 66 below.
Namely, only male issue, because the pre-Islamic Arabs regarded daughters as no more than a necessary evil.
16:57 They even assign daughters to GOD, be He glorified, while they prefer for themselves what they like.,
16:57 They ascribe daughters to God. All glory to Him! And to themselves they choose what they desire!
16:58 Wa-itha bushshira ahaduhum bialonthathalla wajhuhu muswaddan wahuwa katheemun
16:58 When one of them is given news of a female, his face becomes darkened and he is in grief!10
16:58 And when one of them is given news of a female, his face becomes darkened and he is in grief!
16:58 for, whenever any of them is given the glad tiding of [the birth of] a girl,65 his face darkens, and he is filled with suppressed anger,
I.e., a tiding that should have been regarded as a happy one, since the sex of the child ought to make no difference to parental love.
Bigoted Bias Against Baby Girls16:58 When one of them gets a baby girl, his face becomes darkened with overwhelming grief.,
16:58 So, whenever any of them is given the glad tiding of the birth of a daughter, his face darkens with sadness and anger.
16:59 Yatawara mina alqawmi minsoo-i ma bushshira bihi ayumsikuhu AAala hoonin amyadussuhu fee altturabi ala saa mayahkumoona
16:59 He hides from his people because of the bad news he has received. Shall he keep her with dishonor, or bury her in the sand? Miserable indeed is how they judge!
16:59 He hides from his people because of the bad news he has received. Shall he keep her with dishonor, or bury her in the sand? Miserable indeed is how they judge!
16:59 avoiding all people because of the [alleged] evil of the glad tiding which he has received, [and debating within himself:] Shall he keep this [child] despite the contempt [which he feels for it]-or shall he bury it in the dust? Old, evil indeed is whatever they decide!66
I.e., either of these alternatives is evil: to keep the child as an object of perpetual contempt, or to bury it alive, as was frequently done by the pagan Arabs.-This passage, containing as it does an utter condemnation of men's attitude towards women in pre-Islamic Arabia, has - as is always the case with Qur'anic references to historical events or customs -a meaning that goes far beyond this specific social phenomenon and the resulting infanticide. It would seem that the pivotal point of the whole passage is the sentence, "for themselves [they would choose, if they could, only] what they desire": that is to say, while they are only too ready to associate with God ideas which are repugnant to themselves (for instance, female progeny, which they themselves despise), they are unwilling to accept the concept of man's ultimate responsibility to Him, because such a concept militates against their own hedonistic inclinations by obliging them to impose a moral discipline on themselves. And because they rebel against the idea of ultimate moral responsibility, they instinctively reject the idea of resurrection and of life after bodily death; and since they deny, by implication, God's power to resurrect the dead, they deny His omnipotence and, consequently, begin to "ascribe divinity" - i.e., a genuinely causative function - to all manner of imaginary forces, beings or influences: and so, by means of a parenthetic reference to pre-Islamic Arabian beliefs and customs, the discourse returns full circle to the concept of God's oneness, uniqueness and omnipotence, around which the whole of the Qur'an revolves.
16:59 Ashamed, he hides from the people, because of the bad news given to him. He even ponders: should he keep the baby grudgingly, or bury her in the dust. Miserable indeed is their judgment.,
16:59 Ashamed, he hides himself from people, because of the news given to him. He even asks himself, “Shall I keep the baby grudgingly, or bury her deep in dust?” Oh, evil is what they decide!
16:60 Lillatheena la yu/minoona bial-akhiratimathalu alssaw-i walillahi almathalu al-aAAlawahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu
16:60 For those who do not acknowledge the Hereafter is the worst example, and for God is the highest example, and He is the Noble, the Wise.
16:60 To those who do not believe in the Hereafter is the worst example, and to God is the highest example, and He is the Noble, the Wise.
16:60 [Thus it is that] the attribute of evil applies to all who do not believe in the life to come67 -whereas unto God applies the attribute of all that is most sublime: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!
I.e., inasmuch as they deny, by implication, man's ultimate responsibility before God. According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the term mathal (lit., "example" or "parable") has here and in the next clause the connotation of sifah ("attribute").
16:60 Those who do not believe in the Hereafter set the worst examples, while to GOD belongs the most sublime examples. He is the Almighty, the Most Wise.,
16:60 Those who disbelieve in the Hereafter (and look for quick gains in this life), set up an evil example in the society. God’s is the Supreme example. (His Sublime Attributes adopted in their limited human capacity enable people to set up excellent examples.) For, He alone is the Mighty, the Wise. [30:27]
16:61 Walaw yu-akhithu Allahualnnasa bithulmihim ma tarakaAAalayha min dabbatin walakin yu-akhkhiruhumila ajalin musamman fa-itha jaa ajaluhum layasta/khiroona saAAatan wala yastaqdimoona
16:61 If God were to immediately call the people to account for their transgression, then He would not leave a single creature standing. But He delays them to a determined time; so when that time comes to any of them, they cannot delay it by one moment or advance it.
16:61 And if God were to call the people to account for their transgression, He would not have left on it a single creature. But He delays them to a determined time; so when their time comes, they do not delay by one hour and they do not advance.
16:61 Now if God were to take men [immediately] to task for all the evil that they do [on earth], He would not leave a single living creature upon its face. However, He grants them respite until a term set [by Him]:68 but when the end of their term approaches, they can neither delay it by a single moment, nor can they hasten it.69
Or: "known [only to Him]" - i.e., the period of their lives on earth, during which they may reflect and repent.
For my rendering of sa'ah as "a single moment", see surah 7, note 26.
The Original Sin16:61 If GOD punished the people for their transgressions, He would have annihilated every creature on earth. But He respites them for a specific, predetermined time. Once their interim ends, they cannot delay it by one hour, nor advance it.,
16:61 If God were to punish humans for their wrongdoing, He would not leave a single living creature upon the face of the earth (35:45). But He grants them respite until a term decreed. And when their term expires, they can neither delay it by a single hour nor can they hasten it.
16:62 WayajAAaloona lillahi mayakrahoona watasifu alsinatuhumu alkathiba annalahumu alhusna la jarama anna lahumu alnnarawaannahum mufratoona
16:62 They attribute to God what they hate, and their tongues assert lies that they will get the best. No doubt they will have the fire, for they have rebelled.
16:62 And they assign to God what they hate, and their tongues describe with lies that they will have what is good. No doubt they will have the Fire, for they have rebelled.
16:62 As it is, they ascribe to God something that they [themselves] dislike70 -and [all the while] their tongues utter the lie that [by doing so] they earn supreme merit!71 Truly, they earn but the fire, and will be left out [of God's grace]!72
I.e., "daughters" (see verses 57-59 above): but this alludes also, as Zamakhshari points out, to the association with God of imaginary beings which allegedly have a share in His power and thus nullify the concept of His uniqueness: in other words, while the people spoken of here would hate to see their own legitimate spheres of influence encroached upon and curtailed by rivals, they do not extend the same consideration to their idea of God.
Lit., "that theirs is the supreme good (al-husna )" - i.e., in the sight of God - because they regard their own religious or anti-religious views, in spite of their absurdity, as good and true'. This interpretation of al-husna in the above context (mentioned, among others, by Zamakhshari 'and Razi) connects logically with the statement in the next verse that "Satan had made their own doings seem goodly to them"
Lit., "theirs [or "their portion"] will be the fire, and they will be abandoned".
16:62 They ascribe to GOD what they dislike for themselves, then utter the lie with their own tongues that they are righteous! Without any doubt, they have incurred Hell, for they have rebelled.,
16:62 They ascribe to God what they dislike for themselves, and then lie that the fair reward is for them. Surely, for them is the fire, and they will be hastened on into it. [56:10]
16:63 TaAllahi laqad arsalnaila omamin min qablika fazayyana lahumu alshshaytanuaAAmalahum fahuwa waliyyuhumu alyawma walahum AAathabunaleemun
16:63 By God, We have sent others to nations before you, but the devil adorned their work for them. So he is their ally today, and they will have a painful retribution.
16:63 By God, We had sent to nations before you, but the devil adorned their work for them. So he is their ally today, and they will have a painful retribution.
16:63 By God, [O Prophet,] even before thy time have We sent apostles unto [various] communities: but [those who were bent on denying the truth have always refused to listen to Our messages because] Satan has made all their own doings seem goodly to them: and he is [as] close to them today73 [as he was to the sinners of yore]; hence, grievous suffering awaits them.
Or: "He is their patron [or "master"] today": It should be borne in mind that the noun wali is derived from the verb waliya, which primarily signifies "he was [or "became"] close [or "near", i.e., to someone or something]". It is in this sense that the term wall is used in the Qur'an with reference to God's nearness to the believers (e.g., in 2:257 or 3:68), or their nearness to God (see 10:62 and the corresponding note 84). Similarly, the "powers of evil" (at-taghut) are spoken of in 2:257 as being "near unto those who are bent on denying the truth (alladhina kafaru)".
16:63 By GOD, we have sent (messengers) to communities before you, but the devil adorned their works in their eyes. Consequently, he is now their lord, and they have incurred a painful retribution.,
16:63 By God! We sent Messengers to communities before you. But Satan, their selfish desires, made their acts fair-seeming to them. To this day he remains their patron, so they will have a painful doom.
16:64 Wama anzalna AAalayka alkitabailla litubayyina lahumu allathee ikhtalafoo feehiwahudan warahmatan liqawmin yu/minoona
16:64 We did not send down the book to you except that you may proclaim to them that in which they disputed, and as a guidance and mercy to a people who acknowledge.11
16:64 And We have not sent down the Book to you except that you may clarify for them that in which they have disputed, and as a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.
16:64 And upon thee [too] have We bestowed from on' high this divine writ for no other reason than that thou might make clear unto them all [questions of faith] on which they have come to hold divergent views, and [thus offer] guidance and grace unto people who will believe.
16:64 We have revealed this scripture to you, to point out for them what they dispute, and to provide guidance and mercy for people who believe.,
16:64 And upon you (O Prophet) We have revealed this Book so that you may clearly explain to them that wherein they differ (and thus help them become one community). And this Book is a guidance and mercy for people who will believe.
16:65 WaAllahu anzala mina alssama-imaan faahya bihi al-arda baAAdamawtiha inna fee thalika laayatan liqawminyasmaAAoona
16:65 God has sent down water from the sky, so He revives the land with it after its death. In that is a sign for a people who listen.
16:65 And God has sent down water from the sky, so He revives the land with it after its death. In that is a sign for a people who listen.
16:65 AND GOD sends down water from the skies, giving life thereby to the earth after it had been lifeless:74 in this, behold, there is a message indeed for people who [are willing to] listen.
As so often in the Qur'an, a reference to the spiritual life engendered by divine revelation is followed here by a reference to the miracle of organic life as another indication of God's creative activity.
Additional Proofs From God16:65 GOD sends down from the sky water to revive the land after it had died. This should be (sufficient) proof for people who hear.,
16:65 (This Divine Writ has the power to revive the intellectually dead, and those who are going through a life unlived. The likeliness of the Qur’an is that) God sends down water from the sky, giving life thereby to the earth after it had been lifeless. Herein, is a message for those who hear and listen.
16:66 Wa-inna lakum fee al-anAAamilaAAibratan nusqeekum mimma fee butoonihi min baynifarthin wadamin labanan khalisan sa-ighan lilshsharibeena
16:66 For you there is a lesson in the livestock; We give you to drink from what is in its stomachs between the digested food and the blood, pure milk which is relieving for the drinkers.
16:66 And for you there is a lesson in the livestock; We give you to drink from what is in its belly between the digested food and the blood, a pure milk which is relieving for the drinkers.
16:66 And, behold, in the cattle [too] there is indeed a lesson for you: We give you to drink of that [fluid] which is [secreted from] within their bellies between that which is to be eliminated [from the animal's body] and [its] life-blood: milk pure and pleasant to those who drink it.75
Milk-in itself a glandular secretion-is not necessary for the mother-animal's life (or, as it is here metonymically described, its "blood"); on the other hand, it is not just something that the body eliminates as being of no further use to its metabolism: hence it is referred to as a substance "between that which is to be eliminated [from the animal's body] and [its] life-blood".
16:66 And in the livestock there is a lesson for you: we provide you with a drink from their bellies. From the midst of digested food and blood, you get pure milk, delicious for the drinkers.,
16:66 In the cattle too there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink from their bellies, processed through the digested food and blood, pure milk pleasant to those who drink it. [23:21]
16:67 Wamin thamarati alnnakheeli waal-aAAnabitattakhithoona minhu sakaran warizqan hasanan innafee thalika laayatan liqawmin yaAAqiloona
16:67 From the fruits of the palm trees and the grapes you make wine as well as a good provision. In that is a sign for a people who reason.12
It is up to us to benefit from God's blessings or get harmed by abusing them. We can use nuclear energy to destroy cities or to generate electricity; we can burn our hands in fire or cook our food with it. The Quran pulls our attention to the importance of our choices, by comparing alcoholic beverages to fruit juice. While fruit juice is a healthy nutrition, by fermenting them we transform it into a very harmful substance.
16:67 And from the fruits of the palm trees and the grapes you make strong drink and a good provision. In that is a sign for a people who comprehend.
16:67 And [We grant you nourishment] from the fruit of date-palms and vines: from it you derive intoxicants as well as wholesome sustenance -in this, behold, there is a message indeed for people who use their reason !76
The term sakar (lit., "wine" or, generically, "intoxicants") is contrasted here with rizq hasan ("wholesome sustenance"), thus circumscribing both the positive and the negative properties and effects of alcohol. Although this surah was revealed about ten years before the Qur'anic prohibition of intoxicants in 5:90, there is no doubt that their moral condemnation is already implied in the above verse (Ibn `Abbas, as quoted by Tabari; also Razi).
16:67 And from the fruits of date palms and grapes you produce intoxicants, as well as good provisions. This should be (sufficient) proof for people who understand.,
16:67 Of the fruits of the date palm, and grapes, from which you make (the harmful) intoxicants, as well as wholesome sustenance. In this is a message for those who use their sense.
16:68 Waawha rabbuka ila alnnahliani ittakhithee mina aljibali buyootan wamina alshshajariwamimma yaAArishoona
The Bee16:68 Your Lord inspired to the bee: "You shall take homes of the mountains and of the trees and of what they erect."
16:68 And your Lord inspired to the bees: "You shall take homes of the mountains and of the trees and of what they erect."
16:68 And [consider how] thy Sustainer has inspired the bee:77 "Prepare for thyself dwellings in mountains and in trees, and in what [men] may build [for thee by way of hives];
The expression "He has inspired" (awha) is meant to bring out the wonderful quality of the instinct which enables the lowly insect to construct the geometrical masterpiece of a honeycomb out of perfectly-proportioned hexagonal, prismatic wax cells - a structure which is most economical, and therefore most rational, as regards space and material. Together with the subsequently mentioned transmutation, in the bee's body, of plant juices into honey, this provides a striking evidence of "God's ways" manifested in all nature.
The Bee16:68 And your Lord inspired the bee: build homes in mountains and trees, and in (the hives) they build for you.,
16:68 Consider how your Lord inspired the bee, “Build for yourself dwellings in hills and in trees, and in what people may build.”
16:69 Thumma kulee min kulli alththamaratifaoslukee subula rabbiki thululan yakhruju min butoonihasharabun mukhtalifun alwanuhu feehi shifaonlilnnasi inna fee thalika laayatanliqawmin yatafakkaroona
16:69 Then you shall eat from every fruit, so seek the path your Lord has made easy. From its stomachs will emerge a liquid that has different colors, wherein there is a healing for the people. In that is a sign for a people who will think.13
Besides containing numerous vitamins and nutrients, honey is also considered a medicine for some allergies. Pure natural honey is known to be the only food that will never spoil; thus it is called "miracle food." In low humidity, no organism can live in it and it never decomposes. If it crystallizes, warming it up and mixing it will restore its original texture. Bees are superb architects and engineers; they design and manufacture their honeycomb in hexagonal shapes, which provide optimal efficiency in using wax. Bees are brilliant pharmacists; they produce medicine called honey and poison made of acid and alkaline in their labs. Bees are excellent navigators and talented choreographers; they communicate the distance, the amount, and the direction of flowers, by dancing. Bees are admirable citizens; they work together with thousands of other bees in overpopulated hives in peace and harmony. Bees have great work ethics; they work hard and do not cheat each other. Bees are both pilots and suicide stinger jets; they strike bravely those who occupy their territories. (Fortunately, they are incapable of protecting their hard-earned product from being stolen by us). This little insect, with so many qualities bestowed by its Creator, provides us with many signs and lessons.
The Bible contains numerous references to honey and bees. It is found in rocks, (Deuteronomy 32:13 ; Psalms 81:16); woods (1 Samuel 14:25-26 ); and strangely, in carcasses of dead animals (Judges 14:8 ). Its sweetness and nutritional value is praised (Proverbs 16:24 ; 24:13; 25:16); was eaten together with other nutrients, including locusts (Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ); was used as a religious offering (2Chronthians 31:5); and honey was likened to wisdom and nice words (Proverbs 16:24 ; Proverbs 24:13-14 ); to the word of God (Psalms 19:10; 119:103); and to the lips of a strange woman (Proverbs 5:3 ). Also, see Leviticus 2:11 ; Genesis 43:11 ; 1Kings 14:3; Ezekiel 27:17
16:69 "Then you shall eat from every fruit, so seek the path your Lord has made easy." From its belly will emerge a liquid that has different colors, in it is a healing for the people. In that is a sign for a people who will think.
16:69 and then eat of all manner of fruit, and follow humbly the paths ordained for thee by thy Sustainer."78 [And lo!] there issues from within these [bees] a fluid of many hues, wherein there is health for man. In all this, behold, there is a message indeed for people who think!
Lit., "thy Sustainer's paths".
16:69 Then eat from all the fruits, following the design of your Lord, precisely. From their bellies comes a drink of different colors, wherein there is healing for the people. This should be (sufficient) proof for people who reflect.,4
Besides its recognized nutritive value, honey has been scientifically proven as a healing medicine of certain allergies and other ailments.
16:69 “And then eat from fruits of all kind, and follow the ways that your Lord has made easy for you.” And then comes forth from their bellies a delicious drink of many hues, in which there is healing for people. In all this, there is a message for people who are willing to listen.16
Notice the female gender used throughout for bees. They are the worker bees. Interestingly, Shakespeare wrote: Honeybees are soldiers and they have a king. ‘Made easy for you’ relates to the bee endowed with superb navigational skills
16:70 WaAllahu khalaqakum thummayatawaffakum waminkum man yuraddu ila arthalialAAumuri likay la yaAAlama baAAda AAilmin shay-an innaAllaha AAaleemun qadeerun
16:70 God created you, then He will take you. Some of you will continue to the most miserable age so that he will not know anything after knowledge. God is Omniscient, Omnipotent.
16:70 And God has created you, then He will terminate your lives. And some of you will continue to old age so that he will not know anything more after his knowledge. God is Knowledgeable, Capable.
16:70 AND GOD has created you, and in time will cause you to die; and many a one of you is reduced in old age to a most abject state, ceasing to know anything of what he once knew so well.79 Verily, God is all-knowing, infinite in His power!
Lit., "is reduced to a most abject age, so that he knows nothing after [having had] knowledge": alluding to the organic curve of man's growth, his acquisition of bodily strength, intelligence and experience, followed by gradual decay and, in some cases, the utter helplessness of senility, comparable to the helplessness of a new-born child.
16:70 GOD created you, then He terminates your lives. He lets some of you live to the oldest age, only to find out that there is a limit to the knowledge they can acquire. GOD is Omniscient, Omnipotent.,
16:70 God has created you, and in time will cause you to die. There are some among you whose lives are prolonged to an abject old age, when they cease to know what they once knew so well. (The time to do good deeds is when you are capable.) God is Knower, Powerful. [22:5]
16:71 WaAllahu faddala baAAdakumAAala baAAdin fee alrrizqi fama allatheenafuddiloo biraddee rizqihim AAala mamalakat aymanuhum fahum feehi sawaon afabiniAAmatiAllahi yajhadoona
Share your blessings with the needy16:71 God has endowed some of you over others in provision. Yet, those who have been endowed are unwilling to share their provision with those whom they have contractual rights so that they may become equal in it. Are they denying the favor of God?14
What about translating it as, "Yet, those who are privileged do not share their provisions with others. While in fact, they are all equal in terms of provision"? God gives us in different proportions and He asks us to share it with others. See 30:28.
16:71 And God has preferred some of you over others in provision. Yet, those who have been preferred will not relinquish their provision to those who are maintained by their oaths, that they may become equal in it. Is it the favor of God that they deny?
16:71 And on some of you God has bestowed more abundant means of sustenance than on others: and yet, they who are more abundantly favoured are [often] unwilling to share their sustenance with those whom their right hands possess, so that they [all] might be equal in this respect.80 Will they, then, God's blessings [thus] deny?
The phrase "to share their sustenance with.. .", etc., reads, literally, "to turn over their sustenance to". The expression "those whom their right hands possess" (i.e., "those whom they rightfully possess") may relate either to slaves taken captive in a war in God's cause (see surah 2, notes 167 and 168, and surah 8, note 72) or, metonymically, to all who are dependent on others for their livelihood and thus become the latters' responsibility. The placing of one's dependants on an equal footing with oneself with regard to the basic necessities of life is a categorical demand of Islam; thus, the Prophet said: "They are your brethren, these dependants of yours (khawalukum) whom God has placed under your authority [lit., "under your hand"]. Hence, whoso has his brother under his authority shall give him to eat of what he eats himself, and shall clothe him with what he clothes himself. And do not burden them with anything that may be beyond their strength; but if you [must] burden them, help them yourselves." (This authentic Tradition, recorded by Bukhari in several variants in his Sahih, appears in the compilations of Muslim, Tirmidhi and Ibn Hanbalas well.) However, men often fail to live up to this consciousness of moral responsibility: and this failure amounts, as the sequence shows, to a denial of God's blessings and of His unceasing care for all His creatures.
No Partners With God16:71 GOD has provided for some of you more than others. Those who are given plenty would never give their properties to their subordinates to the extent of making them partners. Would they give up GOD's blessings?,5
If the humans would not give up their power to that extent, why do they expect God to do this, and create partners for Himself?
16:71 And God has caused some of you to excel in earning livelihood over others. And yet, those who are more abundantly provided are often unwilling to share their provision with those who work for them, lest all might be equal in this respect. Will they continue to deny God’s blessings in this manner? [16:53, 28:78, 30:28, 39:49, 43:32, 70:24]
16:72 WaAllahu jaAAala lakum minanfusikum azwajan wajaAAala lakum min azwajikumbaneena wahafadatan warazaqakum mina alttayyibatiafabialbatili yu/minoona wabiniAAmati Allahihum yakfuroona
16:72 God has made for you mates from amongst yourselves, and He has made from your mates children and grandchildren, and He has provided you from the good provisions. Do they acknowledge falsehood, while in God's favor they are denying?
16:72 And God has made for you mates from among yourselves, and He has made from your mates sons and grandchildren, and He has provided you from the good provisions. Is it the falsehood that they believe in,while the favor of God they reject?
16:72 And God has given you mates of your own kinds81 and has given you, through your mates, children and children's children, and has provided for you sustenance out of the good things of life. Will men,82 then, [continue to] believe in things false and vain, and thus blaspheme against God's blessings? -
Lit., "has made [or "provided"] for you mates out of yourselves". The term zawj denotes not only "a pair" or "a couple" but also - as in this instance - "one of a pair" or "a mate" of the opposite sex; hence, with reference to human beings, the plural azwaj signifies both "husbands" and "wives".
Lit., "they", i.e., those who deny the truth of God's existence and/or oneness.
16:72 And GOD made for you spouses from among yourselves, and produced for you from your spouses children and grandchildren, and provided you with good provisions. Should they believe in falsehood, and turn unappreciative of GOD's blessings?,
16:72 And God has given you mates of your own kind, and through your mates, has given you children and their children, and has provided for you decent sustenance of life. (Note that in your family, individuals earn according to their capacity and receive according to their needs.) Will people, then, stick to false systems in the society and thus turn ungrateful to God’s blessings?
16:73 WayaAAbudoona min dooni Allahi mala yamliku lahum rizqan mina alssamawatiwaal-ardi shay-an wala yastateeAAoona
16:73 They serve besides God what does not and cannot possess anything of the provisions from the sky or the land.
16:73 And they serve besides God that which does not and cannot possess anything of the provisions from the heaven or the earth.
16:73 and will they [continue to] worship, instead of God, something that has it not within its power to provide for them any sustenance whatever from the heavens or the earth,83 and can do nothing at all?
For the comprehensive meaning embodied in the term rizq, see the first sentence e1; note 4 on 2:3.
Idol Worship: Not Very Intelligent16:73 Yet, they worship beside GOD what possesses no provisions for them in the heavens, nor on earth, nor can provide them with anything.,
16:73 And they worship besides God that which owns no provision for them from the heavens and the earth, nor they have any power.17
15:21. ‘Worshiping besides God’ here indicates running manmade systems that fail to provide equitably to the society and individuals. ‘From the heavens and earth’ will then denote heavenly blessings and using earthly resources
16:74 Fala tadriboo lillahial-amthala inna Allaha yaAAlamu waantum lataAAlamoona
16:74 So do not give parables to God. God knows while you do not know.
16:74 So do not give examples to God. God knows while you do not know.
16:74 Hence, do not coin any similitudes for Gods84 Verily, God knows [all], whereas you have no [real] knowledge.
Le., "do not blaspheme against God by regarding anyone or anything as comparable with Him, or by trying to define Him in any terms whatsoever" - since "definition" is, in the last resort, equivalent to a delimitation of the qualities of the object thus to be defined in relation to, or in comparison with, another object or objects: God, however, is "sublimely exalted above anything that men may devise by way of definition" (see last sentence of 6:100, and the corresponding note 88).
16:74 Therefore, do not cite the examples for GOD; GOD knows while you do not know.,
16:74 Therefore, do not coin any similitudes for God. God knows and you do not know (His Majesty).
16:75 Daraba Allahu mathalan AAabdanmamlookan la yaqdiru AAala shay-in waman razaqnahuminna rizqan hasanan fahuwa yunfiqu minhu sirranwajahran hal yastawoona alhamdu lillahi balaktharuhum la yaAAlamoona
Richness and Freedom, Poverty and Dependence16:75 God cites the example of a slave who is owned and cannot control anything, against one whom We have provided a good provision which he spends of it secretly and openly. Are they the same? God be praised, but most of them do not know.
16:75 God puts forth the example of a slave who is owned and cannot achieve anything, against one whom We have provided a good provision which he spends of it secretly and openly. Are they the same? Praise be to God, but most of them do not know.
16:75 God propounds [to you] the parable of [two men-] a man enslaved, unable to do anything of his own accord, and a [free] man upon whom We have bestowed goodly sustenance [as a gift] from Ourselves, so that he can spend thereof [at will, both] secretly and openly. Can these [two] be deemed equal?85 All praise is due to God [alone]: but most of them do not understand it.
The obvious answer is that they cannot. The implication is equally clear: if even these two kinds of man cannot be deemed equal, how could any created being, with its intrinsic, utter dependence on other created beings, or any force of nature conceivable or imaginable by man, be thought of as possessing powers comparable with those of God, who is almighty, limitless, unconceivable-the self-sufficient fount of all that exists? (This argument is continued and further elaborated in the subsequent parable.)
The Rich Believer is Better than the Poor Believer16:75 GOD cites the example of a slave who is owned, and is totally powerless, compared to one whom we blessed with good provisions, from which he gives to charity secretly and publicly. Are they equal? Praise be to GOD, most of them do not know.,
16:75 God gives you an example of two men; one of them is enslaved, unable to do anything of his own accord. And the other is a free man whom We have blessed with Our bounties, and he spends of it on others secretly and openly. Can these two be equal? All praise to God! (Praise Him by way of obedience.) But the majority of humans do not understand (that verbal proclamation of thanks does not equate gratitude by sharing the bounties with others).
16:76 Wadaraba Allahu mathalanrajulayni ahaduhuma abkamu la yaqdiru AAalashay-in wahuwa kallun AAala mawlahu aynamayuwajjihhu la ya/ti bikhayrin hal yastawee huwa wamanya/muru bialAAadli wahuwa AAala siratinmustaqeemin
16:76 God puts forth the example of two men, one of them is mute and he cannot control anything, and he is a burden to his master. Wherever he points him, he does not come with any good. Is he the same as one who orders good and he is on a straight path?15
16:76 And God puts forth the example of two men, one of them is mute and he cannot achieve anything, and he is a burden to his guardian. Wherever he points him, he does not come with any good. Is he the same as one who orders good and he is upon a straight path?
16:76 And God propounds [to you] the parable of two [other] men -one of them dumb,86 unable to do anything of his own accord, and a sheer burden on his master: to whichever task the latter directs him,87 he accomplishes no good. Can such a one be considered the equal of [a wise man] who enjoins the doing of what is right and himself follows a straight way?88
The term abkam signifies "dumb" both in the literal, physiological sense and (as in colloquial English) in the sense of being "unable to speak properly" on account of intellectual weakness: i.e., "dull-witted" or "stupid". Both these meanings are contained in the above Qur'anic description.
Or: "wherever he sends him".
I.e., who is not only wise and righteous but also has the strength and authority to enjoin a righteous way of living upon others. Thus, while in the first parable the main issue is the contrast between freedom and bondage or - more generally - between dependence and independence, in the second parable we are given the antithesis of dumbness and incompetence, on the one hand, and wisdom, justice and competence, on the other; and in both parables the implication is the same (see note 85 above).
16:76 And GOD cites the example of two men: one is dumb, lacks the ability to do anything, is totally dependent on his master - whichever way he directs him, he cannot produce anything good. Is he equal to one who rules with justice, and is guided in the right path?,
16:76 . God gives you another example of two men. One of them is he whose faculties of speech and mind are disabled. He cannot do anything of his own accord and he is wholly dependent on his care-provider, unable to bring forth any good. Can such a one be equal to the man who is fit, enjoins justice and himself walks the straight path?18
God expects humans to use their faculties in the best manner
16:77 Walillahi ghaybu alssamawatiwaal-ardi wama amru alssaAAatiilla kalamhi albasari aw huwa aqrabu innaAllaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
16:77 To God is the mystery of the heavens and the earth, and the matter of the moment is like the blink of the eye or nearer. God is capable of all things.
16:77 And to God is the unseen of the heavens and the earth, and the matter of the Hour is like the blink of the eye or nearer. God is capable of all things.
16:77 And89 , God's [alone] is the knowledge of the hidden reality of the heavens and the earth.90 And so, the advent of the Last Hour will but manifest itself [in a single moment,] like the twinkling of an eye, or closer still:91 for, behold, God has the power to will anything.
This passage connects with the second sentence of verse 74 - "Verily, God knows [all], whereas you have no [real] knowledge."
As may be inferred from the sequence, the term ghayb - rendered here as the "hidden reality" - alludes in this context to the coming of the Last Hour, the time whereof is known to God alone (Zamakhshari). Parallel with this, it may also relate to God's Own existence, which cannot be directly established by the testimony of our senses (Baydawi) but, as the Qur'an consistently points out, may be inferred from the observable effects of His creativeness.
Lit., "the case (i.e., the manifestation] of the [Last] Hour will be like...", etc. - implying that it will be characterized by utter suddenness and unpredictability, both of them an outcome of the absence of any time-interval between God's decreeing it and its materialization: and this explains the phrase "or closer still" at the end of the above sentence.
This Life is Very Short16:77 To GOD belongs the future of the heavens and the earth. As far as He is concerned, the end of the world (the Hour) is a blink of an eye away, or even closer. GOD is Omnipotent.,
16:77 Unto God belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, and the Hour is but as a twinkling of the eye, or even quicker. (A speedy revolution may be around the corner.) Surely, God has appointed due measure for all things and events.
16:78 WaAllahu akhrajakum min butooniommahatikum la taAAlamoona shay-an wajaAAala lakumualssamAAa waal-absara waal-af-idatalaAAallakum tashkuroona
16:78 God brought you out of your mothers’ wombs while you knew nothing. He made for you the hearing and the eyesight and the heart, perhaps you would be thankful.
16:78 And God brought you out of the wombs of your mothers while you knew nothing. And He has made for you the hearing and the eyesight and the heart, perhaps you would be thankful.
16:78 And God has brought you forth from your mothers' wombs knowing nothing-but He has endowed you with hearing, and sight, and minds, so that you might have cause to be grateful.
16:78 GOD brought you out of your mothers' bellies knowing nothing, and He gave you the hearing, the eyesight, and the brains, that you may be appreciative.,
16:78 God brought you forth from the bellies of your mothers when you knew nothing, and He gave you hearing, sight and intelligence so that you may give thanks.19
You must give thanks by using your faculties to actualize your potentials and help others
16:79 Alam yaraw ila alttayrimusakhkharatin fee jawwi alssama-i mayumsikuhunna illa Allahu inna fee thalika laayatinliqawmin yu/minoona
16:79 Did they not look to the birds held in the atmosphere of the sky? No one holds them up except God. In that are signs for a people who acknowledge.
16:79 Have they not looked at the birds held in the atmosphere of the sky? No one holds them up except God. In that are signs for a people who believe.
16:79 Have, then, they [who deny the truth] never considered the birds, enabled [by God] to fly in mid-air,92 with none but God holding them aloft? In this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who will believe!
Lit., "subservient [to God's laws] in the air of the sky".
16:79 Do they not see the birds committed to fly in the atmosphere of the sky? None holds them up in the air except GOD. This should be (sufficient) proof for people who believe.,
16:79 Do they not see the birds held poised in mid-air? None holds them but God. Herein are signs for people who wish to attain conviction through reason.20
It is God Who has designed the law that creatures heavier than air can fly, and objects heavier than water can float
16:80 WaAllahu jaAAala lakum minbuyootikum sakanan wajaAAala lakum min juloodi al-anAAamibuyootan tastakhiffoonaha yawma thaAAnikumwayawma iqamatikum wamin aswafihawaawbariha waashAAariha athathanwamataAAan ila heenin
16:80 God has made your homes a habitat, and He made for you from the hides of the livestock shelter which you find light for travel and when you stay, and from its wool, fur, and hair you make furnishings and goods, for a while.
16:80 And God has made your homes a habitat, and He has made for you from the hides of the livestock homes which you find light when you travel and when you camp; and from its wool, fur, and hair you make furnishings and goods, until a time.
16:80 And God has given you [the ability to build] your houses as places of rest, and has endowed you with [the skill to make] dwellings out of the skins of animals93 - easy for you to handle when you travel and when you camp -and [to make] furnishings and goods for temporary use of their [rough] wool and their soft, furry wool94 and their hair.
The term julud (sing. jild) denotes, literally, "skins", but apparently comprises here also the wool which grows on the skins of domesticated animals. It is to be noted that in Arabian usage the noun bayt ("house") signifies not only a solid building but also a "tent" - in brief, every kind of dwelling, whether permanent or temporary.
Wabar (here given in its plural, awbar) is the soft wool growing on the shoulders of camels ("camel-hair"), used in the weaving of fine cloths and sometimes also of bedouin tents.
16:80 And GOD provided for you stationary homes where you can live. And He provided for you portable homes made of the hides of livestock, so you can use them when you travel, and when you settle down. And from their wool, furs, and hair, you make furnishings and luxuries for awhile.,
16:80 God has given you in your houses a place of rest. And He has given you of the hides of cattle, tent-houses which you find light to carry when you travel and when you camp. And of their wool, their fur, and their hair, you make furnishings and comforts that serve you for a while.
16:81 WaAllahu jaAAala lakum mimmakhalaqa thilalan wajaAAala lakum mina aljibaliaknanan wajaAAala lakum sarabeela taqeekumu alharrawasarabeela taqeekum ba/sakum kathalika yutimmuniAAmatahu AAalaykum laAAallakum tuslimoona
16:81 God has made for you shade from what He created. He made from the mountains a refuge for you. He made for you garments which protect you from the heat, and garments which protect you from attack. It is such that He completes His blessing upon you, that you may peacefully surrender.
16:81 And God has made for you shade from what He has created, and He has made from the mountains a refuge for you, and He has made for you garments which protect you from the heat, and garments which protect you from attack. It is such that He completes His blessings upon you, that perhaps you may submit.
16:81 And among the many objects of His creation,95 God has appointed for you [various] means of protection:96 thus, He has given you in the mountains places of shelter, and has endowed you with [the ability to make] garments to protect you from heat [and cold],97 as well as such garments as might protect you from your [mutual] violence.98 In this way does He bestow the full measure of His blessings on you, so that you might surrender yourselves unto Him.
Lit., "out of that which He has created".
. Lit., "shades (zilal. sing.,;ill). Metonymically, this term is occasionally used to describe anything that "shades" one in the sense of protecting him; and since the sequence clearly refers to means of protection, I believe that this derivative meaning of zilal is here preferable to the literal.
According to almost all the classical commentators, the mention of "heat" implies here its opposite as well, namely "cold"; hence my interpolation.
According to most of the commentators, the second incidence of the term "garments" (sarabil) in this verse is to be understood as "coats of mail" or "armour", in which case it would allude to wars and other instances of mutual violence. But although this interpretation cannot be ruled out, it seems to me that the second mention of "garments" can be understood in a much wider sense, perhaps metonymically denoting all manner of "coverings" (i.e., devices meant to protect the body) which man may be constrained to use in dangerous situations of his own making: hence the stress on "your violence" (ba'sakum).
16:81 And GOD provided for you shade through things which He created, and provided for you shelters in the mountains, and provided for you garments that protect you from heat, and garments that protect when you fight in wars. He thus perfects His blessings upon you, that you may submit.,
16:81 God has provided you shade out of things He has created. He has granted you resort in the mountains, garments to protect you from heat, and coats of armor to protect you from your own foolhardy violence. Thus He completes His blessings on you so that you may willingly submit to Him.
16:82 Fa-in tawallaw fa-innama AAalaykaalbalaghu almubeenu
16:82 So if they turn away, then you are only required to deliver clearly.
16:82 So if they turn away, then you are only required to deliver clearly.
16:82 BUT IF they turn away [from thee, O Prophet, remember that] thy only duty is a clear delivery of the message [entrusted to thee].
16:82 If they still turn away, then your sole mission is the clear delivery (of the message).,
16:82 Then, if they turn away, your only duty (O Prophet) is clear conveyance of the message. [16:84]
16:83 YaAArifoona niAAmata Allahi thummayunkiroonaha waaktharuhumu alkafiroona
16:83 They recognize God's blessing, then they deny it. Most of them are ingrates.
16:83 They recognize the blessings of God, then they deny them. And most of them are rejecters.
16:83 They [who turn away from it] are fully aware of God's blessings, but none the less they refuse to acknowledge them [as such], since most of them are given to denying the truth.99
I.e., although they are aware of the many blessings which man enjoys, they refuse to attribute them to God's creative activity, thus implicitly denying the truth of His existence. My rendering of al-kafirun as "[such as] are given to denying the truth" is conditioned by the definite article al which, in the above construction, is meant to stress the quality of deliberate intent.
The Disbelievers Unappreciative16:83 They fully recognize GOD's blessings, then deny them; the majority of them are disbelievers.,
16:83 In fact, they recognize God’s blessings, but they refuse to acknowledge them. (That is how) most of them are unbelievers. [16:71]
16:84 Wayawma nabAAathu min kulli ommatinshaheedan thumma la yu/thanu lillatheenakafaroo wala hum yustaAAtaboona
16:84 The day We send from every nation a witness, then those who have rejected will not be given leave, nor will they be allowed to make amends.
16:84 And the Day We send from every nation a witness, then those who have rejected will not be given leave, nor will they be allowed to repent.
16:84 But one Day We shall raise up a witness out of every community,100 whereupon they who were bent on denying the truth will not be allowed to plead [ignorance],101 and neither will they be allowed to make amends.
An allusion to the Day of Judgment, when the prophets whom God has called forth within every community - or, in the wider sense of the term ummah, within every civilization or cultural period - will symbolically bear witness to the fact that they had delivered God's message to their people and explained to them the meaning of right and wrong, thus depriving them of any subsequent excuse.
According to Zamakhshari, their being "refused permission" to plead is a metonym for their having no valid argument or excuse to proffer. (Cf. also 77:35.)
On The Day of Resurrection16:84 The day will come when we raise from every community a witness, then those who disbelieved will not be permitted (to speak), nor will they be excused.,
16:84 And think of the Day when We shall raise among every community a witness, then no excuse will be accepted from those who rejected the truth, nor will they be allowed to make amends. [4:41, 16:77, 16:89, 41:24]
16:85 Wa-itha raa allatheena thalamooalAAathaba fala yukhaffafu AAanhum wala humyuntharoona
16:85 Then those who were wicked will see the retribution; it will not be lightened for them, nor will they be given respite.
16:85 And then those who were wicked will see the retribution; it will not be lightened for them, nor will they be given respite.
16:85 And when they who were bent on evildoing behold the suffering [that awaits them, they will realize that] it will not be lightened for them [by virtue of their pleading] ; and neither will they be granted respite.
16:85 Once those who transgressed see the retribution, it will be too late; it will not be commuted for them, nor will they be respited.,
16:85 When the wrongdoers actually see the doom, it will be too late. It will not be made light for them, nor will they be given further respite.
16:86 Wa-itha raa allatheenaashrakoo shurakaahum qaloo rabbana haola-ishurakaona allatheena kunna nadAAoomin doonika faalqaw ilayhimu alqawla innakum lakathiboona
Idolized Messengers and Saints Will Disown Those Who Consider them Partners with God16:86 When those who set up partners saw the partners they made, they said, "Our Lord, these are our partners that we used to call upon besides You." But they returned in answer to them: "You are liars!"16
16:86 And when those who were polytheists saw their partners, they said: "Our Lord, these are our partners that we used to call upon besides You." But they returned in answer to them: "You are liars!"
16:86 And when they who were wont to ascribe divinity to beings other than God behold [on Judgment Day] those beings to whom they were wont to ascribe a share in His divinity,102 they will exclaim: "O our Sustainer! These are the beings to whom we ascribed a share in Thy divinity, and whom we were wont to invoke instead of Thee !"103 -whereupon [those beings] will fling at them the retort: "Behold, you have indeed been lying [to yourselves]!"104
Cf. 6:22 and the corresponding note 15.
The Qur'an states in many places that every sinner who dies without repentance will be endowed on Judgment Day with a clear, objectified vision of his sins, every one of which will have assumed for him the status of an independent reality bearing witness against him and forcing him to acknowledge his now irremediable guilt. It is to be remembered in this connection that the Qur'an describes every act of sinning - whether it be an offence against the concept of God's oneness and uniqueness or a wrong done to any of His creatures - as, primarily, one's "wronging oneself" or "sinning against oneself".
Cf. 6:23 and the corresponding notes 16 and 17.
The Idols Disown Their Idolizers16:86 And when those who committed idol worship see their idols, they will say, "Our Lord, these are the idols we had set up beside You." The idols will then confront them and say, "You are liars.",
16:86 When those who ascribe partners to God see their ‘partners’ they will say, “Our Lord! These are our ‘partners’ whom we used to call instead of You.” But, the leaders will fling to them the retort, “You certainly have been lying to yourselves in self-deception.”
16:87 Waalqaw ila Allahi yawma-ithinalssalama wadalla AAanhum ma kanooyaftaroona
16:87 They peacefully surrendered to God on that day, and what they had invented abandoned them.
16:87 And they offered submission to God on that Day; and what they had invented abandoned them!
16:87 And on that Day will they [who had thus been sinning, belatedly] proffer their surrender to God; and all their false imagery will have forsaken them.
16:87 They will totally submit to GOD on that day, and the idols they had invented will disown them.,
16:87 And they will tender their submission to God on that Day, but all they used to fabricate will miserably fail them.
16:88 Allatheena kafaroo wasaddooAAan sabeeli Allahi zidnahum AAathaban fawqaalAAathabi bima kanoo yufsidoona
16:88 Those who rejected, and repelled others from the path of God, We have increased the retribution for them over the retribution for what they had corrupted.
16:88 Those who rejected, and repelled others from the path of God, We have added them retribution over the retribution, for what they had corrupted.
16:88 Upon all who were bent on denying the truth and who turned others away from the path of God will We heap suffering upon suffering in return for all the corruption that they wrought:
16:88 Those who disbelieve and repel from the path of GOD, we augment their retribution by adding more retribution, due to their transgressions.,
16:88 The ones who not only rejected the truth, but hindered people from the way of God, We will add doom upon doom for them because they corrupted the human minds and the society.
16:89 Wayawma nabAAathu fee kulli ommatinshaheedan AAalayhim min anfusihim waji/na bika shaheedanAAala haola-i wanazzalna AAalaykaalkitaba tibyanan likulli shay-in wahudan warahmatanwabushra lilmuslimeena
16:89 The day We send to every nation a witness against them from themselves, and We have brought you as a witness against these. We have sent down to you the book as a clarification for all things, a guide, mercy and good tidings for those who have peacefully surrendered.17
For the messenger's complaint about those who do not find God's book sufficient for eternal salvation, see 25:30.
16:89 And the Day We send to every nation a witness against them from themselves, and We have brought you as a witness against these. And We have sent down to you the Book as a clarification for all things, and a guidance and a mercy and good tidings to those who have submitted.
16:89 for one Day We shall raise up within every community a witness against them from among themselves.105 And thee [too, O Prophet,] have We brought forth to bear witness regarding those [whom thy message may have reached],106 inasmuch as We have bestowed from on high upon thee, step by step, this divine writ, to make everything clear,107 and to provide guidance and grace and a glad tiding unto all who have surrendered themselves to God.
See note 100 above.
Although the Arabian contemporaries of the Prophet were, naturally, the first to whom his revelation was conveyed - a fact that gave a particular weight to the manner in which they responded to it-the Qur'anic message as such is addressed to all mankind (see in this connection, in particular, 7:158 and 21:107, as well as the corresponding notes).
Le., everything that pertains to the knowledge of good and evil, in both the individual and social senses of these terms. - Regarding my rendering of nazzalna, it should be borne in mind that this particular grammatical form is often used in the Qur'an to bring out the fact that it was revealed gradually ("step by step") over a considerable period of time, and not in one piece.
16:89 The day will come when we will raise from every community a witness from among them, and bring you as the witness of these people. We have revealed to you this book to provide explanations for everything, and guidance, and mercy, and good news for the submitters.,
16:89 For, one Day, We shall raise from every community a leading witness against them from among themselves. And We shall call you (O Prophet) to testify regarding those whom your message has reached. The Book We have revealed to you explains everything; a Guide and grace and the glad tiding for all those who have submitted.21
Tibiyaanan likulli shaiy: The Book covers all things that were necessary to be revealed
16:90 Inna Allaha ya/muru bialAAadliwaal-ihsani wa-eeta-i theealqurba wayanha AAani alfahsha-i waalmunkariwaalbaghyi yaAAithukum laAAallakum tathakkaroona
16:90 God orders justice and goodness, and that you shall help your relatives, and He forbids from evil, vice, and transgression. He warns you that you may remember.
16:90 God orders justice and goodness and that you shall help your relatives, and He prohibits immorality and vice and transgression. He warns you that you may remember.
16:90 BEHOLD, God enjoins justice, and the doing of good, and generosity towards [one's] fellow-men;108 and He forbids all that is shameful and all that runs counter to reason,109 as well as envy; [and] He exhorts you [repeatedly] so that you might bear [all this] in mind.
Lit., "the giving to [one's] kinsfolk (dhu 'l-qurba)". The latter term usually denotes "relatives", either by blood or by marriage; but since it occurs here in the context of a comprehensive ethical exhortation, it obviously alludes to man's "kinsfolk" in the widest sense of the term, namely, to his "fellow-men".
The term al-munkar (rendered by me in other places as "that which is wrong") has here its original meaning of "that which the mind [or the moral sense] rejects", respectively "ought to reject". Zamakhshari is more specific, and explains this term as signifying in the above context "that which [men's] intellects disown" or "declare to be untrue" (ma tunkiruhu al-'uqul): in other words, all that runs counter to reason and good sense (which, obviously, must not be confused with that which is beyond man's comprehension). This eminently convincing explanation relates not merely to intellectually unacceptable propositions (in the abstract sense of the term) but also to grossly unreasonable and, therefore, reprehensible actions or attitudes and is, thus, fully in tune with the rational approach of the Qur'an to questions of ethics as well as with its insistence on reasonableness and moderation in man's behaviour. Hence my rendering-of al-munkar, in this and in similar instances, as "all that runs counter to reason".
16:90 GOD advocates justice, charity, and regarding the relatives. And He forbids evil, vice, and transgression. He enlightens you, that you may take heed.,
16:90 God commands justice, creating balance in the society, benefiting humanity, kindness to His creation, and giving to relatives. And He forbids all indecent deeds, immodesty, stinginess and rebellion. He instructs you (again) so that you may take it to heart.22
Ihsaan = Creating balance in the society, benefiting humanity, kindness to God’s creation. Fahasha = Immodesty, lewdness, indecent deeds, stinginess to the point of shame. Munkar = All deeds that the Qur’an condemns and forbids. Baghii = Transgression, rebellion, crossing limits, commit excesses
16:91 Waawfoo biAAahdi Allahi ithaAAahadtum wala tanqudoo al-aymanabaAAda tawkeediha waqad jaAAaltumu Allaha AAalaykumkafeelan inna Allaha yaAAlamu ma tafAAaloona
Keep Your Words16:91 You shall fulfill your pledge to God when you pledge so, and do not break your oath after making it, for you have made God a sponsor over you. God is aware of what you do.
16:91 And fulfill your pledge to God when you pledge so, and do not break your oath after making it, for you have made God a sponsor over you. God is aware of what you do.
16:91 And be true to your bond with God whenever you bind yourselves by a pledge,110 and do not break [your] oaths after having [freely] confirmed them111 and having called upon God to be witness to your good faith:112 behold, God knows all that you do.
Regarding the expression "bond with God" ('ahd Allah), see surah 2, note 19. The clause "whenever you bind yourselves by a pledge" has a twofold meaning: in the first instance (as in 13:20) it refers to the spiritual, moral and social obligations arising from one's faith in God; and, secondly, it applies to all pledges or promises given by one person to another-for, as Razi points out, every pledge given by man to man represents, in its essence, a pledge to God. It is to this second aspect of man's "bond with God" that the sequence refers.
Le., as distinct from oaths "uttered without thought" (see 2:225).
Lit., "and having made God [or "named God as"] your guarantor (kafil)".
You Shall Keep Your Word16:91 You shall fulfill your covenant with GOD when you make such a covenant. You shall not violate the oaths after swearing (by God) to carry them out, for you have made GOD a guarantor for you. GOD knows everything you do.,
16:91 Fulfill the Covenant with God as you have pledged to do so. And do not break your oaths after you have confirmed them, for you have made God as the Guarantor over you. For, God knows all you do. [1:4-5, 9:111]
16:92 Wala takoonoo kaallatee naqadatghazlaha min baAAdi quwwatin ankathan tattakhithoonaaymanakum dakhalan baynakum an takoona ommatun hiya arbamin ommatin innama yablookumu Allahu bihiwalayubayyinanna lakum yawma alqiyamati ma kuntumfeehi takhtalifoona
16:92 Do not be like the one who unraveled her knitting after it had become strong, by breaking your oaths as a means of deception between you, because a nation is more numerous than another nation. God only puts you to the test by it. He will show you on the day of Resurrection what you were disputing in.
16:92 And do not be like she who unraveled her knitting after it had become strong, by breaking your oaths as a means of deception between you. That a nation shall be more numerous than another nation, for God puts you to the test by it. And He will show you on the Day of Resurrection that which you were disputing in.
16:92 Hence, be not like her who breaks and completely untwists the yarn which she [herself] has spun and made strong-[be not like this by] using your oaths as a means of deceiving one another,113 simply because some of you may be more powerful than others."114 By all this, God but puts you to a test-and [He does it] so that on Resurrection Day He might make clear unto you all that on which you were wont to differ.115
Lit., "as a [means of] deception (dakhalan) among yourselves".
Lit., "because there are people (ummah) more powerful than [other] people": relating to declarations and false promises made out of fear.
As is evident from the preceding passage as well as from the sequence, the differences alluded to here relate to ethical and moral values, regarding the truth and relevance of which people of various communities and persuasions hold most divergent views. See also surah 2, note 94.
16:92 Do not be like the knitter who unravels her strong knitting into piles of flimsy yarn. This is your example if you abuse the oaths to take advantage of one another. Whether one group is larger than the other, GOD thus puts you to the test. He will surely show you on the Day of Resurrection everything you had disputed.,
16:92 Do not be like a woman who breaks apart the yarn which she herself has spun and made strong, by using your oaths as a means of deceiving one another, only because one party is more numerous than another. Thus, God lets you test yourselves (in character). He will certainly explain to you on the Day of Resurrection wherein you differed.23
57:20. Being truthful, keeping pledges and being trustworthy are the prime qualities of a believer according to a reported Hadith that agrees with Qur’an. Human beings are the only creatures who can make a pledge and this is a test of their character. Breaking pledges violates human rights and hurts one’s own ‘self’. ‘Wherein you differed’ in this instance, also alludes to rationalizing misdeeds in various ways
16:93 Walaw shaa Allahu lajaAAalakumommatan wahidatan walakin yudillu man yashaowayahdee man yashao walatus-alunna AAamma kuntumtaAAmaloona
16:93 Had God wished, He would have made you one nation, but He misguides whom He wishes, and He guides whom He wishes. You will be asked about what you used to do.18
The middle statement could be understood as "He misleads those who wish so" or "He misleads those He wishes." In fact, both fit the paradox emerging from having freedom and God's knowledge and control. God guides those who seek the truth with honesty through reason, and misleads those who do not demonstrate honesty and pure intention, by depriving them from witnessing His great signs in the scripture and in nature (6:110; 7:146; 21:51; 37:84). See 57:22.
16:93 And if God had wished, He would have made you one nation, but He misguides whom He wishes, and He guides whom He wishes. And you will be asked about what you used to do.
16:93 For, had God so willed, He could surely have made you all one single community;116 however, He lets go astray him that wills [to go astray], and guides aright him that wills [to be guided];117 and you will surely be called to account for all that you ever did!118
I.e., bound by mutually agreed-upon moral values. See in this connection 10:19 and the corresponding notes, especially note 29. For an elucidation of the concept of ummah wahidah ("one single community") and its further implications, see surah 2, notes 197 and 198.
Or: "He lets go astray whomever He wills, and guides aright whomever He wills". Regarding the problem of free will versus predestination, seemingly implied in the concept of God's "letting man go [or "causing him to go"] astray" or, alternatively, "guiding him aright", see surah 14, note 4.
Alluding to the erroneous idea that man's good or evil actions -and therefore also his propensities and resulting attitudes -are "predetermined" by God and not really an outcome of free choice, Zamakhshari rounds off his views on this problem (quoted by me in surah 14, note 4) in these words: "If [it were true that] God compels [men] to astray or, alternatively, to follow His guidance-why should He have postulated their deeds as something for which they will be held responsible?"
16:93 Had GOD willed, He could have made you one congregation. But He sends astray whoever chooses to go astray, and He guides whoever wishes to be guided. You will surely be asked about everything you have done.,6
God knows the sincere believers among us who deserve to be redeemed. Accordingly, He guides them, while blocking out those who chooseto disbelieve.
16:93 Had God so willed, He could have made you all one single community. However, He lets go astray him that wills (to go astray) and guides him that wills (to be guided). And you will be called to account for all that you ever did.24
A common error of translation: “God sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills.” In that case, the very revelations of God come into question! If straying and guidance solely depended on God’s will, no person could be held accountable for his deeds. In fact, God shows the right path and lets people make free choices. 2:256, 4:88, 18:29
16:94 Wala tattakhithoo aymanakumdakhalan baynakum fatazilla qadamun baAAda thubootiha watathooqooalssoo-a bima sadadtum AAan sabeeli Allahiwalakum AAathabun AAatheemun
16:94 Do not use your oaths as a means of deception between you, that a foot will falter after it had been firm, and you will taste the evil of turning away from the path of God, and you will have a great retribution.
16:94 And do not use your oaths as a means of deception between you, that a foot will slip after it has been made firm, and you will taste the evil of turning away from the path of God, and you will have a great retribution.
16:94 And do not use your oaths as a means of deceiving one another-or else [your] foot will slip after having been firm,119 and then you will have to taste the evil [consequences]120 of your having turned away from the path of God, with tremendous suffering awaiting you [in the life to come].
Le., "you will offend against God after having attained to faith", seeing that-as has been pointed out in note 110 above-every pledge given by man to man is synonymous with a pledge to God.
I.e., in this world (Tabari, Zamakhshari, Baydawi), inasmuch as the breaking of pledges unavoidably leads to a gradual disappearance of all mutual trust and, thus, to the decomposition of the social fabric.
Violating Your Oath: A Serious Offense16:94 Do not abuse the oaths among you, lest you slide back after having a strong foothold, then you incur misery. Such is the consequence of repelling from the path of GOD (by setting a bad example); you incur a terrible retribution.,
16:94 Do not make your oaths a means of deceiving one another, otherwise you will slip after having been firm (in faith). You will have to taste the evil consequences of hindering yourself from the path of God. And there will be a tremendous suffering awaiting you.25
Breaking solemn oaths and pledges will create distrust in the society and present a bad example for all. Such violation is like barring oneself and others from the path of God
16:95 Wala tashtaroo biAAahdi Allahithamanan qaleelan innama AAinda Allahi huwa khayrunlakum in kuntum taAAlamoona
16:95 Do not trade your pledge with God for petty gains. What is with God is far better for you if you know.
16:95 And do not purchase with the pledge of God a cheap price. What is with God is far better for you if you know.
16:95 Hence, do not barter away your bond with God for a trifling gain! Verily, that which is with God is by far the best for you, if you but knew it:
16:95 Do not sell your oaths short before GOD. What GOD possesses is far better for you, if you only knew.,
16:95 Do not trade away your Covenant with God for petty gains. God possesses what is far better for you, if you but knew.
16:96 Ma AAindakum yanfadu wamaAAinda Allahi baqin walanajziyanna allatheenasabaroo ajrahum bi-ahsani ma kanooyaAAmaloona
16:96 What you have will run out, while what God has will remain. We will compensate those who are patient with the best of what they used to do.
16:96 What you have will run out, while what God has will remain. And We will deliver to those who are patient their reward for the best of what they used to do.
16:96 all that is with you is bound to come to an end, whereas that which is with God is everlasting. And most certainly shall We grant unto those who are patient in adversity their reward in accordance with the best that they ever did.
16:96 What you possess runs out, but what GOD possesses lasts forever. We will surely reward those who steadfastly persevere; we will recompense them for their righteous works.,
16:96 What you possess vanishes away, but what He has (and that you deposit with Him) lasts forever. We will give those who are steadfast (in their pledges) their reward according to the best of their actions.26
16:94. ‘Best of their actions’ indicates, even beyond their merit
16:97 Man AAamila salihan min thakarinaw ontha wahuwa mu/minun falanuhyiyannahu hayatantayyibatan walanajziyannahum ajrahum bi-ahsani makanoo yaAAmaloona
16:97 Whoever does good work, be he male or female, and is an acknowledger, We will give him a good life and We will reward them their dues with the best of what they used to do.19
Unless pronouns are restricted by expression or context, the pronoun Hu and Hum refer to both male and female.
16:97 Whoever does good works, whether male or female, and is a believer, We will give him a good life and We will reward them their dues with the best of what they used to do.
16:97 As for anyone - be it man or woman - who does righteous deeds, and is a believer withal - him shall We most certainly cause to live a good life.121 and most certainly shall We grant unto such as these their reward in accordance with the best that they ever did.
This may relate either to life in this world-inasmuch as a true believer invariably finds happiness in his God-consciousness - or to the happiness which awaits him in the hereafter, or to both.
Guaranteed Happiness Now and Forever16:97 Anyone who works righteousness, male or female, while believing, we will surely grant them a happy life in this world, and we will surely pay them their full recompense (on the Day of Judgment) for their righteous works.,
16:97 Whoever - male or female - does works that help others and is a believer, We shall certainly cause them to live a good life, and We shall grant them the rewards considering the best of their actions.
16:98 Fa-itha qara/ta alqur-ana faistaAAithbiAllahi mina alshshaytani alrrajeemi
16:98 So, when you study the Quran, you shall seek refuge with God from Perverse the outcast.20
Why was this instruction not placed in the beginning of the Quran or every chapter? Is it because we are not asked to utter some words but to acquire a proper mental state before studying the Quran?
016.101 See 2:106.
16:98 When you read the Qur'an, you shall seek refuge with God from the outcast devil.
16:98 NOW whenever thou happen to read this Qur'an, seek refuge with God from Satan, the accursed.122
The present passage (verses 98-105) evidently connects with the broad ethical exhortation given in verse 90 above and, thus, with the statement (in verse 89) that the Qur'an is meant "to make everything clear and to provide guidance and grace and a glad tiding unto all who have surrendered themselves to God" - which, in its turn, implies that the Qur'an is the ultimate source of all God-willed ethical and moral values, and thus an unchanging criterion of good and evil. But since man is always, by virtue of his nature, prone to question the very validity of the moral standards established through revelation, the believer is now called upon to seek, whenever he reads or meditates on this divine writ, God's spiritual aid against the whisperings of what the Qur'an describes as "Satan, the accursed"-that is, all the evil forces, both within man's own soul and within his social environment, which tend to undermine his moral convictions and to lead him away from God.
An Important Commandment16:98 When you read the Quran, you shall seek refuge in GOD from Satan the rejected.7 ,
Our salvation is attained by knowing God's message to us, the Quran, and Satan will do his utmost to keep us from being redeemed. Hence thiscommandment.
16:98 When you read the Qur’an, seek refuge in God against Satan, the rejected one.27
One’s own straying thoughts as well may divert the attention
16:99 Innahu laysa lahu sultanun AAalaallatheena amanoo waAAala rabbihimyatawakkaloona
16:99 He has no authority over those who acknowledge, and who put their trust in their Lord.
16:99 He has no authority over those who believe, and who put their trust in their Lord.
16:99 Behold, he has no power over those who have attained to faith and in their Sustainer place their tray trust:
16:99 He has no power over those who believe and trust in their Lord.,
16:99 He (Satan) has no power over those who truly believe and put their trust in their Lord.
16:100 Innama sultanuhu AAalaallatheena yatawallawnahu waallatheena humbihi mushrikoona
16:100 His authority is over those who follow him, and those who set him up as a partner.
16:100 His authority is over those who follow him, and set him up as a partner.
16:100 he has power only over those who are willing to follow him,123 and who [thus] ascribe to him a share in God's divinity.124
Or: "who make him their master". Cf. in this connection 14:22 and the corresponding note 31.
Le., inasmuch as they pay an almost worshipful reverence to such blandishments as wealth, power, social position, etc.
16:100 His power is limited to those who choose him as their master, those who choose him as their god.,
16:100 His power is only over those who befriend him and assign ‘partners’ to God.
16:101 Wa-itha baddalna ayatanmakana ayatin waAllahu aAAlamu bimayunazzilu qaloo innama anta muftarin bal aktharuhumla yaAAlamoona
Divine Signs for Contemporary People16:101 If We exchange a sign in place of another sign; and God is more aware of what He is revealing; they say, "You are making this up!" Alas, most of them do not know.
16:101 And if We exchange a revelation in place of another revelation; and God is more aware of what He is revealing; they say: "You are making this up!" Alas, most of them do not know.
16:101 And now that We replace one message by another125 -since God is fully aware of what He bestows from on high, step by step126 - they [who deny the truth] are wont to say, "Thou but inventest it!" Nay, but most of them do not understand it!127
Le., by substituting the message of the Qur'an for the earlier dispensations - and not, as some Muslim scholars maintain, "abrogating" one Qur'anic verse and replacing it by another. (Regarding the untenable "doctrine of abrogation", in the latter sense, see 2:106 and the corresponding note 87; see also note 35 on 41:42.)
Le., the gradualness of revelation (implied in the verbal form yunazzil) corresponds to God's plan, according to which He has gradually unfolded His will to man, substituting one dispensation for another in the measure of mankind's intellectual and social development, bringing it to its culmination in the message of the Qur'an.
Le., they do not understand the necessity of a new dispensation and, therefore, do not really understand the Qur'an.
16:101 When we substitute one revelation in place of another, and GOD is fully aware of what He reveals, they say, "You made this up!" Indeed, most of them do not know.,
16:101 When We replace one revelation with another; and God knows best what He reveals; they say, “You are but a forger.” But most of them do not know (that human civilization has evolved sufficiently to be given the perfected Final message superseding previous scriptures, and that the Qur’an will remain a watcher over them. 5:48.)
16:102 Qul nazzalahu roohu alqudusi minrabbika bialhaqqi liyuthabbita allatheena amanoowahudan wabushra lilmuslimeena
16:102 Say, "The Holy Spirit has sent it down from your Lord with truth, so that those who acknowledge will be strengthened, and as a guidance and good news for those who have peacefully surrendered."
16:102 Say: "The Holy Spirit has brought it down from your Lord with the truth, so that those who believe will be strengthened, and as a guidance and good news for those who have submitted."
16:102 Say: "Holy inspiration128 has brought it down from thy Sustainer by stages, setting forth the truth, so that it might give firmness unto those who have attained to faith, and provide guidance and a glad tiding unto all who have surrendered themselves to God."
As in the three other places in which the expression ruh al-qudus occurs (2:87 and 253, and 5:110), I am rendering it here, too, as "holy inspiration" (see surah 2, note 71), a term which, to my mind, is a Qur'anic synonym for "divine revelation". However, a literal rendering-"spirit of holiness" -is also possible if one applies this term to the angel who communicates God's revelations to the prophets. (See also verse 2 of this surah and the corresponding note 2.)
16:102 Say, "The Holy Spirit has brought it down from your Lord, truthfully, to assure those who believe, and to provide a beacon and good news for the submitters.",
16:102 Tell them, “Ruh-ul-Qudus has brought it down from your Lord in absolute truth. This revelation will keep firm in thought and action, those who accept it. And it will provide guidance and good news to Submitters.”28
16:103 Walaqad naAAlamu annahum yaqooloona innamayuAAallimuhu basharun lisanu allathee yulhidoonailayhi aAAjamiyyun wahatha lisanun AAarabiyyunmubeenun
16:103 We are aware that they say, "A human is teaching him." The language of the one they refer to is foreign, while this is a clear Arabic language.21
Holy books besides the Quran have been tampered by clergymen. If we compare the Old and New Testaments, the originality of the Quran will become evident. The Quran might report similar historical events, yet it never reports contradictions or silly stories like the ones inserted into the Bible. For instance, compare Quran's 2:93 with the Bible's Exodus 32:20 ; or compare Quran's 11:40 to the Bible's Genesis, Chapters 6-8 and 1Peter 3:18; 2Peter 2:5; 2Pe 3:6. Dr. Maurice Bucaille's book, "The Bible, The Quran and Science" contains numerous comparisons between the Quran and the Bible. (See 95:2).
We might translate the end of the verse as, "The language of the one they refer to is unintelligible, while this is perfect and clear" See 43:3.
16:103 And We are aware that they say: "A human being is teaching him." The tongue of the one they refer to is foreign, while this is a clear Arabic tongue.
16:103 And, indeed, full well do We know that they say, "It is but a human being that imparts [all] this to him!129 -[notwithstanding that] the tongue of him to whom they so maliciously point is wholly outlandish,130 whereas this is Arabic speech, clear [in itself] and clearly showing the truth [of its source].131
I.e., to Muhammad - thus insinuating that his claim to divine revelation was false.
Whereas some of the pagan Quraysh regarded the ideas expressed in the Qur'an as "invented" by Muhammad, others thought that they must have been imparted to him by a foreigner - perhaps a Christian - who lived in Mecca at that time, or whom the Prophet was supposed to have encountered at an earlier period of his life. Various conjectures have been advanced - both by early Muslim commentators and by modern orientalists - as to the "identity" of the person or persons whom the suspicious Meccans might have had in mind in this connection; but all these conjectures are purely speculative and, therefore, of no historical value whatever. The suspicion of the pagan Meccans implies no more than the historical fact that those of the Prophet's opponents who were unwilling to pay him the compliment of having "invented" the Qur'an (the profundity of which they were unable to deny) conveniently attributed its authorship or at least its inspiration-to a mythical non-Arab "teacher" of the Prophet.
For an explanation of this composite rendering of the descriptive term mubin, see surah 12, note 2. 'the term is used here to stress the fact that no human being-and certainly no non-Arab -could ever have produced the flawless, exalted Arabic diction in which the Qur'an is expressed.
The Quran Is Not Copied From The Bible16:103 We are fully aware that they say, "A human being is teaching him!" The tongue of the source they hint at is non-Arabic, and this is a perfect Arabic tongue.,
16:103 We know well what they say, “It is but a man teaching him!” The tongue of him they so maliciously point to is notably foreign, while this is Arabic, pure and clear.
16:104 Inna allatheena la yu/minoonabi-ayati Allahi la yahdeehimu Allahuwalahum AAathabun aleemun
16:104 Those who do not acknowledge God's signs, God will not guide them, and they will have a painful retribution.
16:104 Those who do not believe in the revelations of God, God will not guide them, and they will have a painful retribution.
16:104 Verily, as for those who will not believe in God's messages, God does not guide them aright; and grievous suffering will be their lot [in the life to come].
16:104 Surely, those who do not believe in GOD's revelations, GOD does not guide them. They have incurred a painful retribution.,
16:104 Those who refuse to acknowledge God's messages, God does not show them the lighted road, and for them is a painful suffering.29
Ayaatillah = God’s verses = Divine revelation = Qur’anic verses = Also implies God’s signs in the Book and in the Universe, depending on the context
16:105 Innama yaftaree alkathibaallatheena la yu/minoona bi-ayati Allahiwaola-ika humu alkathiboona
16:105 Making up lies is only done by those who do not acknowledge God's signs, and these are the liars.
16:105 Inventing fabrications is only done by those who do not believe in the revelations of God; and these are the liars.
16:105 It is but they who will not believe in God's messages that invent this falsehood;132 and it is they, they who are lying!
I.e., the scurrilous allegation referred to in verse 103. Although this statement alludes, in the first instance, to the hostile contemporaries of the Prophet, it extends, by obvious implication, to people of all times who refuse to believe in the reality of Muhammad's revelations, and try to explain them away as obsessive illusions or even as deliberate fabrications.
16:105 The only ones who fabricate false doctrines are those who do not believe in GOD's revelations; they are the real liars.,
16:105 It is those who reject God's messages that invent this falsehood (of a man teaching the Prophet). And it is those who are lying.
16:106 Man kafara biAllahi minbaAAdi eemanihi illa man okriha waqalbuhu mutma-innunbial-eemani walakin man sharaha bialkufrisadran faAAalayhim ghadabun mina Allahiwalahum AAathabun AAatheemun
God Knows Your Intentions16:106 Whoever rejects God after having acknowledged; except for one who is forced while his heart is still content with acknowledgement; and has opened his chest to rejection, then they will have a wrath from God and they will have a great retribution.
16:106 Whoever rejects God after having believed - except for he who is forced while his heart is still content with belief - and has comforted his chest towards rejection, then these will have a wrath from God and they will have a great retribution.
16:106 As for anyone who denies God after having once attained to faith-and this, to be sure, does not apply to133 one who does it under duress, the while his heart remains true to his faith,134 but [only, to] him who willingly opens up his heart to a denial of the truth-: upon all such [falls] God's condemnation, and tremendous suffering awaits them:
Lit., "except" - but the Arabic construction of the sentence that follows makes it necessary to render the simple particle illa in the manner adopted by me ("and this, to be sure, does not apply to. . . , etc.).
Lit., "one who is coerced, the while his heart is at rest in [his] faith". This relates to believers who, under torture or threat of death, ostensibly "recant" in order to save themselves. Although the Qur'an makes it clear in several places that martyrdom in the cause of faith is highly meritorious, "God does not burden any human being with more than he is well able to bear" (cf. 2:233 and 286, 6:152, 7:42, 23:62, and many other Qur'anic statements to the same effect).
Lip Service Does Not Count16:106 Those who disbelieve in GOD, after having acquired faith, and become fully content with disbelief, have incurred wrath from GOD. The only ones to be excused are those who are forced to profess disbelief, while their hearts are full of faith.,8
God's wisdom decrees that if someone holds a gun to your head and orders you to declare that you disbelieve in God, you may grant him hiswish. What the heart harbors is what counts.
16:106 Whoever shows ingratitude to God after attaining faith is excused if he has done it under compulsion, with his heart remaining fully contented in faith. But if someone opens his heart to ingratitude, for such there is God’s requital, and theirs is an awful doom. [6:145]
16:107 Thalika bi-annahumu istahabbooalhayata alddunya AAala al-akhiratiwaanna Allaha la yahdee alqawma alkafireena
16:107 That is because they preferred the worldly life over the Hereafter, and God does not guide the rejecting people.
16:107 That is because they have preferred the worldly life over the Hereafter, and God does not guide the rejecting people.
16:107 all this, because they hold this world's life in greater esteem than the life to come, and because God does not bestow His guidance upon people who deny the truth.
Preoccupation With This Life Leads to Exile From God16:107 This is because they have given priority to this life over the Hereafter, and GOD does not guide such disbelieving people.,
16:107 That is because they have chosen the life of this world only, ignoring the life to come. God does not guide those who choose to reject the truth.
16:108 Ola-ika allatheena tabaAAaAllahu AAala quloobihim wasamAAihim waabsarihimwaola-ika humu alghafiloona
16:108 Those are the ones whom God has stamped on their hearts, their hearing, and their sight; such are the heedless.
16:108 Those are the ones whom God has stamped on their hearts, and their hearing, and their sight, and these are the unaware ones.
16:108 They whose hearts and whose hearing and whose sight God has sealed -it is they, they who are heedless !135
Sc., "of what is good and what is bad for them". -For an explanation of God's "sealing" the hearts of those who are bent on denying the truth, see 2:7 and the corresponding note.
16:108 Those are the ones whom GOD has sealed their hearts, and their hearing, and their eyesight. Consequently, they remain unaware.,
16:109 La jarama annahum fee al-akhiratihumu alkhasiroona
16:109 Without doubt, in the Hereafter they are the losers.
16:109 Without doubt, in the Hereafter they are the losers.
16:109 Truly it is they, they who in the life to come shall be the losers!
16:109 Without a doubt, they will be the losers in the Hereafter.,
16:109 There is no doubt that such people will be great losers in the Hereafter as well.
16:110 Thumma inna rabbaka lillatheena hajaroomin baAAdi ma futinoo thumma jahadoo wasabarooinna rabbaka min baAAdiha laghafoorun raheemun
16:110 Your Lord is to those who emigrated after they were persecuted, then they strived and were patient; your Lord after that is Forgiving, Compassionate.
16:110 Then your Lord is; for those who emigrated after they were persecuted, then they strived and were patient; your Lord is, after that, Forgiver, Merciful.
16:110 And yet, behold, thy Sustainer [grants His forgiveness] unto those who forsake the domain of evil after having succumbed to its temptation,136 and who thenceforth strive hard [in God's cause] and are patient in adversity: behold, after such [repentance] thy Sustainer is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!
For an explanation of the concept of fitnah (appearing here in the verbal form futinu) and of my rendering it as "temptation to evil", see surah 8, note 25. As regards the expression alladhina hajaru in its spiritual connotation, see surah 2, note 203 and surah 4, note 124.
16:110 As for those who emigrate because of persecution, then continue to strive and steadfastly persevere, your Lord, because of all this, is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
16:110 But certainly, your Lord; to those who leave their homes after trial and persecution, and then strive and patiently persevere, your Lord is oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
16:111 Yawma ta/tee kullu nafsin tujadiluAAan nafsiha watuwaffa kullu nafsin maAAamilat wahum la yuthlamoona
16:111 The day every person will come to argue for herself, and every person will be paid in full for what she did, and they will not be wronged.22
In Arabic the pronoun "he" or "she" does not necessarily mean male or female, though the use of "she" is more restricted (for instance, see 16:97). Like French, all Arabic words are grammatically feminine or masculine.
16:111 The Day every soul will come to argue for itself, and every soul will be paid in full for what it did, and they will not be wronged.
16:111 [Be conscious, then, of] the Day when every human being shall come to plead for himself [alone], and every human being shall be repaid in full for whatever he has done, and none shall be wronged.
16:111 The day will come when every soul will serve as its own advocate, and every soul will be paid fully for whatever it had done, without the least injustice.,
16:111 Beware of the Day when every human being will come to plead for himself alone. (There shall be no pleaders or intercessors), and they will be repaid exactly what they did. And no one shall be wronged.
16:112 Wadaraba Allahu mathalanqaryatan kanat aminatan mutma-innatanya/teeha rizquha raghadan min kulli makaninfakafarat bi-anAAumi Allahi faathaqaha Allahulibasa aljooAAi waalkhawfi bima kanooyasnaAAoona
Prohibiting Blessings Invites Disasters16:112 God cites the example of a town which was peaceful and content, its provisions were coming to it bountifully from all places, but then it rebelled against God's blessings and God made it taste hunger and fear for what they used to do.
16:112 And God puts forth the example of a town which was peaceful and content, its provisions were coming to it bountifully from all places, but then it rebelled against the blessings of God, and God made it taste hunger and fear for what they used to do.
16:112 AND GOD propounds [to you] a parable: [Imagine] a town which was [once] secure and at ease, with its sustenance coming to it abundantly from all quarters, and which thereupon blasphemously refused to show gratitude for God's blessings: and therefore God caused it to taste the all-embracing misery137 of hunger and fear in result of all [the evil] that its people had so persistently wrought.138
Lit., "the garment" (libas)-idiomatically used in classical Arabic to describe the utmost degree of misfortune which "envelops man like a garment" (Taj al-'Arus, with specific reference to the above verse).
This parable is meant to show that deliberate ingratitude for the manifold blessings which God bestows upon man - in other words, a deliberate refusal to submit to His guidance - is bound, in the long run and in the context of aggregate social life, to have disastrous consequences not only in the hereafter but in this world as well, inasmuch as no society may expect to live in security and ease unless it conforms to the ethical and social standards inherent in the concept of man's "bond with God" (as explained in surah 2, note 19).
Prohibiting Lawful Food Brings Deprivation16:112 GOD cites the example of a community that used to be secure and prosperous, with provisions coming to it from everywhere. But then, it turned unappreciative of GOD's blessings. Consequently, GOD caused them to taste the hardships of starvation and insecurity. Such is the requital for what they did.,
16:112 God gives you an example. Think of a township that used to be secure and prosperous, with provision coming to it in plenty from all directions. But, they practically denied God's blessings by not sharing them with the needy. So God’s law made it experience the garb of hunger and fear for their wrong system. [6:44]
16:113 Walaqad jaahum rasoolun minhum fakaththaboohufaakhathahumu alAAathabu wahum thalimoona
16:113 A messenger came to them from themselves, but they denied him. So, the punishment took them while they were wicked.
16:113 And a messenger came to them from themselves, but they denied him, so the punishment took them while they were wicked.
16:113 And indeed, there had come unto them an apostle from among themselves -but they gave him the lie; and therefore suffering overwhelmed them while they were thus doing wrong [to themselves].
16:113 A messenger had gone to them from among them, but they rejected him. Consequently, the retribution struck them for their transgression.,
16:113 A Messenger came to them from among themselves, but they denied him. And so the torment seized them since they used to wrong themselves by doing wrong to others.
16:114 Fakuloo mimma razaqakumu Allahuhalalan tayyiban waoshkuroo niAAmataAllahi in kuntum iyyahu taAAbudoona
16:114 So eat from what God has provided for you, what is good and lawful, and thank the blessings of God, if it is indeed He whom you serve.23
Those who serve God alone do not fabricate religious prohibitions. But, those who set up prophets, messengers, popes, rabis, saints, mullahs, sheiks, imams, clerics, and muftis to God, accept and follow many prohibitions falsely attributed to God and His messenger. Thus, they deprive themselves and others from many blessings of God. See 6:145 and 42:21.
16:114 So eat from what God has provided you, that which is good and lawful, and be thankful for the blessing of God, if it is indeed He whom you serve.
16:114 AND SO, partake of all the lawful, good things which God has provided for you as sustenance, and render thanks unto God for His blessings, if it is [truly] Him that you worship.139
It is this call to gratitude that provides a connection between the present passage and the foregoing parable of the ungrateful town and, thus, with the opening passages (verses 1-15) of this surah.
16:114 Therefore, you shall eat from GOD's provisions everything that is lawful and good, and be appreciative of GOD's blessings, if you do worship Him alone.,
16:114 So enjoy all the lawful and decent things which God has provided for you. And be grateful for God’s bounty, if it is Him you truly serve.31
Gratitude is not mere words of thanks. It involves sharing God’s bounties with fellow humans
16:115 Innama harrama AAalaykumualmaytata waalddama walahma alkhinzeeri wamaohilla lighayri Allahi bihi famani idturra ghayra baghinwala AAadin fa-inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
A Very Limited Prohibition16:115 He only made forbidden for you what is already dead, blood, the meat of pig, and what was sacrificed to any other than God. But whoever is forced to, without disobedience or transgression, then God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
16:115 He has only forbidden for you what is already dead, and the blood, and the meat of pig, and what was dedicated to other than God. But whoever is forced to, without seeking disobedience or transgression, then God is Forgiver, Merciful.
16:115 He has forbidden to you only carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that over which any name other than God's has been invoked; but if one is driven [to it] by necessity - neither coveting it nor exceeding his immediate need -verily, God is much forgiving, a dispenser of grace.140
Only Four Foods Prohibited16:115 He only prohibits for you dead animals, blood, the meat of pigs9 , and food which is dedicated to other than GOD. If one is forced (to eat these), without being deliberate or malicious, then GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
& 118 The most devastating trichinosis parasite, Trichinella spiralis, (also the pork tapeworm Taenia solium) survives in the meatof pigs, not the fat. More than 150,000 people are infected annually in theUnited States. 6:145, and Appendix 16.
16:115 He only prohibits for you the dead animal, blood, swine-flesh and anything that has been dedicated to other than God. In a forced situation, provided one doesn't exceed the necessity, remember that God is Forgiving, Merciful. [2:173, 6:145]
16:116 Wala taqooloo lima tasifualsinatukumu alkathiba hatha halalunwahatha haramun litaftaroo AAala Allahialkathiba inna allatheena yaftaroona AAalaAllahi alkathiba la yuflihoona
16:116 You shall not invent lies about God by attributing lies with your tongues, saying: "This is lawful and that is forbidden." Those who invent lies about God will not succeed.
16:116 And do not say, as to what your tongues falsely describe: "This is lawful, and that is forbidden;" that you seek to invent lies about God. Those who invent lies about God will not succeed.
16:116 Hence, do not utter falsehoods by letting your tongues determine [at your own discretion], "This is lawful and that is forbidden", thus attributing your own lying inventions to God:141 for, behold, they who attribute their own lying inventions to God will never attain to a happy state!
Regarding the very important problem of an arbitrary determination, based on subjective preferences, of what is to be considered ethically right or wrong, see surah 2, note 137.
16:116 You shall not utter lies with your own tongues stating: "This is lawful, and this is unlawful," to fabricate lies and attribute them to GOD. Surely, those who fabricate lies and attribute them to GOD will never succeed.,
16:116 Do not keep uttering in falsehood, "This is lawful and this is unlawful”, thus inventing lies against God. Those who fabricate lies against God, fail to prosper in their own ‘self’.
16:117 MataAAun qaleelun walahum AAathabunaleemun
16:117 A small enjoyment, and they will have a painful retribution.
16:117 A small enjoyment, and they will have a painful retribution.
16:117 A brief enjoyment [may be theirs in this world] -but grievous suffering awaits them [in the life to come]!
16:117 They enjoy briefly, then suffer painful retribution.,
16:117 A brief enjoyment, but grievous suffering in the long run!
16:118 WaAAala allatheena hadooharramna ma qasasnaAAalayka min qablu wama thalamnahumwalakin kanoo anfusahum yathlimoona
16:118 For those who are Jews, We forbade what We narrated to you before. We did not wrong them, but it was themselves they used to wrong.
16:118 And for those who are Jewish, We forbade what We told to you before. And We did not wrong them, but they were wronging themselves.
16:118 And [only] unto those who followed the Jewish faith did We forbid all that We have mentioned to thee ere this;142 and no wrong did We do to them, but it was they who persistently wronged themselves.
I.e., in 6:146, revealed shortly before the present surah. The conjunctive particle "And" at the beginning of this sentence establishes a connection with the precept laid down in verse 114 above, "partake of all the lawful, good things which God has provided for you as sustenance": the implication being (as in 6:145) that none of the really good and wholesome things have been forbidden to the believer, and that the many dietary prohibitions and restrictions imposed on the Jews were imposed on them alone in punishment of their persistent sinning (cf. 3:93).
16:118 For the Jews, we prohibited what we narrated to you previously. It was not us who wronged them; they are the ones who wronged their own souls.,
16:118 To the Jews We had prohibited such things as We have mentioned to you before (6:147). We did them no wrong, but they used to do wrong to themselves.32
They followed their religious leadership instead of the Divine revelation
16:119 Thumma inna rabbaka lillatheenaAAamiloo alssoo-a bijahalatin thumma taboomin baAAdi thalika waaslahoo inna rabbakamin baAAdiha laghafoorun raheemun
16:119 Yet, your Lord, to those who repent and reform after committing evil out of ignorance, your Lord after that is Forgiving, Compassionate.
16:119 Then your Lord to those who do evil out of ignorance, then they repent after that and they make good, your Lord after that is Forgiver, Merciful.
16:119 And once again:143 Behold, thy Sustainer [shows mercy] to those who do evil out of ignorance and afterwards repent and live righteously: behold, after such [repentance] thy Sustainer is indeed much forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
For this rendering of thumma, see surah -6, note 31.
16:119 Yet, as regards those who fall in sin out of ignorance then repent thereafter and reform, your Lord, after this is done, is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
16:119 Remember that your Lord shows mercy to those who do evil out of ignorance but then come back to the right path and make amends. Surely, your Lord, after all this, is Forgiving, Merciful.
16:120 Inna ibraheema kana ommatan qanitanlillahi haneefan walam yaku mina almushrikeena
16:120 Abraham was a nation, devoted to God, a monotheist, and he was not of those who set up partners.
16:120 Abraham was a nation, dutiful to God, a monotheist, and he was not of the polytheists.
16:120 VERILY, Abraham was a man who combined within himself all virtues,144 devoutly obeying God's will, turning away from all that is false,145 and not being of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God:
This is one of the many meanings of the term ummah and, to my mind, the one most appropriate in the above context. - The mention of Abraham at this place contains a subtle allusion to verse 118, where the Jews are spoken of: for, the latter claim to be "the chosen people" on account of their descent from Abraham, whereas the Qur'an consistently rejects all claims to a special status by virtue of one's descent. Moreover, the Qur'an states in many places that whereas this particular ancestor of the Hebrews - and, by the way, of most of the Arab tribes as well - was a personification of all that is good and upright, so that "God exalted him with His love" (4:125), his Jewish descendants always tended to rebel against God and, thus, "persistently wronged themselves".
For an explanation of this rendering of the term hanif, see surah 2, note 110.
Abraham16:120 Abraham was indeed an exemplary vanguard in his submission to GOD, a monotheist who never worshipped idols.,
16:120 Abraham was virtue personified devoted in his commitment to God, turning away from all that is false. He upheld strict Monotheism and never indulged in idolatry of any kind. His impact on history was like that of a whole community.33
16:121 Shakiran li-anAAumihi ijtabahuwahadahu ila siratin mustaqeemin
16:121 Because he was thankful for His blessings, He chose him and guided him to a Straight Path.
16:121 Thankful for His blessings. He chose him and guided him to a straight path.
16:121 [for he was always] grateful for the blessings granted by Him who had elected him and guided him onto a straight way.
16:121 Because he was appreciative of His Lord's blessings, He chose him and guided him in a straight path.,
16:121 He was always grateful for the blessings granted by Him Who had elected him and guided him on to straight path.
16:122 Waataynahu fee alddunyahasanatan wa-innahu fee al-akhirati lamina alssaliheena
16:122 We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he is of the reformed ones.
16:122 And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he is of the upright ones.
16:122 And so We vouchsafed him good in this world; and, verily, in the life to come [too] he shall find himself among the righteous.
16:122 We granted him happiness in this life, and in the Hereafter he will be with the righteous.,
16:122 We gave him good reward in the world. And in the Hereafter he shall be among those who actualized their human potentials.
16:123 Thumma awhayna ilayka aniittabiAA millata ibraheema haneefan wama kanamina almushrikeena
Follow Abraham16:123 Then We inspired to you: "You shall follow the creed of Abraham, monotheism, and he was not of those who set up partners."24
16:123 Then We inspired to you: "You shall follow the creed of Abraham, monotheism, and he was not of the polytheists."
16:123 And lastly,146 We have inspired thee, [O Muhammad, with this message:] "Follow the creed of Abraham, who turned away from all that is false, and was not of those who ascribe divinity to aught beside God;
Lit., "thereafter" or "afterwards" (thumma): but since this particle evidently alludes here to the climax of all revelation as manifested in the Qur'an, the above rendering seems to be suitable.
Muhammad: A Follower of Abraham16:123 Then we inspired you (Muhammad) to follow the religion of Abraham, the monotheist; he never was an idol worshiper.10 ,
This informs us that all religious practices, which came to us through Abraham, were intact at the time of Muhammad (see 22:78 and Appendix 9)
16:123 We have revealed to you this message (O Prophet), “Follow the creed of Abraham who turned away from all that is false." (2:125). He was, by no means, of the idolaters.
16:124 Innama juAAila alssabtu AAalaallatheena ikhtalafoo feehi wa-inna rabbaka layahkumubaynahum yawma alqiyamati feema kanoo feehiyakhtalifoona
16:124 The Sabbath was only decreed for those who disputed in it, and your Lord will judge between them for what they disputed in.
16:124 Indeed, the Sabbath was only decreed for those who had disputed in it, and your Lord will judge between them for that in which they had disputed.
16:124 [and know that the observance of] the Sabbath was ordained only for those who came to hold divergent views about him;147 but, verily, God will judge between them on Resurrection Day with regard to all on which they were wont to differ.148
I.e., about Abraham. The implication is that the majority of the Jews had deviated from the true creed of Abraham (which is the meaning of the phrase, "those who came to hold divergent views about him") inasmuch as most of them became convinced that they were "God's chosen people" simply because of their physical descent from that great Prophet: an assumption which obviously runs counter to every truly religious principle. As the Qur'an repeatedly points out, this spiritual arrogance was punished by God's imposition ou the children of Israel-and on them alone -of all manner of severe restrictions and rituals, of which the obligation to refrain from all work and even travel on the Sabbath was one. In its widest implication, this passage is meant to stress the fact that all God-imposed rituals are only a means towards the achievement of spiritual discipline, and never a religious goal in themselves.
Le., He will judge between those who are convinced of their ultimate salvation on the basis of their alleged status of "God's chosen people", and those who believe in man's individual responsibility before God: and thus the discourse returns to the problem of God-consciousness and righteous living.
The Sabbath Abrogated16:124 The Sabbath was decreed only for those who ended up disputing it (Jews & Christians). Your Lord is the One who will judge them on the Day of Resurrection regarding their disputes.,
16:124 And know that the observance of Sabbath was ordained for those who came to hold divergent views about him. Your Lord will judge between them on the Resurrection Day, where they differed (from the way of Abraham). [2:65, 4:47, 4:154, 7:163]
16:125 OdAAu ila sabeeli rabbika bialhikmatiwaalmawAAithati alhasanati wajadilhumbiallatee hiya ahsanu inna rabbaka huwa aAAlamubiman dalla AAan sabeelihi wahuwa aAAlamu bialmuhtadeena
Engage in Philosophical Discourse16:125 Invite to the path of your Lord with wisdom and good advice, and argue with them in the best possible manner. Your Lord is fully aware of who is misguided from His path, and He is fully aware of the guided ones.
16:125 Invite to the path of your Lord with wisdom and good advice, and argue with them in that which is better. Your Lord is fully aware of who is misguided from His path, and He is fully aware of the guided ones.
16:125 CALL THOU (all mankind] unto thy Sustainer's path with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and argue with them in the most kindly manner-149 for, behold, thy Sustainer knows best as to who strays from His path, and best knows He as to who are the right-guided.
Cf. 29:46 - "And do not argue with the followers of earlier revelation otherwise than in the most kindly manner". This stress on kindness and tact and, hence, on the use of reason alone in all religious discussions with adherents of other creeds is fully in tune with the basic, categorical injunction, "There shall be no coercion in matters of faith" (2:256).
How to Spread God 's Message16:125 You shall invite to the path of your Lord with wisdom and kind enlightenment, and debate with them in the best possible manner. Your Lord knows best who has strayed from His path, and He knows best who are the guided ones.,
16:125 Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful exhortation. Reason with them most decently. Your Lord is best Aware of him who strays from His path, and He is best Aware of the upright.
16:126 Wa-in AAaqabtum faAAaqiboobimithli ma AAooqibtum bihi wala-in sabartum lahuwakhayrun lilssabireena
16:126 If you penalize, then punish with an equivalent punishment inflicted on you. If you show patience then it is better for the patient ones.25
16:126 And if you punish, then punish with equivalence to that which you were punished. And if you are patient then it is better for the patient ones.
16:126 Hence, if you have to respond to an attack (in argument], respond only to the extent of the attack levelled against you;150 but to bear yourselves with patience is indeed far better for (you, since God is with] those who are patient in adversity.
Lit., "retaliate [or "respond"] with the like of what you have been afflicted with": thus, the believers are admonished to observe self-restraint while arguing with people of another persuasion, and never to offend against decency and intellectual equity. Although retaliation in argument is permissible if one's integrity is impeached by an opponent, the sequence makes it clear that it is morally preferable to renounce it altogether and to bear the unjust attack with patience.
16:126 And if you punish, you shall inflict an equivalent punishment. But if you resort to patience (instead of revenge), it would be better for the patient ones.,
16:126 So, if you have to respond to an attack in argument, respond only to the extent of the attack leveled against you. But to bear with patience is far better for the steadfast.
16:127 Waisbir wama sabrukailla biAllahi wala tahzanAAalayhim wala taku fee dayqin mimmayamkuroona
16:127 Be patient, and your patience is only possible by God. Do not grieve for them, and do not be depressed by what they scheme.
16:127 And be patient, for your patience is on none except God. And do not grieve for them, and do not be depressed by what they scheme.
16:127 Endure, then, with patience (all that they who deny the truth may say] -always remembering that it is none but God who gives thee the strength to endure adversity151 -and do not grieve over them, and neither be distressed by the false arguments which they devise:152
Lit., "and thy patience in adversity (sabr) is due to (or. "ream with"] none but God"-i.e., it must never be allowed to become a source of spiritual arrogance and false self-righteousness.
Lit., "all that they are scheming", i.e., by inventing false and irrelevant arguments against God's messages.
16:127 You shall resort to patience - and your patience is attainable only with GOD's help. Do not grieve over them, and do not be annoyed by their schemes.,
16:127 Endure then, with patience, always remembering that it is none but God Who gives you the strength to endure (O Prophet). Do not grieve over them, nor be distressed by the false arguments they contrive.
16:128 Inna Allaha maAAa allatheenaittaqaw waallatheena hum muhsinoona
16:128 God is with those who are aware and are good doers.
16:128 God is with those who are aware and are good doers.
16:128 for, verily, God is with those who are conscious of Him and are doers of good withal!
16:128 GOD is with those who lead a righteous life, and those who are charitable.,
16:128 God is with the upright, and the benefactors of humanity.