بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
83:1 Waylun lilmutaffifeena
83:1 Woe to those who cheat.1
For similar ethical reminders see the Old Testament, Deuteronomy 25:13-16 .
83:1 Woe to those who cheat.
83:1 WOE UNTO THOSE who give short measure:1
This passage (verses 1-3) does not, of course, refer only to commercial dealings but touches upon every aspect of social relations, both practical and moral, applying to every individual's rights and obligations no less than to his physical possessions.
83:1 Woe to the cheaters.,
83:1 Woe to the dealers in fraud!1
This is the 83rd Surah of the Qur’an. It has 36 verses. The title refers to cheating or defrauding others. Cheating people in business transactions violates human rights. Another title given to the Surah is Al-Mutaffifeen meaning the cheaters or the defrauders. “Tatfeef” also denotes unfair dealings, not doing justice to one’s duties, failing to show gratitude, respect or honor where it is due. And in general, it signifies being deficient in fulfilling human rights.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
83:2 Allatheena itha iktalooAAala alnnasi yastawfoona
83:2 Those who when they are receiving any measure from the people, they take it in full.
83:2 Those who when they are receiving any measure from the people, they take it in full.
83:2 those who, when they are to receive their due from [other] people, demand that it be given in full
83:2 Who demand full measure when receiving from the people.,
83:2 Those who demand full measure when receiving from people.
83:3 Wa-itha kaloohum aw wazanoohumyukhsiroona
83:3 When they are the ones giving measure or weight, they give less than due.
83:3 And when they are the ones giving measure or weight, they give less than due.
83:3 but when they have to measure or weigh whatever they owe to others, give less than what is due!*
83:3 But when giving them the measures or weights, they cheat.,
83:3 But give less than due when giving them by measure or weight. They even disregard the due measure and moral caliber of people.2
‘Wazanoohum’ = Their weight = Their caliber
83:4 Ala yathunnu ola-ikaannahum mabAAoothoona
83:4 Do these not assume that they will be resurrected?
83:4 Dothese not assume that they will be resurrected
83:4 Do they not know that they are bound to be raised from the dead
83:4 Do they not know that they will be resurrected?,
83:4 Do they not realize that they are bound to be raised again?
83:5 Liyawmin AAatheemin
83:5 To a great day?
83:5 Toa great Day?
83:5 [and called to account] on an awesome Day
83:5 On a tremendous day?,
83:5 Unto an Awesome Day.
83:6 Yawma yaqoomu alnnasu lirabbialAAalameena
83:6 The day people will stand before the Lord of the worlds.
83:6 The Day the people will stand before the Lord of the worlds.
83:6 the Day when all men shall stand before the Sustainer of all the worlds?
83:6 That is the day when all people will stand before the Lord of the universe.,
83:7 Kalla inna kitaba alfujjarilafee sijjeenin
Functions of the Numerically Coded Book83:7 No, the record of the wicked is in Sijjeen.
83:7 No, the record of the wicked is in 'Sijjeen.'
83:7 NAY, VERILY, the record of the wicked is indeed [set down] in a mode inescapable!2
According to some of the greatest philologists (e.g., Abu Ubaydah, as quoted in the Lisan al-Arab), the term sijjin is derived from - or even synonymous with - the noun sijn, which signifies "a prison". Proceeding from this derivation, some authorities attribute to sijjin the tropical meaning of da'im, i.e., "continuing" or "lasting" (ibid.). Thus, in its metaphorical application to a sinner's "record", it is evidently meant to stress the latter's inescapable quality, as if its contents were lastingly "imprisoned", i.e., set down indelibly, with no possibility of escaping from what they imply: hence my rendering of the phrase fi sijjin as "[set down] in a mode inescapable". This interpretation is, to my mind, fully confirmed by verse 9 below.
83:7 Indeed, the book of the wicked is in Sijjeen.,
83:7 Nay, the record of the dividers of humanity is in Sijjeen.
83:8 Wama adraka ma sijjeenun
83:8 Do you know what Sijjeen is?
83:8 And do you know what is 'Sijjeen?'
83:8 And what could make thee conceive what that that mode inescapable will be?
Numerically Structured Books83:8 Do you know what Sijjeen is?,
83:8 Ah! What will convey to you what Sijjeen is!
83:9 Kitabun marqoomun
83:9 A numerical book.2
The book that confounds the wicked like a prison (siggin), and serves the do-gooders as an elevator (illiyin), is described as kitabun marqum, that is, numbered book or numerical book. The wicked rejects it, while the good people witness its marvels.
83:9 A numbered record.
83:9 A record [indelibly] inscribed!
83:9 A numerically structured book.,
83:9 A record indelibly inscribed.4
Sijjeen = Indelible, guarded record
83:10 Waylun yawma-ithin lilmukaththibeena
83:10 Woes on that day to the deniers.
83:10 Woeon that Day to the deniers.
83:10 Woe on that Day unto those who give the lie to the truth
83:10 Woe on that day to the rejectors.,
83:10 Anguish on that Day for those who deny the truth!
83:11 Allatheena yukaththiboonabiyawmi alddeeni
83:11 Those who denied the day of recompense.3
83:11 Those who denied the Day of Recompense.
83:11 those who give the lie to the [coming of] Judgment Day:
83:11 They do not believe in the Day of Judgment.,
83:11 Those who deny the Day of Judgment.
83:12 Wama yukaththibu bihi illakullu muAAtadin atheemin
83:12 None will deny it except every transgressor who knows no bounds.
83:12 Andnone will deny it, except every transgressor, sinner.
83:12 for, none gives the lie to it but such as are wont to transgress against all that is [and are] immersed in sin:3
Implying that a denial of ultimate responsibility before God - and, hence, of His judgment - is invariably conducive to sinning and to transgression against all moral imperatives. (Although this and the next verse are formulated in the singular, I am rendering them in the plural inasmuch as this plurality is idiomatically indicated by the word kull before the descriptive participles mu'tad and athim, as well as by the use of a straight plural in verses 14 ff.)
83:12 None disbelieves therein except the transgressor, the sinful.,
83:12 And none denies it but he who drags down his own progress by crossing the bounds of reason. (The Law of Cause and Effect easily appeals to reason.)
83:13 Itha tutla AAalayhi ayatunaqala asateeru al-awwaleena
83:13 When Our signs are recited to him, he says: "Tales of the ancients!"
83:13 When Our revelations are recited to him, he says: "Fictional tales of old!"
83:13 [and so,] whenever Our messages are conveyed to them, they but say, "Fables of ancient times!"
83:13 When our revelations are recited to him, he says, "Tales from the past!",
83:13 When Our messages are conveyed to him, he says, "These are stories of the bygones."
83:14 Kalla bal rana AAalaquloobihim ma kanoo yaksiboona
83:14 No, a covering has been placed on their hearts for what they have earned.
83:14 No,a covering has been placed on their hearts for what they have earned.
83:14 Nay, but their hearts are corroded by all [the evil] that they were wont to do!4
Lit., "that which they were earning has covered their hearts with rust": implying that their; persistence in wrongdoing has gradually deprived them of all consciousness of moral responsibility and, hence, of the ability to visualize the fact of God's ultimate judgment.
83:14 Indeed, their hearts have become shielded by their sins.,
83:14 Nay, but their hearts get corroded by what they have earned. (2:7)
83:15 Kalla innahum AAan rabbihim yawma-ithinlamahjooboona
83:15 No, they will be blocked from their Lord on that day.
83:15 No,they will be blocked from their Lord on that Day.
83:15 Nay, verily, from [the grace of] their Sustainer shall they on that Day be debarred;
83:15 Indeed, they will be isolated, on that day, from their Lord.,
83:15 Nay, on that Day they will be veiled from (the light of) their Lord.
83:16 Thumma innahum lasaloo aljaheemi
83:16 Then they will be entered into the hell.
83:16 Then they will be entered into Hell.
83:16 and then, behold, they shall enter the blazing fire
83:16 Then they will be thrown into Hell.,
83:16 Then, they will enter the Blazing fire.5
Jaheem = Insurmountable barrier = Bar to progress = Obstruction that halts = Halting of evolution = Mere survival = Hellfire = Flames of anguish = Fire of regret
83:17 Thumma yuqalu hatha allatheekuntum bihi tukaththiboona
83:17 Then it will be said, "This is what you used to deny!"
83:17 Then it will be said: "This is what you used to deny!"
83:17 and be told: "This is the [very thing] to which you were wont to give the lie!"
83:17 They will be told, "This is what you used to deny.",
83:17 And it will be said, “This is what you used to deny.”
83:18 Kalla inna kitaba al-abrarilafee AAilliyyeena
83:18 No, the record of the pious is in Elliyeen.
83:18 No,the record of the pious is in 'Elliyeen.'
83:18 NAY, VERILY - the record of the truly virtuous is [set down] in a mode most lofty!5
I.e., in contrast to the record of the wicked (see verse 7 above). As regards the term 'illiyyun, it is said to be the plural of 'illi or 'illiyyah ("loftiness") or, alternatively, a plural which has no singular (Qamus, Taj al-'Arus); in either case it is derived from the verb 'ala, which signifies "[something] was [or "became"] high" or "lofty" or - tropically - "exalted": thus in the well-known idiomatic phrase, huwa min 'illiyyat qawmihi, "he is among the [most] exalted of his people". In view of this derivation, the plural 'illiyyun has evidently the intensive connotation of "loftiness upon loftiness" (Taj al-'Arus) or "a mode most lofty".
83:18 Indeed, the book of the righteous will be in `Elleyyeen.,
83:18 Nay, the record of those who made room for others in the community is in 'Illiyyeen.6
Birr= Virtue = Make expanse = Make room for others in the society = Help people to adjust and make progress in a new environment = Exponential growth
83:19 Wama adraka maAAilliyyoona
83:19 Do you know what Elliyeen is?
83:19 Anddo you know what is 'Elliyeen?'
83:19 And what could make thee conceive what that mode most lofty will be?
83:19 Do you know what `Elleyyeen is?,
83:19 Ah! What will convey to you what ‘Illyyoon is!
83:20 Kitabun marqoomun
83:20 A numerical book.
83:20 A numbered record.
83:20 A record [indelibly] inscribed,
83:20 A numerically structured book.,
83:20 A record indelibly inscribed.7
‘Illyyeen = ‘Illyyoon = Loftiness upon loftiness
83:21 Yashhaduhu almuqarraboona
83:21 To be witnessed by those brought near.
83:21 To be witnessed by those brought near.
83:21 witnessed~ by all who have [ever] been drawn close unto God.6
I.e., by the prophets and saints of all times as well as by the angels.
83:21 To be witnessed by those close to Me.,
83:21 Those near ones (to God) find it open before them.
83:22 Inna al-abrara lafee naAAeemin
83:22 The pious are in Paradise.
83:22 Thepious are in the Paradise.
83:22 Behold, [in the life to come] the truly virtuous will indeed be in bliss:
83:22 The righteous have deserved bliss.,
83:22 Those who made room in the society for others, they are in blissful delight.
83:23 AAala al-ara-iki yanthuroona
83:23 Upon luxurious furnishings, observing.
83:23 Upon raised couches, they are looking.
83:23 [resting on couches, they will look up [to God]:7
Cf. 7:23. As elsewhere in the Qur'an, the "couches" of the virtuous in paradise symbolize complete restfulness and inner fulfilment.
83:23 On luxurious furnishings they watch.,
83:23 On beautiful thrones, they will look up (to the Magnificent Kingdom. 76:20).
83:24 TaAArifu fee wujoohihim nadrata alnnaAAeemi
83:24 You know in their faces the look of Paradise.
83:24 Youwill recognize in their faces the look of bliss.
83:24 upon their faces thou wilt see the brightness of bliss.
83:24 You recognize in their faces the joy of bliss.,
83:24 You will see their faces glitter with Delight.
83:25 Yusqawna min raheeqin makhtoomin
83:25 They are given drink from a pure sealed vial.
83:25 They are given to drink from a pure sealed vial.
83:25 They will be given a drink of pure wine whereon the seal [of God] will have been set,
83:25 Their drinks will be spiced with nectar.,
83:25 They will be given a refreshing drink of pure nectar, sealed.
83:26 Khitamuhu miskun wafee thalikafalyatanafasi almutanafisoona
83:26 Its seal will be of musk, so in that let those who are in competition compete.
83:26 Itsseal will be of musk, so in that let those who are in competition compete.
83:26 pouring forth with a fragrance of musk.8 To that [wine of paradise], then, let all such aspire as [are willing to] aspire to things of high account:
Lit., "the end whereof (khitamuhu) will be musk". My rendering of the above phrase reflects the interpretation given to it by several authorities of the second generation of Islam, and by Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Muthanna (all of them quoted by Razi). The "pure wine" (rahiq) of the hereafter - which, contrary to the wine of this world, will carry "the seal" (i.e., the sanction) of God because "no headiness will be in it, and they will not get drunk thereon" (37:47) - is another symbol of paradise, alluding, by means of comparisons with sensations that can be experienced by man, to the otherworldly sensations of joy which, in a form intensified beyond all human imagination, are in store for the righteous. Some of the great Muslim mystics (e.g., Jalal ad-Din Rumi) see in that "pure wine" an allusion to a spiritual vision of God: an interpretation which, I believe, is fully justified by the sequence.
83:26 Its spice is like musk. This is what the competitors should compete for.,
83:26 The seal of it is musk. For all this, then, let every aspirant aspire. [57:20, 102:1]
83:27 Wamizajuhu min tasneemin
83:27 Its taste will be special.
83:27 Andits taste will be special.
83:27 for it is composed of all that is most exalting9
Whereas most of the classical commentators regard the infinitive noun tasnim as the proper name of one of the allegorical "fountains of paradise ", or, alternatively, refrain from any definition of it, it seems to me that the derivation of tasnim from the verb sannama - "he raised [something]" or "made [it] lofty" - points, rather, to the effect which the "wine" of divine knowledge will have on those who "drink" of it in paradise. Hence, the tabi'i 'Ikrimah (as quoted by Razi) equates tasnim with tashrif, "that which is ennobling" or "exalting".
83:27 Mixed into it will be special flavors.,
83:27 For, it consists of nobility.8
Tasneem = Tashreef = Nobility = Raising in rank and honor = Hosting with respect = Exalting
83:28 AAaynan yashrabu biha almuqarraboona
83:28 A spring from which those who are brought near will drink.
83:28 A spring from which those who are brought near will drink.
83:28 a source [of bliss] whereof those who are drawn close unto God shall drink.10
Cf. 76:5 and the corresponding notes.
83:28 From a spring that is reserved for those close to Me.,
83:28 A Spring from which the nearest (to God) drink. (76:17)9
Hue of God = We take our hue from God. Nearest to God are those who have adopted His Sibghah = Hue or Color = His attributes in the human capacity. 2:138, 83:28. That means adopting the Divine Attributes in our limited human capacity such as: kindness – empathy - creativity – mercy - forgiveness – turning to people in love and affection – attaining wisdom - kindness - effort - concealment of sins - justice - bounteousness - generosity - greatness - love - glory - dignity - insight - and all other goodness and beauty are attributes of God. Knowledge learning – compassion – clemency – taking care - peacefulness – remaining aware – sense of duty - determination – honesty – protecting others – generosity – unity - self-control – leniency - approachability - appreciation – moral strength – patience - showing light – guiding - independence – truthfulness – maintenance of people and things – keeping pledges – resolve – benefiting others – beautiful designing – providing – listening – observing – being worthy of trust – nobility of character – giving – and sense of responsibility. Interestingly, people can make a self-assessment by this spectrum as to where they stand on the ascending ladder of Tazkiah self-actualization or personal development
83:29 Inna allatheena ajramoo kanoomina allatheena amanoo yadhakoona
83:29 Those who were criminals used to laugh at those who had acknowledged.
83:29 Those who were criminals used to laugh at those who had believed.
83:29 BEHOLD, those who have abandoned themselves to sin are wont to laugh at such as have attained to faith11
In the original, verses 29-33 are in the past tense, as if viewed from the time-level of Judgment Day. However, since the preceding and the following passages (i.e., verses 18-28 and 34-36) are formulated in the future tense, verses 29-33 (which relate to life in this world) maybe adequately rendered in the present tense.
83:29 The wicked used to laugh at those who believed.,
83:29 Those who thrived on others’ toil used to laugh at those who had attained belief.
83:30 Wa-itha marroo bihim yataghamazoona
83:30 When they passed by them they used to wink to each other.
83:30 Andwhen they passed by them they used to wink to each other.
83:30 and whenever they pass by them, they wink at one another [derisively];
83:30 When they passed by them, they used to poke fun.,
83:30 And whenever they passed by the believers they winked at each other in sarcasm. (Look, these people ‘waste’ their wealth and persons on strangers)
83:31 Wa-itha inqalaboo ila ahlihimuinqalaboo fakiheena
83:31 When they returned to their people, they would return jesting.
83:31 Andwhen they returned to their people, they would return jesting.
83:31 and whenever they return to people of their own kind,12 they return full of jests;
Lit., "to their [own] people",
83:31 When they got together with their people, they used to joke.,
83:31 And when they returned to their own people, they used to tell jokes about them.
83:32 Wa-itha raawhum qaloo inna haola-iladalloona
83:32 If they see them they say, "These are indeed misguided!"
83:32 Andif they see them they say: "These are indeed misguided!"
83:32 and whenever they see those [who believe,] they say, "Behold, these [people] have indeed gone astray!"
83:32 Whenever they saw them, they said, "These people are far astray!,
83:32 And whenever they saw the believers they said, “These people have gone astray (wandering in unmarked valleys of life).”
83:33 Wama orsiloo AAalayhim hafitheena
83:33 But they were not sent over them as caretakers.
83:33 Butthey were not sent over them as caretakers.
83:33 And, withal, they have no call to watch over [the beliefs of] others. . .13
Lit., "they have not been sent as watchers over them" - implying that none who is devoid of faith has the right to criticize the faith of any of his fellow-men.
83:33 "They have no such thing as (invisible) guards.",
83:33 Yet, they have not been sent as watchers over them.
83:34 Faalyawma allatheena amanoomina alkuffari yadhakoona
83:34 Today, those who had acknowledged are laughing at the ingrates!
83:34 Andtoday, those who had believed are laughing at the rejecters!
83:34 But on the Day [of Judgment], they who had attained to faith will [be able to] laugh at the [erstwhile] deniers of the truth:14
Speaking of the righteous, the Qur'an repeatedly stresses that on the Day of Judgment God "shall have removed whatever unworthy thoughts or feelings (ghill) may have been [lingering] in their bosoms" (7:43 and 15:47). Since an expression of vengeful joy on the part of the blest at the calamity which in the hereafter will befall the erstwhile sinners would certainly fall within the category of "unworthy feelings", their "laughing" can only have a metaphorical meaning, denoting no more than a realization of their own good fortune.
83:34 Today, those who believed are laughing at the disbelievers.,
83:34 That Day those who have chosen to be graced with belief will be in a position to laugh at the deniers. [7:43, 15:47]
83:35 AAala al-ara-iki yanthuroona
83:35 Upon the luxurious furnishings they are observing.
83:35 Upon raised couches, they are looking.
83:35 [for, resting in paradise] on couches, they will look on [and say to themselves]:
83:35 On luxurious furnishings they watch.,
83:35 On beautiful thrones, they will look up (to the Magnificent Kingdom 76:20).
83:36 Hal thuwwiba alkuffaru ma kanooyafAAaloona
83:36 Have the ingrates not been reprised for what they used to do?
83:36 Have the rejecters been rewarded for what they used to do?
83:36 "Are these deniers of the truth being [thus] requited for [aught but] what they were wont to do?"
83:36 Most assuredly, the disbelievers are requited for what they did.,
83:36 Are these deniers of the truth being returned anything but their own doings?10
Thawaab = Return on an investment