بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Transcription
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
Edip-Layth
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
Muhammad Asad
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
Rashad Khalifa
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
Shabbir Ahmed
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Çeviriyazı
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Edip Yüksel
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Yaşar Nuri Öztürk
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
Muhammed Esed
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Ali Bulaç
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla

5:1 يايها الذين ءامنوا اوفوا بالعقود احلت لكم بهيمة الانعم الا ما يتلى عليكم غير محلى الصيد وانتم حرم ان الله يحكم ما يريد

Transcription (English)
5:1 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooawfoo bialAAuqoodi ohillat lakum baheematu al-anAAamiilla ma yutla AAalaykum ghayra muhilleealssaydi waantum hurumun inna Allahayahkumu ma yureedu
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:1 O you who acknowledge, honor your contracts. Made lawful for you are all the animals of the livestock, except what is being recited to you, and what you are not allowed to hunt of the game while you are under restriction. God decrees as He pleases.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:1 O you who believe, honor your contracts. Made lawful for you are the animals of the livestock, except that which is being recited to you. You are not permitted to hunt the game while you are under restriction. God decrees as He pleases.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:1 O YOU who have attained to faith! Be true to your covenants!1 Lawful to you is the [flesh of every] beast that feeds on plants, save what is mentioned to you [hereinafter2 ]: but you are not allowed to hunt while you are in the state of pilgrimage. Behold, God ordains in accordance with His will.3

Note 1
The term `aqd ("covenant") denotes a solemn undertaking or engagement involving more than one party. According to Raghib, the covenants referred to in this verse "are of three kinds: the covenants between God and man [i.e., man's obligations towards God], between man and his own soul, and between the individual and his fellow-men" - thus embracing the entire area of man's moral and social responsibilities.

Note 2
I.e. in verse 3. Literally, the expression bahimat al-an'am could be translated as "a beast of the cattle"; but since this would obviously be a needless tautology, many commentators incline to the view that what is meant here is "any beast which resembles [domesticated] cattle-insofar as it feeds on plants and is not a beast of prey" (Razi; also Lisan al-'Arab, art. na'ma). I have adopted this convincing interpretation in my rendering of the above phrase.

Note 3
Lit. "whatever He wills" or "deems fit": i.e., in accordance with a plan of which He alone has full knowledge. Regarding the prohibition of hunting while on pilgrimage, see verses 94-96 of this surah.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:1 O you who believe, you shall fulfill your covenants. Permitted for you to eat are the livestock, except those specifically prohibited herein. You shall not permit hunting throughout Hajj pilgrimage. GOD decrees whatever He wills.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:1 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Fulfill your pledges and obligations. Permitted for you for food are all plant-eating livestock with the exceptions named (5:3). God has ordained that all hunting is prohibited during Hajj. God ordains as He deems fit.1

Note 1


This is the fifth Surah of the Qur’an and it has 120 verses. Establishment of the Divine System ensures Divine bounties on everyone’s table spread. Important dietary laws are given in this Surah. All herbivorous quadrupeds are permissible for human consumption with the exceptions noted in 5:3 and 2:173. Intoxicants are strictly forbidden although the word Haraam has not been used for them since they do not belong to the category of food. Unjust killing of a single human being is like killing all mankind and saving one life is like saving all humanity. The Surah includes commands about gambling, games of chance, marriage, theft, ablution, hunting, making a will, and other diverse subjects. Prophet Abraham is the Patriarch of faith for Jews, Christians and Muslims. It states that God has perfected His System of Life and that the Qur’an is the comprehensive guide for all humanity.



With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness



Baheema-tul-An’aam = The herbivorous cattle = Plant-eating quadrupeds = Livestock

5:2 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تحلوا شعئر الله ولا الشهر الحرام ولا الهدى ولا القلئد ولا ءامين البيت الحرام يبتغون فضلا من ربهم ورضونا واذا حللتم فاصطادوا ولا يجرمنكم شنان قوم ان صدوكم عن المسجد الحرام ان تعتدوا وتعاونوا على البر والتقوى ولا تعاونوا على الاثم والعدون واتقوا الله ان الله شديد العقاب

Transcription (English)
5:2 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tuhilloo shaAAa-ira Allahi walaalshshahra alharama wala alhadya walaalqala-ida wala ammeena albayta alharamayabtaghoona fadlan min rabbihim waridwananwa-itha halaltum faistadoo walayajrimannakum shanaanu qawmin an saddookum AAanialmasjidi alharami an taAAtadoo wataAAawanooAAala albirri waalttaqwa wala taAAawanooAAala al-ithmi waalAAudwani waittaqooAllaha inna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:2 O you who acknowledge, do not violate God's decrees, nor the restricted month, nor the donations, nor what is regulated, nor maintainers of the Restricted Sanctuary who are seeking a bounty from their Lord and a blessing. When it is permitted for you, then you may hunt. Let not the hatred of another people, because they had barred you from the Restricted Temple, tempt you to aggress. Bond together in piety and righteousness, and do not bind together in sin and animosity. Be aware of God, for God's retribution is severe.1

Note 1

The prohibition on hunting during the pilgrimage not only provides a more peaceful social and psychological environment but also protects the ecosystem at a time when so many people visit Mecca from around the world. Without such a hunting prohibition during the time of such an international conference, the area would lose all its wild animals (2:196).

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:2 O you who believe, do not violate the symbols of God, nor the restricted month, nor the donations, nor what is regulated, nor the safety made by the Restricted Sanctuary; for they are seeking a bounty from their Lord and a blessing. And when it is permitted for you, then you may hunt. And let not the hatred of another people; because they had barred you from the Restricted Temple; make you aggress. And help each other in piety and righteousness, and do not help each other in sin and aggression. And be aware of God, for the retribution of God is severe.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:2 O you who have attained to faith! Offend not against the symbols set up by God, nor against the sacred month [of pilgrimage], nor against the garlanded offerings,4 nor against those who flock to the Inviolable Temple, seeking favour with their Sustainer and His goodly acceptance; and [only] after your pilgrimage is over5 are you free to hunt. And never let your hatred of people who would bar you from the Inviolable House of Worship lead you into the sin of aggression:6 but rather help one another in furthering virtue and God-consciousness, and do not help one another in furthering evil and enmity; and remain conscious of God: for, behold, God is severe in retribution!

Note 4
Lit., "nor against the offerings, nor the garlands" - a reference to the 'animals which are brought to Mecca at the time of pilgrimage, to be sacrificed there in the name of God and most of their flesh distributed among the poor. In order to mark out such animals, and to prevent their being inadvertently used for profane (e.g., commercial) ends, garlands are customarily hung around their necks. See also 2:196.-The term sha'a'ir Allah (lit., "God's symbols), occurring earlier in this sentence, denotes the places reserved for particular religious rites (e.g., the Ka`bah) as well as the religious rites themselves. (Cf. 2:158, where As-Safa and Al-Marwah are described as "symbols set up by God"). In the above context, the rites `of pilgrimage, in particular, are alluded to.

Note 5
Lit:, "when you have become free of the obligations attaching to the state of pilgrimage" (idha halaltum ).

Note 6
Inasmuch as this surah was undoubtedly revealed in the year 10 H. (Tabari, Ibn Kathir), it is difficult to accept the view of some of the commentators that the above verse alludes to the events culminating in the truce of Hudaybiyyah, in 6 H., when the pagan Quraysh succeeded in preventing the Prophet and his followers from entering Mecca on pilgrimage. At the time of the revelation of this surah Mecca was already in the possession of the Muslims, and there was no longer any question of their being barred from it by the Quraysh, almost all of whom had by then embraced Islam. We must, therefore, conclude that the above injunction cannot be circumscribed by a historical reference but has a timeless, general import: in other words, that it refers to anybody who might endeavour to bar the believers - physically or metaphorically - from the exercise of their religious duties (symbolized by the "Inviolable House of Worship") and thus to lead them away from their faith. In view of the next sentence, moreover, this interpretation would seem to be the only plausible one.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:2 O you who believe, do not violate the rites instituted by GOD, nor the Sacred Months, nor the animals to be offered, nor the garlands marking them, nor the people who head for the Sacred Shrine (Ka`bah) seeking blessings from their Lord and approval. Once you complete the pilgrimage, you may hunt. Do not be provoked into aggression by your hatred of people who once prevented you from going to the Sacred Masjid. You shall cooperate in matters of righteousness and piety; do not cooperate in matters that are sinful and evil. You shall observe GOD. GOD is strict in enforcing retribution.,1

Note 1
Hunting and the cutting of plants are forbidden during pilgrimage for the conservation of natural resources. With thousands of pilgrims convergingon Mecca, if hunting were permitted, the land would quickly be stripped ofits natural resources. Animal offerings are made part of the pilgrimage toprovide for the converging pilgrims, as well as the local population, and to replenish any depleted supplies. 2:196.
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:2 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not violate the symbols set up by God, nor the Sacred Months (2:194), neither the gifts nor the camels for use as transport or slaughter, nor the garlands marking them, nor the people who proceed to the Sacred Sanctuary, Ka'bah, seeking God's blessings and approval. When you have completed the Hajj, you are free to hunt. Let not the hatred of a people lead you to transgression, because they prevented you from going to the Sacred Masjid (48:25). Help one another in acts of collective benefit and righteousness, and do not help one another in deeds that hurt humanity and in creating a wedge between people. Be mindful of God. His Law of Requital is strong in grasping.

5:3 حرمت عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير وما اهل لغير الله به والمنخنقة والموقوذة والمتردية والنطيحة وما اكل السبع الا ما ذكيتم وما ذبح على النصب وان تستقسموا بالازلم ذلكم فسق اليوم يئس الذين كفروا من دينكم فلا تخشوهم واخشون اليوم اكملت لكم دينكم واتممت عليكم نعمتى ورضيت لكم الاسلم دينا فمن اضطر فى مخمصة غير متجانف لاثم فان الله غفور رحيم

Transcription (English)
5:3 Hurrimat AAalaykumu almaytatu waalddamuwalahmu alkhinzeeri wama ohilla lighayri Allahibihi waalmunkhaniqatu waalmawqoothatu waalmutaraddiyatuwaalnnateehatu wama akala alssabuAAuilla ma thakkaytum wama thubihaAAala alnnusubi waan tastaqsimoo bial-azlamithalikum fisqun alyawma ya-isa allatheena kafaroomin deenikum fala takhshawhum waikhshawni alyawmaakmaltu lakum deenakum waatmamtu AAalaykum niAAmatee waradeetulakumu al-islama deenan famani idturra fee makhmasatinghayra mutajanifin li-ithmin fa-inna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
Only Four Dietary Prohibitions5:3 Forbidden to you is what is already dead, and the blood, the meat of pig, and what was dedicated to other than God. The strangled, killed by a blow, fallen from height, gored, eaten by wild animals except what you managed to rescue, and those slaughtered on altars... Also what you divide through gambling. This is all vile. Today the ingrates have given up from your system, so do not revere them, but revere Me. Today I have perfected your system for you, completed My blessings upon you, and I have accepted peaceful surrenderas the system for you. So, whoever is forced by severe hunger and not seeking sin, then God is Forgiving, Compassionate.2

Note 2

This verse does not add another item to the list in 6:145. It repeats the list and explains the two items, carcasses and those which are slaughtered for other than God. The Quran is explained by its author and verses of the Quran explain and detail each other (11:1; 6:119; 75:19).

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:3 Forbidden to you is that which is already dead, and the blood, and the meat of pig, and what was dedicated to other than God, and that which has been strangled, and that which has been beaten to death, and that which has fallen from a height, and that which has been gored, and that which the wild animals have eaten from except what you managed to rescue, and what has been slaughtered on altars, and what you divide through arrows of chance. This is vile. Today the rejecters have given up from your system, so do not be concerned by them, but be concerned by Me. Today I have perfected your system for you, and completed My blessings upon you, and I have approved submission as the system for you. So, whoever is forced by severe hunger and not seeking sin, then God is Forgiving, Merciful.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:3 FORBIDDEN to you is carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that over which any name other than God's has been invoked,7 and the animal that has been strangled, or beaten to death, or killed by a fall, or gored to death, or savaged by a beast of prey, save that which you [yourselves] may have slaughtered while it was still alive; and [forbidden to you is] all that has been slaughtered on idolatrous altars.8 And [you are forbidden] to seek to learn through divination what the future may hold in store for you:9 this is sinful conduct. Today, those who , are bent on denying the truth have lost all hope of [your ever forsaking] your religion: do not, then, hold them in awe, but stand in awe of Me! Today have I perfected your religious law for you, and have bestowed upon you the full measure of My blessings, and willed that self-surrender unto Me shall be your religion.10 As for him, however, who is driven [to what is forbidden] by dire necessity11 and not by an inclination to sinning -behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

Note 7
See 2:173.

Note 8
The nusub (sing. nasibah) were the altar-stones set up in pre-Islamic times around the Ka`bah on which the pagan Quraysh used to sacrifice animals to their idols. However, from the story of Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl (Bukhari) it appears that not only sacrificial animals but also such as were, destined for common consumption were often slaughtered there for the sake of a supposed "blessing" (see Fath al-Bari VII, 113). Some philologists consider the form nusub a singular, with ansab as its plural (cf. verse 90 of this surah). In either case the term denotes an association with all manner of practices which could be described as "idolatrous", and should not be taken merely in its literal sense. Cf. in this respect also verse 90 of this surah, and the corresponding note 105.

Note 9
Lit., "to aim at divining [the future] by means of arrows". This is a reference to the divining-arrows without a point and without feathers used by the pre-Islamic Arabs to find out what the future might hold in store for them. (A comprehensive description of this practice may be found in Lane III, 1247.) As is usual with such historical allusions in the Qur'an, this one, too, is used metonymically: it implies a prohibition of all manner of attempts at divining or foretelling the future.

Note 10
According to all available Traditions based on the testimony of the Prophet's contemporaries, the above passage - which sets, as it were, a seal on the message of the Qur'an - was revealed at `Arafat in the afternoon of Friday, the 9th of Dhu 'l-Hijjah, 10 H., eighty-one or eighty-two days before the death of the Prophet. No legal injunction whatsoever was revealed after this verse: and this explains the reference to God's having perfected the Faith and bestowed the full measure of His blessings upon the believers. Man's self-surrender (islam) to God is postulated as the basis, or the basic law, of all true religion (din): This self-surrender expresses: itself not only in belief in Him but also in obedience to His commands: and this is the reason why the announcement of the completion of the Qur'anic message is placed within the context of a verse containing the last legal ordinances ever revealed to the Prophet Muhammad.

Note 11
Lit., "in [a condition of] emptiness' (fi makhmasah). This is generally taken to mean "in extreme hunger"; but while this expression does, in the first instance, signify "emptiness caused by hunger", the reference to divination in the above verse points to a metonymical use of the term makhmasah as well: that is to say, it covers here not merely cases of actual, extreme hunger (which makes the eating of otherwise prohibited categories of meat permissible. as is explicitly stated in 2:173) but also other situations in which overwhelming; extraneous forces beyond a person's control may compel him, against his will, to do something that is normally prohibited by Islamic Law - as, for instance, to use intoxicating drugs whenever illness makes their use imperative and unavoidable.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
Only Four Meats Prohibited "Animals that die of themselves" Defined5:3 Prohibited for you are animals that die of themselves, blood, the meat of pigs, and animals dedicated to other than GOD. (Animals that die of themselves include those) strangled, struck with an object, fallen from a height, gored, attacked by a wild animal - unless you save your animal before it dies - and animals sacrificed on altars. Also prohibited is dividing the meat through a game of chance; this is an abomination. Today, the disbelievers have given up concerning (the eradication of) your religion; do not fear them and fear Me instead. Today, I have completed your religion, perfected My blessing upon you, and I have decreed Submission as the religion for you. If one is forced by famine (to eat prohibited food), without being deliberately sinful, then GOD is Forgiver, Merciful.,2

Note 2
The "meat" of the pig is prohibited, not the "fat." Anything that is not specifically prohibited in the Quran must be considered lawful. See 6:145.
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:3 Forbidden to you (for food) are: Carrion, blood, the flesh of swine, anything (not just meat) that has been dedicated to any other than God (such as an idol, grave or saint), any animal that has been strangled to death, or beaten to death, or killed by fall, or gored to death, or eaten by a wild animal unless you are able to slaughter it while it is still alive, and (also forbidden is) what is slaughtered on idolatrous altars (devotional stones or blocks in shrines considered sacred). And (you are forbidden) from dividing one another’s portions through raffling, for these are deviations. This Day, the rejecters have lost all hope of (making bargains in) your System of Life. Do not fear them, but fear Me. This Day, I have perfected your Deen (Law) for you, completed My favor upon you, and chosen for you Al-Islam as the System of Life. If anyone is forced by dire necessity (to consume the forbidden), with no intention of transgression, (should remember that) God is Forgiving, Merciful.2

Note 2
Mayitah = Carrion = Dead meat = An animal that dies of itself. Azlaam = Dividing eating portions by picking or shooting arrows = In other contexts Azlaam also includes the conjecture of foretelling the future = Raffle = Lottery = Divining arrows = Clairvoyance = Dividing things or time for one another through randomly picking up slips of paper. Deen = System of Life = The Law. 2:173, 2:185, 2:219, 5:90

5:4 يسلونك ماذا احل لهم قل احل لكم الطيبت وما علمتم من الجوارح مكلبين تعلمونهن مما علمكم الله فكلوا مما امسكن عليكم واذكروا اسم الله عليه واتقوا الله ان الله سريع الحساب

Transcription (English)
5:4 Yas-aloonaka matha ohilla lahumqul ohilla lakumu alttayyibatu wamaAAallamtum mina aljawarihi mukallibeenatuAAallimoonahunna mimma AAallamakumu Allahufakuloo mimma amsakna AAalaykum waothkurooisma Allahi AAalayhi waittaqoo Allaha innaAllaha sareeAAu alhisabi
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:4 They ask you what was made lawful to them, say, "All the good things have been made lawful for you, and what the trained dogs and birds catch; you teach them from what God teaches you." So eat from what they have captured for you and mention God's name upon it, and be aware of God. God is quick in reckoning.3

Note 3

We should remember God's name or attributes before eating. This remembrance could be verbal or mental and in any language we understand. There is no condition that this remembrance, commonly practiced as uttering Bismillah, should be done when the animals are slaughtered. In the following verse, we are told that the food of the People of the Book is permitted for us. We cannot expect them to remember God's name as we remember and the way we remember.

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:4 They ask you what was made lawful to them, say: "All the good things have been made lawful for you, and what the trained dogs and birds catch, you teach them from what God teaches you." So eat from what they have captured for you and mention the name of God upon it, and be aware of God. God is swift in reckoning.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:4 They will ask thee as to what is lawful to them. Say: "Lawful to you are all the good things of life."12 And as for those hunting animals13 which you train by imparting to them something of the knowledge that God has imparted to yourselves-eat of what they seize for you, but mention God's name over it. and remain conscious of God: verily, God is swift in reckoning.

Note 12
The implication is, firstly, that what has been forbidden does not belong to the category of "the good things of life" (at-tayyibat), and, secondly, that all that has not been expressly forbidden is allowed. It is to be noted that the Qur'an forbids only those things or actions which are injurious to man physically, morally or socially.

Note 13
Lit., "such of the trained beasts of chase" (min al-jawarih mukallibin). The term mukallib signifies "trained like a [hunting) dog", and is applied to every animal used for hunting -a hound, a falcon, a cheetah, etc.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:4 They consult you concerning what is lawful for them; say, "Lawful for you are all good things, including what trained dogs and falcons catch for you." You train them according to GOD's teachings. You may eat what they catch for you, and mention GOD's name thereupon. You shall observe GOD. GOD is most efficient in reckoning.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:4 They ask you (O Prophet) what foods are permissible. Tell them all good things of life are lawful to you. As for the hunting animals, the catch of your trained dogs and falcons, as God has taught you, is permissible. Mention God's name thereupon and be mindful of God. Indeed, God is swift to take account.

5:5 اليوم احل لكم الطيبت وطعام الذين اوتوا الكتب حل لكم وطعامكم حل لهم والمحصنت من المؤمنت والمحصنت من الذين اوتوا الكتب من قبلكم اذا ءاتيتموهن اجورهن محصنين غير مسفحين ولا متخذى اخدان ومن يكفر بالايمن فقد حبط عمله وهو فى الءاخرة من الخسرين

Transcription (English)
5:5 Alyawma ohilla lakumu alttayyibatuwataAAamu allatheena ootoo alkitaba hillunlakum wataAAamukum hillun lahum waalmuhsanatumina almu/minati waalmuhsanatu minaallatheena ootoo alkitaba min qablikum itha ataytumoohunnaojoorahunna muhsineena ghayra musafiheenawala muttakhithee akhdanin waman yakfur bial-eemanifaqad habita AAamaluhu wahuwa fee al-akhiratimina alkhasireena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:5 Today, the good things have been made lawful to you, the food of those who have been given the book is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them; and the acknowledging independent women, and the independent women from the people of the book before you, when you have given them their wages, protected, chaste, and not seeking to take lovers. Whoever rejects acknowledgement, then his work has fallen, and in the Hereafter he is of the losers.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:5 Today, the good things have been made lawful to you, and the food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them; and the independent females from those who are believers, and the independent females from those who have been given the Book before you, if you have given them their dowries, to be independent, not for illicit sex or taking lovers. And whoever rejects belief, then his work has fallen, and in the Hereafter he is of the losers.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:5 Today, all the good things of life have been made lawful to you. And the food of those who have been vouchsafed revelation aforetime is lawful to you,14 and your food is lawful to them. And [lawful to you are], in wedlock, women from among those who believe [in this divine writ], and, in wedlock, women from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time -provided that you give them their dowers, taking them in honest wedlock, not in fornication, nor as secret love-companions.15 But as for him who rejects belief [in God] - in vain will be all his works: for in the life to come he shall be among the lost.16

Note 14
This permission to partake of the food of the followers of other revealed religions excludes, of course, the forbidden categories of meat enumerated in verse 3 above. As a matter of fact, the Law of Moses, too, forbids them explicitly; and there is no statement whatsoever in the Gospels to the effect that these prohibitions were cancelled by Jesus: on the contrary, he is reported to have said, "Think not that I have come to destroy the Law [of Moses]. .. : I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil" (Matthew v, 17). Thus, the latitude enjoyed by post-Pauline followers of Jesus in respect of food does not correspond to what he himself practiced and enjoined.

Note 15
Whereas Muslim men are allowed to marry women from among the followers of another revealed religion, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslims: the reason being that Islam enjoins reverence of all the prophets, while the followers of other religions reject some of them-e.g., the Prophet Muhammad or, as is the case. with the Jews, both Muhammad and Jesus. Thus, while a non-Muslim woman who marries a Muslim can be sure that - despite all doctrinal differences-the prophets of her faith will be mentioned with utmost respect in her Muslim environment, a Muslim woman who would marry a non-Muslim would always be exposed to an abuse of him whom she regards as God's Apostle.

Note 16
The above passage rounds off, as it were, the opening sentences of this surah, "O you who have attained to faith, be true to your covenants" - of which belief in God and the acceptance of His commandments are the foremost. It is immediately followed by a reference to prayer: for it is in prayer that man's dependence on God finds its most conscious and deliberate expression.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:5 Today, all good food is made lawful for you. The food of the people of the scripture is lawful for you, [and your food is lawful for them]3 . Also, you may marry the chaste women among the believers, as well as the chaste women among the followers of previous scripture, provided you pay them their due dowries. You shall maintain chastity, not committing adultery, nor taking secret lovers. Anyone who rejects faith, all his work will be in vain, and in the Hereafter he will be with the losers.,

Note 3
The statement [and your food is lawful to them] occurs in the original Arabic Quran after "lawful for you" and is not included in the last edition of the English translation. (submission.org editorial change)
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:5 This Day, all good things of your choice are made lawful for you. The food of those who were given the Scripture is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. And so are the virtuous, chaste women of the believers and the virtuous, chaste women of those who were given the Scripture before you (provided they do not associate anyone with God 2:221). But you must give them their marriage portions of wealth and property, and live with them in honor, not in fornication, nor as secret lovers. (It must be an honest wedlock 4:24.) Anyone who rejects belief, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.3

Note 3
In between the lines, Muslim women are allowed to marry Muslim men only

5:6 يايها الذين ءامنوا اذا قمتم الى الصلوة فاغسلوا وجوهكم وايديكم الى المرافق وامسحوا برءوسكم وارجلكم الى الكعبين وان كنتم جنبا فاطهروا وان كنتم مرضى او على سفر او جاء احد منكم من الغائط او لمستم النساء فلم تجدوا ماء فتيمموا صعيدا طيبا فامسحوا بوجوهكم وايديكم منه ما يريد الله ليجعل عليكم من حرج ولكن يريد ليطهركم وليتم نعمته عليكم لعلكم تشكرون

Transcription (English)
5:6 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooitha qumtum ila alssalati faighsiloowujoohakum waaydiyakum ila almarafiqi waimsahoobiruoosikum waarjulakum ila alkaAAbayni wa-in kuntumjunuban faittahharoo wa-in kuntum marda awAAala safarin aw jaa ahadun minkum mina algha-itiaw lamastumu alnnisaa falam tajidoo maanfatayammamoo saAAeedan tayyiban faimsahoobiwujoohikum waaydeekum minhu ma yureedu AllahuliyajAAala AAalaykum min harajin walakin yureeduliyutahhirakum waliyutimma niAAmatahu AAalaykumlaAAallakum tashkuroona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
Ablution for Sala5:6 O you who acknowledge, when you rise to attend the contact prayer, then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you have had intercourse, then you shall bathe. If you are ill, or traveling, or you have excreted feces, or you have had sexual contact with the women, and you could not find water, then you shall do ablution from clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and your hands. God does not want to make any hardship over you, but He wants to cleanse you and to complete His blessings upon you that you may be appreciative.4

Note 4

The Quran, which is complete, and sufficiently detailed, describes ablution in four steps. We should not add more steps to it. The Arabic word, which is translated "your feet," can be read in two different ways, arjulakum or arjulikum, changing its reference verb and thus changing the meaning from "wash your feet" to "wipe your feet." One may prefer one of these readings, or follow both depending on occasion. See 4:43.

The Bible contains various references to ablution (Deuteronomy 23:10-15 ; Exodus 30:17-21 ; Leviticus 8:6 ; Psalms 26:6; Hebrews 10:22 ). The Bible also refers to Jesus being critical of Pharisees for being too scrupulous regarding the formalities of ablution, exactly like today's Sunnis and Shiites are (Matthew 23:25 ).

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:6 O you who believe, if you rise to hold the contact prayer, then wash your faces and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you have had intercourse, then you shall purify. And if you are ill, or traveling, or you have excreted feces, or you have had sexual contact with the women, and you cannot not find water, then you shall select from the clean soil; you shall wipe your faces and your hands with it. God does not want to place any hardship on you, but He wants to cleanse you and to complete His blessings upon you that you may be thankful.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:6 O YOU who have attained to faith! When you are about to pray, wash your face, and your hands and arms up to the elbows, and pass your [wet] hands lightly over your head, and [wash] your feet up to the ankles. And if you are in a state. requiring total ablution, purify yourselves.17 But if you are ill, or are travelling, or have just satisfied a want of nature, or have cohabited with a woman, and can find no water-then take resort to pure dust, passing therewith lightly over your face and your hands. God does not want to impose any hardship on you, but wants to make you pure, and to bestow upon you the full measure of His blessings, so that you might have cause to be grateful.

Note 17
For an explanation of this and the following passage, see 4:43 and the corresponding notes. Here, the reference to prayer connects with the last sentence of the preceding verse, which speaks of belief in God.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
Ablution5:6 O you who believe, when you observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), you shall: (1) wash your faces, (2) wash your arms to the elbows, (3) wipe your heads, and (4) wash your feet to the ankles. If you were unclean due to sexual orgasm, you shall bathe. If you are ill, or traveling, or had any digestive excretion (urinary, fecal, or gas), or had (sexual) contact with the women, and you cannot find water, you shall observe the dry ablution (Tayammum) by touching clean dry soil, then rubbing your faces and hands. GOD does not wish to make the religion difficult for you; He wishes to cleanse you and to perfect His blessing upon you, that you may be appreciative.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:6 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! When you congregate for Salaat, wash your faces and your forearms, hands to the elbows. Lightly rub your heads and your feet to the ankles. If you are in the post-coital state with your spouses, bathe your whole body. But, if you are ill or traveling, or coming from the privy, or are in the post-coital state and find no water, then observe dry ablution by touching clean dry soil (or a clean, soft substance) and lightly rub your faces and hands. God does not wish to place any difficulty upon you, but to make you (psychologically) clean and to perfect His blessings upon you, that you may be grateful.4

Note 4
4:43. Wudhu = Ablution will help prepare mentally for congregational prayer. Tayammum= Dry ablution

5:7 واذكروا نعمة الله عليكم وميثقه الذى واثقكم به اذ قلتم سمعنا واطعنا واتقوا الله ان الله عليم بذات الصدور

Transcription (English)
5:7 Waothkuroo niAAmata AllahiAAalaykum wameethaqahu allathee wathaqakumbihi ith qultum samiAAna waataAAna waittaqooAllaha inna Allaha AAaleemun bithati alssudoori
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:7 Recall God's blessings over you and His covenant that He has bound you with, for which you have said, "We hear and obey," and be aware of God; for God knows what is inside the chests.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:7 And remember the blessings of God over you and His covenant that He has bound you with, for which you have said: "We hear and obey," and be aware of God; for God knows what is in the chests.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:7 And [always] remember the blessings which God has bestowed upon you, and the solemn pledge by which He bound you to Himself18 when you said, "We have heard, and we pay heed." Hence, remain conscious of God: verily, God has full knowledge of what is in the hearts [of men].

Note 18
Lit., "His solemn pledge by which He bound you". Since this pledge is given by the believers to God and not by Him to them, the personal pronoun in "His pledge" can have only one meaning: namely, God's binding thereby the believers to Himself.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:7 Remember GOD's blessing upon you, and His covenant that He covenanted with you: you said, "We hear and we obey." You shall observe GOD; GOD is fully aware of the innermost thoughts.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:7 Remember God's blessing (guidance) upon you and His Covenant binding upon you when you said, “We hear and we obey.” Be mindful of God. God is fully Aware of what is in the hearts. [1:4-5]

5:8 يايها الذين ءامنوا كونوا قومين لله شهداء بالقسط ولا يجرمنكم شنان قوم على الا تعدلوا اعدلوا هو اقرب للتقوى واتقوا الله ان الله خبير بما تعملون

Transcription (English)
5:8 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookoonoo qawwameena lillahi shuhadaa bialqistiwala yajrimannakum shanaanu qawmin AAala allataAAdiloo iAAdiloo huwa aqrabu lilttaqwa waittaqooAllaha inna Allaha khabeerun bima taAAmaloona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
Justice5:8 O you who acknowledge, stand for God as witnesses for justice, and let not the hatred towards a people make you avoid being just. Be just, for it is closer to awareness, and be aware of God. God is Expert over what you do.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:8 O you who believe, stand for God and be witnesses for justice, and let not the hatred towards a people make you avoid being just. Be just, for it is closer to righteousness, and be aware of God. God is expert over what you do.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:8 O YOU who have attained to faith! Be ever steadfast in your devotion to God, bearing witness to the truth in all equity; and never let hatred of any-one19 lead you into the sin of deviating from justice. Be just: this is closest to being God-conscious. And remain conscious of God: verily, God is aware of all that you do.

Note 19
Lit., "of people".
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
You Shall Not Bear False Witness5:8 O you who believe, you shall be absolutely equitable, and observe GOD, when you serve as witnesses. Do not be provoked by your conflicts with some people into committing injustice. You shall be absolutely equitable, for it is more righteous. You shall observe GOD. GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:8 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Be upholders of justice for the sake of God as witnesses to the truth. Let not the hatred of any people move you away from justice. Deal justly. That is closer to being upright. Be mindful of your duty to God. God is fully Aware of what you do.

5:9 وعد الله الذين ءامنوا وعملوا الصلحت لهم مغفرة واجر عظيم

Transcription (English)
5:9 WaAAada Allahu allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati lahum maghfiratunwaajrun AAatheemun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:9 God has promised those who acknowledge and do right that they will have forgiveness and a great reward.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:9 God has promised those who believe and do good works that they will have forgiveness and a great recompense.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:9 God has promised unto those who attain to faith and do good works [that] theirs shall be forgiveness of sins, and a mighty reward;
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:9 GOD promises those who believe and lead a righteous life forgiveness and a great recompense.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:9 God promises the protection of forgiveness and a great reward to those who attain belief and do good works (that increase the human potential).

5:10 والذين كفروا وكذبوا بايتنا اولئك اصحب الجحيم

Transcription (English)
5:10 Waallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboobi-ayatina ola-ika as-habualjaheemi
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:10 Those who reject and deny Our signs, they are the dwellers of hell.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:10 And those who reject and deny Our revelations, they are the dwellers of Hell.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:10 whereas they who are bent on denying the truth and giving the lie to Our messages-they are destined for the blazing fire.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:10 As for those who disbelieve and reject our revelations, they are the dwellers of Hell.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:10 Yet, there are those who oppose Our revelations openly, or deny them in practice. They are the companions of the Insurmountable Barrier.5

Note 5
‘Selves’ that fail to develop, are unfit to move up to the higher levels of existence, so they merely survive instead of achieving true immortality. 69:27

5:11 يايها الذين ءامنوا اذكروا نعمت الله عليكم اذ هم قوم ان يبسطوا اليكم ايديهم فكف ايديهم عنكم واتقوا الله وعلى الله فليتوكل المؤمنون

Transcription (English)
5:11 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooothkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykum ith hammaqawmun an yabsutoo ilaykum aydiyahum fakaffa aydiyahumAAankum waittaqoo Allaha waAAala Allahifalyatawakkali almu/minoona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:11 O you who acknowledge, recall God's blessings upon you when a group desired to extend their hands against you, and He restrained their hands from you. So, revere God; and in God those who acknowledge should put their trust.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:11 O you who believe, remember the blessings of God upon you when a group desired to aggress againstyou, and He restrained their hands from you. And reverence God. And in God the believers should put their trust.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:11 O you who have attained to faith! Remember the blessings which God bestowed upon you when [hostile] people were about to lay hands on you20 and He stayed their hands from you. Remain, then, conscious of God: and in God let the believers place their trust.

Note 20
Lit., "to stretch their hands towards you": an allusion to the weakness of the believers at the beginning of the Qur'anic revelation, and - by implication - to the initial weakness of every religious movement.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
God Defends the Believers5:11 O you who believe, remember GOD's blessings upon you; when some people extended their hands to aggress against you, He protected you and withheld their hands. You shall observe GOD; in GOD the believers shall trust. Conditions for Staying Within God's Protection*,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:11 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Remember the blessing of God. There were people who had aggressive designs against you but He withheld their hands from you. (Due preparation against danger is a strong deterrent 4:71, 8:60). Remain mindful of God and in God let believers put their trust.

5:12 ولقد اخذ الله ميثق بنى اسرءيل وبعثنا منهم اثنى عشر نقيبا وقال الله انى معكم لئن اقمتم الصلوة وءاتيتم الزكوة وءامنتم برسلى وعزرتموهم واقرضتم الله قرضا حسنا لاكفرن عنكم سياتكم ولادخلنكم جنت تجرى من تحتها الانهر فمن كفر بعد ذلك منكم فقد ضل سواء السبيل

Transcription (English)
5:12 Walaqad akhatha Allahu meethaqabanee isra-eela wabaAAathna minhumu ithnay AAasharanaqeeban waqala Allahu innee maAAakum la-inaqamtumu alssalata waataytumu alzzakatawaamantum birusulee waAAazzartumoohum waaqradtumuAllaha qardan hasanan laokaffiranna AAankumsayyi-atikum walaodkhilannakum jannatin tajree mintahtiha al-anharu faman kafara baAAda thalikaminkum faqad dalla sawaa alssabeeli
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:12 God took the covenant of the Children of Israel and sent from them twelve representatives, and God said, "I am with you if you hold the contact prayer, contribute towards betterment, acknowledge My messengers, support them, and give God a loan of righteousness; then I will cancel your sins and admit you into gardens with rivers flowing beneath." Whoever rejects after this from you, then he has strayed from the path.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:12 God has taken the covenant of the Children of Israel and raised from them twelve representatives, and God said: "I am with you if you hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification, and believe in My messengers, and support them, and lend God a loan of righteousness; then I will cancel your sins and admit you into estates with rivers flowing beneath them." Whoever rejects after this from you, then he has strayed from the path.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:12 AND, INDEED, God accepted a [similar] solemn pledge21 from the children of Israel when We caused twelve of their leaders to be sent [to Canaan as spies].22 And God said: "Behold, I shall be with you! If you are constant in prayer, and spend in charity, and believe in My apostles and aid them, and offer up unto God a goodly loan,23 I will surely efface your bad deeds and bring you into gardens through which running waters flow. But he from among you who, after this, denies the truth, will indeed have strayed from the right path!"

Note 21
The interpolation of "similar" is justified by the obvious reference to verse 7 above. The pledge was similar in that it related to obedience to God's commandments.

Note 22
Lit., "when We sent out twelve leaders from among them". This is a reference to the Biblical story (in Numbers xiii), according to which God commanded Moses to send out one leading personality from each of the twelve tribes "to spy out the land of Canaan- before the children of Israel invaded it. (The noun naqib, here rendered as "leader", has also the meaning of "investigator" or "spy" inasmuch as it is derived from the verb naqaba, which signifies - among other things - "he scrutinized" or "investigated"). The subsequent near-revolt of the children of Israel-caused by their fear of the powerful tribes which inhabited Canaan (cf. Numbers xiv)-is briefly referred to in the first sentence of verse 13 and more fully described in verses 20-26- of this surah.

Note 23
I.e., by doing righteous deeds.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:12 GOD had taken a covenant from the Children of Israel, and we raised among them twelve patriarchs. And GOD said, "I am with you, so long as you observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and believe in My messengers and respect them, and continue to lend GOD a loan of righteousness. I will then remit your sins, and admit you into gardens with flowing streams. Anyone who disbelieves after this, has indeed strayed off the right path." Consequences of Violating God's Covenant,4

Note 4
If you fulfill the requirements stated in this verse, God will let you know that He is with you; you will have no doubt about it. Prominentamong God's signs are mathematical signs for those who understand the Quran'smiracle(Appendix 1).
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:12 Indeed God made a Covenant with the Children of Israel. We appointed twelve leaders among them. God said to them, "I am with you so long as you follow the Divine Commands, spend your wealth for the community, believe in My Messengers, assist them, and give a beautiful loan to God (that is paid back to you manifold in both lives 2:261). I will absolve your imperfections, help you create balance in the society and admit you to Gardens with rivers flowing beneath. But, whoever among you disbelieves after this, will go astray from the right path."

5:13 فبما نقضهم ميثقهم لعنهم وجعلنا قلوبهم قسية يحرفون الكلم عن مواضعه ونسوا حظا مما ذكروا به ولا تزال تطلع على خائنة منهم الا قليلا منهم فاعف عنهم واصفح ان الله يحب المحسنين

Transcription (English)
5:13 Fabima naqdihim meethaqahumlaAAannahum wajaAAalna quloobahum qasiyatanyuharrifoona alkalima AAan mawadiAAihi wanasoo haththanmimma thukkiroo bihi wala tazalu tattaliAAuAAala kha-inatin minhum illa qaleelan minhumfaoAAfu AAanhum waisfah inna Allahayuhibbu almuhsineena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:13 But because of them breaking their covenant, We have cursed them, made their hearts become hardened. They take the words out of context; and they forgot much of what they were reminded of. You will still discover betrayal in them except for a few; so pardon them and overlook; God loves the good doers.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:13 But because of them breaking their covenant, We have cursed them, and made their hearts become hardened; they take the words out of context; and they forgot much of what they were reminded of. And you will still discover betrayal in them except for a few; so pardon them and overlook; God loves the good doers.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:13 Then, for having broken their solemn pledge,24 We rejected them and caused their hearts to harden-[so that now] they distort the meaning of the [re-vealed] words, taking them out of their context;25 and they have forgotten much of what they had been told to bear in mind; and from all but a few of them thou wilt always experience treachery. But pardon them, and forbear: verily, God loves the doers of good.

Note 24
An allusion to their lack of trust in God and their persistent sinning.

Note 25
See 4:46, where the same accusation is levelled against the children of Israel.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:13 It was a consequence of their violating the covenant that we condemned them, and we caused their hearts to become hardened. Consequently, they took the words out of context, and disregarded some of the commandments given to them. You will continue to witness betrayal from them, excepting a few of them. You shall pardon them, and disregard them. GOD loves those who are benevolent.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:13 When they broke their promise, We rejected them and Our law caused their hearts to harden. So, now they change words from their context and ignore a good part of the message, forgetting what they were told to bear in mind. (O Prophet) you will not cease to discover betrayal from all but a few of them. Pardon them and forbear. Indeed, God loves those who serve humanity.

5:14 ومن الذين قالوا انا نصرى اخذنا ميثقهم فنسوا حظا مما ذكروا به فاغرينا بينهم العداوة والبغضاء الى يوم القيمة وسوف ينبئهم الله بما كانوا يصنعون

Transcription (English)
5:14 Wamina allatheena qaloo innanasara akhathna meethaqahumfanasoo haththan mimma thukkiroobihi faaghrayna baynahumu alAAadawata waalbaghdaaila yawmi alqiyamati wasawfa yunabbi-ohumu Allahubima kanoo yasnaAAoona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:14 From those who have said, "We are Nazarenes," We have taken their covenant and they have forgotten much of what they were reminded of; so We planted between them animosity and hatred until the day of Resurrection; and God will inform them of what they had done.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:14 And from those who have said: "We are Nazarenes," We have taken their covenant and they have forgotten much of what they were reminded of; so We planted between them animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection; and God will inform them of what they had done.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:14 And [likewise,] from those who say, "Behold, we are Christians."26 We have accepted a solemn pledge: and they, too, have forgotten much of what they had been told to bear in mind - wherefore We have given rise among them to enmity and hatred, [to last] until Resurrection Day:27 and in time God will cause them to understand what they have contrived.

Note 26
Thus the Qur'an elliptically rejects their claim of being true followers of Jesus: for, by wrongfully elevating him to the status of divinity they have denied the very essence of his message.

Note 27
I.e., their going astray from the genuine teachings of Jesus-and thus from true faith in God-is the innermost cause of the enmity and hatred which has so often set the so-called Christian nations against one another and led to unceasing wars and mutual persecution.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
Christians, too, Must Obey God's Messenger5:14 Also from those who said, "We are Christian," we took their covenant. But they disregarded some of the commandments given to them. Consequently, we condemned them to animosity and hatred among themselves, until the Day of Resurrection. GOD will then inform them of everything they had done.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:14 We also made a Covenant with those who say, “We are Christians.” But they ignored a good part of the message that was sent to them and forgot what they were told to bear in mind. As a result, Our law has caused enmity and hatred among them till the Resurrection Day, when God will inform them of what they contrived, (Rivalry based upon Sectarianism and Nationalism, a natural consequence of deviating from the True Message, whether people call themselves Jews, Christians or Muslims.)

5:15 ياهل الكتب قد جاءكم رسولنا يبين لكم كثيرا مما كنتم تخفون من الكتب ويعفوا عن كثير قد جاءكم من الله نور وكتب مبين

Transcription (English)
5:15 Ya ahla alkitabi qad jaakumrasooluna yubayyinu lakum katheeran mimma kuntumtukhfoona mina alkitabi wayaAAfoo AAan katheerin qad jaakummina Allahi noorun wakitabun mubeenun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
See the Light and Accept the Truth5:15 People of the book, Our messenger has come to you to proclaim for you much of what you were hiding from the book, and to ignore over much. A light has come to you from God and a clarifying book.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:15 O people of the Book, Our messenger has come to you to clarify for you much of what you were hiding from the Book, and to pardon over much. A light has come to you from God and a clarifying Book.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:15 O followers of the Bible! Now there has come unto you Our Apostle, to make clear unto you much of what you have been concealing [from yourselves) of the Bible,28 and to pardon much. Now there has come unto you from God a light, and a clear divine writ,

Note 28
Inasmuch as verses 15-19 are addressed to the Jews and the Christians, the term al-kitab may suitably be rendered here as "the Bible". It is to be borne in mind that the primary meaning of the verb khafiya is "it became imperceptible" or "not apparent" or "obscure". and that the same significance attaches to the transitive form akhfa. There is. of course, no doubt that in its transitive form the verb also denotes "he concealed [something]". i.e., from others: but in view of the preceding phrase, "there has come unto you Our Apostle to make clear unto you", it is obvious that what is alluded to in this context is the concealing of something from oneself: in other words, it is a reference to the gradual obscuring, by the followers of the Bible, of its original verities which they are now unwilling to admit even to themselves.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
The Quran: God's Message to the Jews and Christians5:15 O people of the scripture, our messenger has come to you to proclaim for you many things you have concealed in the scripture, and to pardon many other transgressions you have committed. A beacon has come to you from GOD, and a profound scripture.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:15 O People of the Book! Now has come to you Our Messenger, to make clear to you much of what you have been concealing of the Bible (even from yourselves). He ignores much of the irrelevant accounts and pardons much of your misdeeds. Now has come to you from God a beacon of light and a clear Book.

5:16 يهدى به الله من اتبع رضونه سبل السلم ويخرجهم من الظلمت الى النور باذنه ويهديهم الى صرط مستقيم

Transcription (English)
5:16 Yahdee bihi Allahu mani ittabaAAa ridwanahusubula alssalami wayukhrijuhum mina alththulumatiila alnnoori bi-ithnihi wayahdeehim ilasiratin mustaqeemin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:16 God guides with it whoever follows His acceptance, to the ways of peace; and He brings them out of the darkness and into the light by His leave; and He guides them to a Straight Path.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:16 God guides with it whoever follows His acceptance, to the ways of peace; and it brings them out of the darkness and into the light with His permission; and it guides them to a straight path.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:16 through which God shows unto all that seek His goodly acceptance the paths leading to salvation29 and, by His grace, brings them out of the depths of darkness into the light and guides them onto a straight way.

Note 29
The word salam, here rendered as' "salvation", has no proper equivalent in the English language. It denotes inner peace, soundness and security from evil of any kind, both physical and spiritual, and the achievement of what, in Christian terminology, is described as "salvation": with the difference, however, that the Christian concept of salvation presupposes the existence of an a-priori state of sinfulness, which is justified in Christianity by the doctrine of "original sin", but is not justified in Islam, which does not subscribe to this doctrine. Consequently, the term "salvation" - which I am using here for want of a better word- does not adequately convey the full meaning of salam. Its nearest equivalents in Western languages would be the German Heil or the French salut, both of which express the idea of spiritual peace and fulfilment without being necessarily (i.e., linguistically) connected with the Christian doctrine of salvation.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:16 With it, GOD guides those who seek His approval. He guides them to the paths of peace, leads them out of darkness into the light by His leave, and guides them in a straight path.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:16 Through this Book God guides to the path of Peace, those who seek His approval. He brings them out of darkness into the light of His grace, and guides them to the straight path.

5:17 لقد كفر الذين قالوا ان الله هو المسيح ابن مريم قل فمن يملك من الله شيا ان اراد ان يهلك المسيح ابن مريم وامه ومن فى الارض جميعا ولله ملك السموت والارض وما بينهما يخلق ما يشاء والله على كل شىء قدير

Transcription (English)
5:17 Laqad kafara allatheena qalooinna Allaha huwa almaseehu ibnu maryama qul famanyamliku mina Allahi shay-an in arada an yuhlikaalmaseeha ibna maryama waommahu waman fee al-ardijameeAAan walillahi mulku alssamawatiwaal-ardi wama baynahuma yakhluqu mayashao waAllahu AAala kulli shay-inqadeerun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:17 Ingrates indeed are those who have said, "God is the Messiah the son of Mary." Say, "Who has any power against God if He had wanted to destroy the Messiah son of Mary, and his mother, and all who are on earth!" To God is the sovereignty of heavens and earth and all that is in-between; He creates what He pleases. God is capable of all things.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:17 Rejecters indeed are those who have said: "God is the Messiah, son of Mary." Say: "Who has any power against God if He had wanted to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, and his mother, and all who are on the earth!" And to God is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is in-between; He creates what He pleases. God is capable of all things.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:17 Indeed, the truth deny they who say, "Behold, God is the Christ, son of Mary." Say: "And who could have prevailed with God in any way had it been His will to destroy the Christ, son of Mary, and his mother, and everyone who is on earth-all of them? For, God's is the dominion over the heavens and the earth and all that is between them; He creates what He wills: and God has the power to will anything!"
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
Gross Blasphemy5:17 Pagans indeed are those who say that GOD is the Messiah, the son of Mary. Say, "Who could oppose GOD if He willed to annihilate the Messiah, son of Mary, and his mother, and everyone on earth?" To GOD belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and everything between them. He creates whatever He wills. GOD is Omnipotent.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:17 They have certainly denied the truth who say, “God is the Messiah, son of Mary.” Say, "Who could oppose God if He willed to annihilate the Messiah son of Mary, and his mother and everyone on earth, all of them?" God’s is the Dominion of the heavens and earth and all that is between them. He creates all things according to His laws. And God has Power over all things and events.

5:18 وقالت اليهود والنصرى نحن ابنؤا الله واحبؤه قل فلم يعذبكم بذنوبكم بل انتم بشر ممن خلق يغفر لمن يشاء ويعذب من يشاء ولله ملك السموت والارض وما بينهما واليه المصير

Transcription (English)
5:18 Waqalati alyahoodu waalnnasaranahnu abnao Allahi waahibbaohuqul falima yuAAaththibukum bithunoobikum bal antumbasharun mimman khalaqa yaghfiru liman yashao wayuAAaththibuman yashao walillahi mulku alssamawatiwaal-ardi wama baynahuma wa-ilayhialmaseeru
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:18 The Jews and the Nazarenes said, "We are God's children and His loved ones." Say, "Then why does He punish you for your sins?" No, you are merely humans from what He has created. He forgives whom He pleases, and He punishes whom He pleases. To God is the sovereignty of heavens, earth, and all that is in-between, and to Him is the destiny.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:18 And the Jews and the Nazarenes said: "We are the children of God, and His loved ones." Say: "Then why does He punish you for your sins?" No, you are merely human beings which He has created. He forgives whom He pleases, and He punishes whom He pleases. And to God is the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is in-between, and to Him is the destiny.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:18 And [both] the Jews and the Christians say, "We are God's children,30 and His beloved ones." Say: "Why, then, does He cause you to suffer for your sins? Nay, you are but human beings of His creating. He forgives whom He wills, and He causes to suffer whom He wills: for God's is the dominion over the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and with Him is all journeys' end."

Note 30
Cf. Exodus iv, 22-23 ("Israel is My son"), Jeremiah xxxi, 9 ("I am a father to Israel"), and the many parallel expressions in the Gospels.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
God's Messenger to the Jews, Christians and Muslims5:18 The Jews and the Christians said, "We are GOD's children and His beloved." Say, "Why then does He punish you for your sins? You are just humans like the other humans He created." He forgives whomever He wills and punishes whomever He wills. To GOD belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, and everything between them, and to Him is the final destiny.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:18 Jews and Christians say, "We are God's children and his loved ones". Ask them "Why does He, then, take you to task for your transgressions?" Nay, you are but human beings of His creating. He forgives and punishes according to His laws. The Dominion of the heavens and earth and all that is in between them, belongs to God. To Him is the Final destination of all.

5:19 ياهل الكتب قد جاءكم رسولنا يبين لكم على فترة من الرسل ان تقولوا ما جاءنا من بشير ولا نذير فقد جاءكم بشير ونذير والله على كل شىء قدير

Transcription (English)
5:19 Ya ahla alkitabi qad jaakumrasooluna yubayyinu lakum AAala fatratin mina alrrusulian taqooloo ma jaana min basheerin walanatheerin faqad jaakum basheerun wanatheerunwaAllahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:19 O people of the book, Our messenger has come to clarify for you after a period of absence of messengers; so that you cannot say, "No bearer of good news or warner has come to us;" for a bearer of good news and a warner has come to you; and God is capable of all things.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:19 O people of the Book, Our messenger has come to clarify for you after a lack of messengers; so that you cannot say: "No bearer of good news or warner has come to us;" for a bearer of good news and a warner has come to you; and God is capable of all things.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:19 O followers of the Bible! Now, after a long time during which no apostles have appeared, there has come unto you [this] Our Apostle to make [the truth] clear to you, lest you say, "No bearer of glad tidings has come unto us, nor any warner ": for now there has come unto you a bearer of glad tidings and a warner -since God has the power to will anything.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
God's Messenger of the Covenant5:19 O people of the scripture, our messenger has come to you, to explain things to you, after a period of time without messengers, lest you say, "We did not receive any preacher or warner." A preacher and warner has now come to you. GOD is Omnipotent.,5

Note 5
This verse reports the fulfillment of the biblical and Quranic prophecy regarding the advent of God's Messenger ofthe Covenant (Malachi 3:1 , Quran3:81). The nameof this messenger is mathematically coded into the Quran as "Rashad Khalifa."This very special verse warrants the presentation ofspecific evidence. By adding the gematrical value of "Rashad" (505), plusthe value of "Khalifa" (725), plus the sura number (5), plus the verse number(19), we obtain a total of 505+725+5+19 = 1254, or 19x66. Nineteen is theQuran's common denominator, which was revealed through Rashad Khalifa. More evidence and specific details arein Appendix 2.
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:19 O People of the Scripture! Our Messenger has come to you, to make the truth clear, after an interval without Messengers. Lest you say, “No Messengers came to us to give good news and to warn.” Now has come to you the giver of glad tiding and warning. God has Power over all things and events.

5:20 واذ قال موسى لقومه يقوم اذكروا نعمة الله عليكم اذ جعل فيكم انبياء وجعلكم ملوكا وءاتىكم ما لم يؤت احدا من العلمين

Transcription (English)
5:20 Wa-ith qala moosaliqawmihi ya qawmi othkuroo niAAmata AllahiAAalaykum ith jaAAala feekum anbiyaa wajaAAalakummulookan waatakum ma lam yu/ti ahadanmina alAAalameena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
The Holy Land5:20 Moses said to his people, "My people, remember God's favor upon you that he made amongst you prophets, and made you sovereigns, and he gave you what He had not given any from the worlds."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:20 And Moses said to his people: "My people, remember the grace of God upon you that he made among you prophets, and made you kings, and he gave you what He had not given any from the worlds."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:20 AND, LO, Moses said unto his people:"31 O my people! Remember the blessings which God bestowed upon you when he raised up prophets among you, and made you your own masters,32 and granted unto you [favours] such as He had not granted to anyone else in the world.

Note 31
With these words the Qur'an returns to the story of the children of Israel alluded to in verses 12 and 13 - namely, to an illustration of their having "broken their solemn pledge" and gone back on their faith in God. The following story is, moreover, directly connected with the preceding verse inasmuch as Moses appeals here to the children of Israel as "a bearer of glad tidings and a warner".

Note 32
Lit., "made you kings". According to most of the commentators (e.g., Tabari, Zamakhshari, Razi), the "kingship" of the Israelites is a metaphorical allusion to their freedom and independence after their Egyptian bondage, the term "king" being equivalent here to "a free man who is master of his own affairs" (Manar VI, 323 f.) and can, therefore, adopt any way of life he chooses.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:20 Recall that Moses said to his people, "O my people, remember GOD's blessings upon you: He appointed prophets from among you, made you kings, and granted you what He never granted any other people.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:20 Moses told his people, “Remember God's blessings that He raised Prophets among you and made you your own masters. And He gave you what He had not given to any other people.

5:21 يقوم ادخلوا الارض المقدسة التى كتب الله لكم ولا ترتدوا على ادباركم فتنقلبوا خسرين

Transcription (English)
5:21 Ya qawmi odkhuloo al-ardaalmuqaddasata allatee kataba Allahu lakum walatartaddoo AAala adbarikum fatanqaliboo khasireena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:21 "O my people, enter the holy land that God Has decreed for you, and do not turn your backs, or you will become losers."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:21 "O my people, enter the holy land as God Has decreed for you, and do not turn your backs, or you will become losers."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:21 O my people! Enter the holy land which God has promised you; but do not turn back [on your faith], for then you will be lost!"
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
God Gives the Holy Land to Israel5:21 "O my people, enter the holy land that GOD has decreed for you, and do not rebel, lest you become losers.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:21 O My people! Enter the Sacred Land that God has decreed for you, as long as you hold fast to His laws. But, if you turn back in flight, you will be overthrown to your own ruin.”6

Note 6
Sacred Land = Can’aan = Syria-Palestine, 2:125, 6:137, 12:58, 12:94, 21:71, 23:50, 26:59, 29:26, 30:3, 44:3, Introduction to Surahs: 12, 14, 19

5:22 قالوا يموسى ان فيها قوما جبارين وانا لن ندخلها حتى يخرجوا منها فان يخرجوا منها فانا دخلون

Transcription (English)
5:22 Qaloo ya moosa innafeeha qawman jabbareena wa-inna lannadkhulaha hatta yakhrujoo minhafa-in yakhrujoo minha fa-inna dakhiloona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:22 They said, "O Moses, in it are a mighty people, and we will not enter it until they leave. So when they leave, then we will enter it."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:22 They said: "O Moses, in it are a mighty people, and we will not enter it until they leave from it. So when they leave from it, then we will enter."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:22 They answered: "O Moses! Behold, ferocious people -dwell in that land,33 and we will surely not enter it unless they depart therefrom; but if they depart therefrom, then, behold, we will enter it."

Note 33
Lit., "are in it". See Numbers xiii, 32-33, and also the whole of ch. xiv, which speaks of the terror that overwhelmed the Israelites on hearing the report of the twelve scouts mentioned in verse 12 of this surah, and of the punishment of their cowardice and lack of faith.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:22 They said, "O Moses, there are powerful people in it, and we will not enter it, unless they get out of it. If they get out, we are entering.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:22 They said to Moses, "In this land there are ferocious people. Never shall we enter it until they leave. If they leave, then we will enter.”

5:23 قال رجلان من الذين يخافون انعم الله عليهما ادخلوا عليهم الباب فاذا دخلتموه فانكم غلبون وعلى الله فتوكلوا ان كنتم مؤمنين

Transcription (English)
5:23 Qala rajulani mina allatheenayakhafoona anAAama Allahu AAalayhimaodkhuloo AAalayhimu albaba fa-itha dakhaltumoohufa-innakum ghaliboona waAAala Allahifatawakkaloo in kuntum mu/mineena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:23 Among those who were afraid, two men whom God had blessed, said, "Enter upon them through the gate; when you enter it then you will be the victors. You shall put your trust in God if you had acknowledged."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:23 Two men from among those who were fearing, upon whom God had bestowed favor, said: "Enter upon them through the gate, if you enter it then you will be the victors; and put your trust in God if you are believers."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:23 [Whereupon] two men from among those who feared [God, and] whom God had blessed, said: "Enter upon them through the gate'34 -for as soon as you enter it, behold, you shall be victorious! And in God you must place your trust if you are [truly] believers!"

Note 34
I.e., by frontal attack. According to the Bible (Numbers xiv, 6-9, 24, 30, 38), the two God-fearing men were Joshua and Caleb, who had been among the twelve spies sent out to explore Canaan, and who now tried to persuade the terror-stricken children of Israel to place their trust in God. As so often in the Qur'an, this story of the Israelites serves to illustrate the difference between real, selfless faith and worldly self-love.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:23 Two men who were reverent and blessed by GOD said, "Just enter the gate. If you just enter it, you will surely prevail. You must trust in GOD, if you are believers.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:23 Then two men who feared violating God’s command, and whom God had blessed, said, “Enter the gate daringly, and you will be in command of the situation and will be victorious. Put your trust in God if you are believers.”7

Note 7
The two men were Joshua and Caleb. Bible; Numbers 14: 6-30

5:24 قالوا يموسى انا لن ندخلها ابدا ما داموا فيها فاذهب انت وربك فقتلا انا ههنا قعدون

Transcription (English)
5:24 Qaloo ya moosa innalan nadkhulaha abadan ma damoo feehafa-ithhab anta warabbuka faqatila innahahuna qaAAidoona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:24 They said, "O Moses, we will never enter it as long as they are in it, so go you and your Lord and fight, we will stay right here!"
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:24 They said: "O Moses, we will never enter it as long as they are in it, so go you and your Lord and fight, we will stay right here!"
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:24 [But] they said: "O Moses! Behold, never shall we enter that [land] so long as those others are in it. Go forth, then, thou and thy Sustainer, and fight, both of you! We, behold, shall remain here!"
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
Despite All the Miracles They Saw5:24 They said, "O Moses, we will never enter it, so long as they are in it. Therefore, go - you and your Lord - and fight. We are sitting right here.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:24 They said, "O Moses! We shall never enter the land while they are in it. You and your Lord should go and fight, while we sit here.”

5:25 قال رب انى لا املك الا نفسى واخى فافرق بيننا وبين القوم الفسقين

Transcription (English)
5:25 Qala rabbi innee la amliku illanafsee waakhee faofruq baynana wabayna alqawmi alfasiqeena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:25 He said, "My Lord, I do not control except myself and my brother, so separate between us and between the wicked people."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:25 He said: "My Lord, I do not possess except myself and my brother, so separate between us and between the wicked people."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:25 Prayed [Moses]: "O my Sustainer! Of none am I master but of myself and my brother [Aaron]: draw Thou, then, a dividing-line between us and these iniquitous folk!"
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:25 He said, "My Lord, I can only control myself and my brother. So, allow us to part company with the wicked people.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:25 Moses said, "My Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, allow us to part ways from those who keep drifting away from the commands.”

5:26 قال فانها محرمة عليهم اربعين سنة يتيهون فى الارض فلا تاس على القوم الفسقين

Transcription (English)
5:26 Qala fa-innaha muharramatunAAalayhim arbaAAeena sanatan yateehoona fee al-ardi falata/sa AAala alqawmi alfasiqeena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:26 He said, "Then it has become forbidden for them for forty years, and they will be lost in the land." Do not be sorrowful over the wicked people.5

Note 5

For the same event, see the Old Testament, Numbers 14:33-34 ; Deuteronomy 8:2-3 .

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:26 He said: "It has become restricted to them for forty years, and they will be lost in the land." Do not be sorrowful over the wicked people.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:26 Answered He: "Then, verily, this [land] shall be forbidden to them for forty years, while they wander on earth, bewildered, to and fro; and sorrow thou not over these iniquitous folk."
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:26 He said, "Henceforth, it is forbidden them for forty years, during which they will roam the earth aimlessly. Do not grieve over such wicked people.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:26 Their Lord said, “This land will be forbidden for them for forty years. They will wander on earth, bewildered. So grieve not over these people who keep drifting away from the right path.”8

Note 8
Among mankind there always have been those who submit, and those who transgress. The Children of Israel enjoyed great Divine blessings, but for their repeated transgressions they were chastised 2:259, 17:5, and God’s bounty of Prophethood, in His Infinite wisdom, moved away from the Children of Israel to the Children of Ishmael, among whom was raised Muhammad, the Final Prophet/Messenger of God. The dire opposition of Jews and Christians to the Final Messenger is alluded to in the following verses, in reference to the famous story of the two brothers, Abel Haabeel and Cain Qaabeel

5:27 واتل عليهم نبا ابنى ءادم بالحق اذ قربا قربانا فتقبل من احدهما ولم يتقبل من الءاخر قال لاقتلنك قال انما يتقبل الله من المتقين

Transcription (English)
5:27 Waotlu AAalayhim nabaa ibnay adamabialhaqqi ith qarraba qurbananfatuqubbila min ahadihima walam yutaqabbal mina al-akhariqala laaqtulannaka qala innama yataqabbaluAllahu mina almuttaqeena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
Each Human is as Important as All of Humanity5:27 Recite for them the news of Adam's two sons in truth. They had both made an offering, and it was accepted from one of them, and not accepted from the other. He said, "I will kill you!"; he said, "God only accepts from the righteous."6

Note 6

Killing a human intentionally without justice, is equivalent to killing all of humanity (5:32), since if one loses his respect for the life of one human being he will lose his respect for the basic principle of the unity of humanity. For the Biblical version of this story, see Genesis 4:1-25 ; Joshua 15:57 ; Hebrews 11:4 ; 1 John 3:12 ; Jude 1:11 .

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:27 And recite to them the news of the two sons of Adam with truth. They had both made an offering, and it was accepted from one of them, and not accepted from the other. He said: "I will kill you!" He said: "God only accepts from the righteous."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:27 AND CONVEY unto them, setting forth the truth, the story of the two sons of Adam35 -how each offered a sacrifice, and it was accepted from one of them whereas it was not accepted from the other. [And Cain] said: "I will surely slay thee!" [Abel] replied: "Behold, God accepts only from those who are conscious of Him.

Note 35
I.e., the story of Cain and Abel, mentioned in Genesis iv, 1-16. The pronoun in "tell them" refers to the followers of the Bible, and obviously connects with verse 15 of this surah, "Now there has come unto you Our Apostle, to make clear unto you much of what you have been concealing [from yourselves] of the Bible", the meaning of which has been explained in note 28 above. The moral of this particular Biblical story -a moral which the followers of the Bible have been "concealing from themselves" - is summarized in verse 32.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
The First Murder5:27 Recite for them the true history of Adam's two sons. They made an offering, and it was accepted from one of them, but not from the other. He said, "I will surely kill you." He said, "GOD accepts only from the righteous.6 ,

Note 6
The names of the two sons involved in this first murder are not relevant. But they are given in the Bible as Abel and Cain (Genesis 4:2-9 ).
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:27 (O Messenger) tell them the true story of the two descendants of Adam. Each of them made an offering. (And they thought that) it was accepted from one of them, but not from the other. The latter said, "Be sure, I will kill you.” The former said, “God accepts the sacrifice of the righteous.”9

Note 9
Every action of the righteous is readily accepted

5:28 لئن بسطت الى يدك لتقتلنى ما انا بباسط يدى اليك لاقتلك انى اخاف الله رب العلمين

Transcription (English)
5:28 La-in basatta ilayya yadakalitaqtulanee ma ana bibasitin yadiyailayka li-aqtulaka innee akhafu Allaha rabba alAAalameena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:28 "If you stretch your hand to kill me, I will not stretch my hand to kill you, for I fear God, the Lord of the worlds."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:28 "If you stretch your hand to kill me, I will not stretch my hand to kill you, for I fear God, Lord of the worlds."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:28 Even if thou lay thy hand on me to slay me, I shall not lay my hand on thee to slay thee: behold, I fear God, the Sustainer of all the worlds.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:28 "If you extend your hand to kill me, I am not extending my hand to kill you. For I reverence GOD, Lord of the universe.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:28 “If you extend your hand to kill me, it is not for me to extend my hand to kill you. I do fear God, the Lord of the Worlds.”

5:29 انى اريد ان تبوا باثمى واثمك فتكون من اصحب النار وذلك جزؤا الظلمين

Transcription (English)
5:29 Innee oreedu an taboo-a bi-ithmee wa-ithmikafatakoona min as-habi alnnari wathalikajazao alththalimeena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:29 "I want you to have both my sin as well as your own sin, and you will then be among the dwellers of the fire. Such is the reward of the wicked."
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:29 "I want you to have both my sin and your own sin, and you will then be among the dwellers of the Fire. Such is the recompense of the wicked."
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:29 I am willing, indeed, for thee to bear [the burden of] all the sins ever done by me as well as of the sin done by thee:36 [but] then thou wouldst be destined for the fire, since that is the requital of evildoers!"

Note 36
Lit., "my sin as well as thy sin". It is evident from several well-authenticated ahadith that if a person dies a violent death not caused, directly or indirectly, by his own sinful actions, his previous sins will be forgiven (the reason being, evidently, that he had no time to repent, as he might have done had he been allowed to live). In cases of unprovoked murder, the murderer is burdened-in addition to the sin of murder-with the sins which his innocent victim might have committed in the past and of which he (the victim) is now absolved: this convincing interpretation of the above verse has been advanced by Mujahid (as quoted by Tabari).
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:29 "I want you, not me, to bear my sin and your sin, then you end up with the dwellers of Hell. Such is the requital for the transgressors.",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:29 “I would rather have you carry two violations, mine as well as yours. For, you will be among the dwellers of the fire. That is the reward for the wrongdoers.”10

Note 10
Two violations or sins: First, of slaying me, and second, of slaying the person in you. 5:30

5:30 فطوعت له نفسه قتل اخيه فقتله فاصبح من الخسرين

Transcription (English)
5:30 FatawwaAAat lahu nafsuhu qatlaakheehi faqatalahu faasbaha mina alkhasireena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:30 So he found it in himself to kill his brother, and he killed him. He thus became one of the losers.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:30 So he found it in himself to kill his brother; so he killed him. He thus became one of the losers.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:30 But the other's passion37 drove him to slaying his brother; and he slew him: and thus he became one of the lost.

Note 37
Among the many meanings attributable to the noun nafs (primarily, "soul", or "mind", or "self"), there is also that of "desire" or "passionate determination" (Qamu; see also Zamakhshari's Asas); in this context, the best rendering seems to be "passion".
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:30 His ego provoked him into killing his brother. He killed him, and ended up with the losers.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:30 His ego led him into killing his brother. He killed him and became a loser.

5:31 فبعث الله غرابا يبحث فى الارض ليريه كيف يورى سوءة اخيه قال يويلتى اعجزت ان اكون مثل هذا الغراب فاورى سوءة اخى فاصبح من الندمين

Transcription (English)
5:31 FabaAAatha Allahu ghuraban yabhathufee al-ardi liyuriyahu kayfa yuwaree saw-ataakheehi qala ya waylata aAAajaztu an akoonamithla hatha alghurabi faowariya saw-ataakhee faasbaha mina alnnadimeena
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:31 So God sent forth a raven to scratch the land and show him how to bury his brother's body. He said, "Woes on me, I failed to be like this raven and bury my brother's body!" So he became of those who regretted.7

Note 7

Burying the body is not the only way of eliminating the health and psychological harms of decaying corpses. In some countries, burning the corpse is more economical than burying. Some scientists studying the intelligence level of birds consider the crow to be the bird with the highest I.Q (The I.Q. level of those scientists has not yet been investigated, though).

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:31 So God sent forth a raven to scratch the land and show him how to deal with the body of his brother. He said: "Woe to me! Am I not even able to be like this raven and deal with the body of my brother?" So he became of those who regretted.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:31 Thereupon God sent forth a raven which scratched the earth, to show him how he might conceal the nakedness of his brother's body. [And Cain] cried out: "Oh, woe is me! Am I then too weak to do what this raven did,38 and to conceal the nakedness of my brother's body?" - and was thereupon smitten with remorse.39

Note 38
Lit., "to be like this raven".

Note 39
Lit., "became of those who feel remorse". The thought of burying his dead brother's body, suggested to Cain by the raven's scratching the earth, brought home to him the enormity of his crime.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
5:31 GOD then sent a raven to scratch the soil, to teach him how to bury his brother's corpse. He said, "Woe to me; I failed to be as intelligent as this raven, and bury my brother's corpse." He became ridden with remorse.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:31 God then sent a raven scratching up the soil, to show him that he might have concealed and ignored the imperfections of his brother. He said, “Oh, I failed even to be like this raven to conceal my brother’s imperfections, (and hide his naked body)!” Then he became full of regrets.11

Note 11
Sauaat = Imperfections, faults. Uwaari sauaat = Conceal others' faults = Cover a naked body. 7:20

5:32 من اجل ذلك كتبنا على بنى اسرءيل انه من قتل نفسا بغير نفس او فساد فى الارض فكانما قتل الناس جميعا ومن احياها فكانما احيا الناس جميعا ولقد جاءتهم رسلنا بالبينت ثم ان كثيرا منهم بعد ذلك فى الارض لمسرفون

Transcription (English)
5:32 Min ajli thalika katabna AAalabanee isra-eela annahu man qatala nafsan bighayri nafsinaw fasadin fee al-ardi fakaannama qatala alnnasajameeAAan waman ahyaha fakaannama ahyaalnnasa jameeAAan walaqad jaat-hum rusulunabialbayyinati thumma inna katheeran minhum baAAda thalikafee al-ardi lamusrifoona
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
5:32 It is because of this that We have decreed for the Children of Israel, "Anyone who kills a person who has not committed murder, or who has not committed mischief in the land; then it is as if he has killed all the people! Whoever spares a life, then it is as if he has given life to all the people." Our messengers had come to them with clarification, but many of them are, after this, still transgressing on the earth.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:32 It is because of this that We have decreed for the Children of Israel: "Anyone who kills a person for other than murder, or corruption in the land; then it is as if he has killed all the people! And whoever spares a life, then it is as if he has given life to all the people." Our messengers had come to them with clarities, but many of them are, after this, still corrupting on the earth.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:32 Because of this did We ordain unto the children of Israel that if anyone slays a human being-unless it be [in punishment] for murder or for spreading corruption on earth-it shall be as though he had slain all mankind; whereas, if anyone saves a life, it shall be as though he had saved the lives of all mankind.40 And, indeed, there came unto them41 Our apostles with all evidence of the truth: yet, behold, notwithstanding all this, many of them go on committing all manner of excesses on earth.42

Note 40
This moral truth is among those to which the first sentence of verse 15 of this surah alludes, and its succinct formulation fully explains the reason why the story of Cain and Abel is mentioned in this context. The expression "We have ordained unto the children of Israel" does not, of course, detract from the universal validity of this moral: it refers merely to its earliest enunciation.

Note 41
I.e., to the followers of the Bible, both the Jews and the Christians.

Note 42
The present participle la-musrifun indicates their "continuously committing excesses" (i.e., crimes), and is best rendered as "they go on committing" them. In view of the preceding passages, these "excesses" obviously refer to crimes of violence and, in particular, to the ruthless killing of human beings.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
Grossness of Murder5:32 Because of this, we decreed for the Children of Israel that anyone who murders any person who had not committed murder or horrendous crimes, it shall be as if he murdered all the people. And anyone who spares a life, it shall be as if he spared the lives of all the people. Our messengers went to them with clear proofs and revelations, but most of them, after all this, are still transgressing.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
5:32 On that account, We decreed to the Children of Israel (the Eternal Moral Ordinance for all humanity 2:178) that whoever kills a human being, unless it be for murder or bloody crimes on the earth, it would be as if he killed all mankind. And whoever saves the life of one human being it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. Our Messengers came to them with evident truth, yet, even after this, many of them continue to commit excesses in the land.12

Note 12
Only a court of law will make decisions. No one would take the law in own hand

5:33 انما جزؤا الذين يحاربون الله ورسوله ويسعون فى الارض فسادا ان يقتلوا او يصلبوا او تقطع ايديهم وارجلهم من خلف او ينفوا من الارض ذلك لهم خزى فى الدنيا ولهم فى الءاخرة عذاب عظيم

Transcription (English)
5:33 Innama jazao allatheenayuhariboona Allaha warasoolahu wayasAAawna feeal-ardi fasadan an yuqattaloo aw yusallabooaw tuqattaAAa aydeehim waarjuluhum min khilafin awyunfaw mina al-ardi thalika lahum khizyun fee alddunyawalahum fee al-akhirati AAathabun AAatheemun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
Live by the Sword, Die by the Sword5:33 The recompense of those who fight God and His messenger and seek to corrupt the land, is that they will be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off on alternate sides or that they be banished from the land. That is a disgrace for them in this world. In the Hereafter, they will have a great retribution;8

Note 8

The repeated use of the passive voice is not a coincidence; it is to indicate that the acts are not instructions, but statements of fact. In other words, those who roam the earth to promote and commit atrocities and bloodshed are going to get what they promote. Those who live by the sword die by the sword. The Arabic word fasad means destruction, mischief, discord, warmongering or corruption. It is frequently contrasted with islah and its derivatives, which mean reform or promoting peace (7:56). Fasad is not mere faith or opinion; it refers to the acts of corruption or aggressive and destructive actions (See 2:30; 5:64; 10:91; 18:94; 21:22; 22:40; 28:4; 33:71; 89:12; 2:256, and 4:140). The Bible has a similar statement: "those who kill by the sword must die by the sword." See Matthew 26:52 ; Revelation 13:10 . Also see the Quran 9:3.

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
5:33 The recompense of those who fight God and His messenger, and seek to make corruption in the land, is that they will be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from alternate sides or that they be banished from the land; that is a disgrace for them in this world and in the Hereafter they will have a great retribution.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
5:33 It is but a just recompense for those who make war on God and His apostle,43 and endeavour to spread corruption on earth, that they are being slain in great' numbers, or crucified in great numbers, or have, in l' result of their perverseness, their hands and feet cut off in great numbers,44 or are being [entirely] banished from [the face of] the earth: such is their ignominy in this world .45 But in the life to come [yet more] awesome suffering awaits them-

Note 43
The term "apostle" is evidently generic in this context. By "making war on God and His apostle" is meant a hostile opposition to, and wilful disregard of, the ethical precepts ordained by God and explained by all His apostles, combined with the conscious endeavour to destroy or undermine other people's belief in God as well.

Note 44
In classical Arabic idiom, the "cutting off of one's hands and feet" is often synonymous with "destroying one's power", and it is possibly in this sense that the expression has been used here. Alternatively, it might denote "being mutilated", both physically and metaphorically -similar to the (metonymical) use of the expression "being crucified" in the sense of "being tortured". The phrase min khilaf-usually rendered as "from opposite sides"-is derived from the verb khalafahu, "he disagreed with him", or "opposed him", or "acted contrarily to him": consequently, the primary meaning of min khilaf is "in result of contrariness" or "of perverseness".

Note 45
Most of the classical commentators regard this passage as a legal injunction, and interpret it, therefore, as follows: "The recompense of those who make war on God and His apostle and spread corruption on earth shall but be that they shall be slain, or crucified, or that their hands and feet be cut off on opposite sides, or that they shall be banished from the earth: such shall be their ignominy in this world." This interpretation is, however, in no way warranted by the text, and this for the following reasons:
  • (a) The four passive verbs occurring in this sentence- "slain", "crucified", "cut off" and "banished" -are in the present tense and do not, by themselves, indicate the future or, alternatively, the imperative mood.
  • (b) The form yuqattalu does not signify simply "they are being slain" or (as the commentators would have it) "they shall be slain", but denotes - in accordance with a fundamental rule of Arabic grammar-"they are being slain in great numbers"; and the same holds true of the verbal forms yusallabu ("they are being crucified in great numbers") and tuqatta'a ("cut off in great numbers"). Now if we are to believe that these are "ordained punishments", it would imply that great numbers - but not necessarily all - of "those who make war on God and His apostle" should be punished in this way: obviously an inadmissible assumption of arbitrariness on the part of the Divine Law-Giver. Moreover, if the party "waging war on God and His apostle" should happen to consist of one person only, or of a few, how could a command referring to "great numbers" be applied to them or to him?
  • (c) Furthermore, what would be the meaning of the phrase, "they shall be banished from the earth", if the above verse is to be taken as a legal injunction'.? This point has, indeed, perplexed the commentators considerably. Some of them assume that the transgressors should be "banished from the land [of Islam]": but there is no instance in the Qur'an of such a restricted use of the term "earth" (ard). Others, again, are of the opinion that the guilty ones should be imprisoned in a subterranean dungeon, which would constitute their "banishment from [the face of] the earth"!
  • (d) Finally-and this is the weightiest objection to an interpretation of the above verse as a "legal injunction" -the Qur'an places exactly the same expressions referring to mass-crucifixion and mass-mutilation (but this time with a definite intent relating to the future) in the mouth of Pharaoh, as a' threat to believers (see 7:124, 20:71 and 26:49). Since Pharaoh is invariably described in the Qur'an as the epitome of evil and godlessness, it is inconceivable that the same Qur'an would promulgate a divine law in precisely the terms which it attributes elsewhere to a figure characterized as an "enemy of God".
  • Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Capital Punishment: When is it Justified?5:33 The just retribution for those who fight GOD and His messenger, and commit horrendous crimes, is to be killed, or crucified, or to have their hands and feet cut off on alternate sides, or to be banished from the land. This is to humiliate them in this life, then they suffer a far worse retribution in the Hereafter.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:33 The just punishment for those who wage war against God and His Messenger and endeavor to commit bloody crimes on earth, is that they be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet severed on alternate sides, or to be banished from the land. Such is their disgrace in this world, and an awful suffering awaits them in the Hereafter.13

    Note 13
    Fasaad = Bloody crimes = Spreading corruption in the land = Creating disorder. ‘God and His Messenger’ … None can physically fight against God, and the Messenger was a mortal man. So, God and the Messenger denote the Central Authority of the Islamic State. Waging war against God and the Messenger would mean rebellion against the Islamic State. ‘Severing the hands and feet’ may also be understood as cutting of their ability to create Fasaad. See 5:38 & 12:31. ‘Banishing from the land’ may indicate exile or imprisonment for life. If they present to the authorities before getting arrested, they could be pardoned. 4:64

    5:34 الا الذين تابوا من قبل ان تقدروا عليهم فاعلموا ان الله غفور رحيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:34 Illa allatheena taboomin qabli an taqdiroo AAalayhim faiAAlamoo anna Allahaghafoorun raheemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:34 Except for those who repent before you overpower them, then know that God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:34 Except for those who repent before you overpower them, then know that God is Forgiving, Merciful.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:34 save for such [of them] as repent ere you [O believers] become more powerful than they:46 for you must know that God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

    Note 46
    I.e. before belief in God and in the ethical principles decreed by Him becomes prevalent: for, in that event, repentance on the part of "those who make war on God and His apostle" would be no more than an act of conforming to the dominant trend and, therefore, of no moral value ,whatever. It is to be noted that the exemption from suffering relates to the hereafter.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:34 Exempted are those who repent before you overcome them. You should know that GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:34 Unless the corruptors repent before you empower them. Know that God is Forgiving, Merciful.14

    Note 14
    Peace will prevail when the righteous become more powerful than the guilty

    5:35 يايها الذين ءامنوا اتقوا الله وابتغوا اليه الوسيلة وجهدوا فى سبيله لعلكم تفلحون

    Transcription (English)
    5:35 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooittaqoo Allaha waibtaghoo ilayhi alwaseelata wajahidoofee sabeelihi laAAallakum tuflihoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:35 O you who acknowledge, be aware of God and seek a way to Him, and strive in His cause; that you may succeed.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:35 O you who believe, be aware of God and seek a way to Him, and strive in His cause; that you may succeed.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:35 O YOU who have attained to faith! Remain conscious of God, and seek to come closer unto Him, and strive hard in His cause, so that you might attain to a happy state.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:35 O you who believe, you shall reverence GOD and seek the ways and means to Him, and strive in His cause, that you may succeed.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:35 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Be mindful of God and seek earnestly to come closer to Him by obeying His commands, and strive hard in His cause so that you may truly prosper.15

    Note 15
    Waseelah = Seeking earnestly = Applying the mind and heart to reach a noble goal. Verses 2:186 and 17:57 are many of the verses that negate the erroneous concept of "Waseelah" denoting some saints, sages or even Prophets interceding on behalf of people

    5:36 ان الذين كفروا لو ان لهم ما فى الارض جميعا ومثله معه ليفتدوا به من عذاب يوم القيمة ما تقبل منهم ولهم عذاب اليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:36 Inna allatheena kafaroo law annalahum ma fee al-ardi jameeAAan wamithlahu maAAahuliyaftadoo bihi min AAathabi yawmi alqiyamati matuqubbila minhum walahum AAathabun aleemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:36 Those who have rejected, if they had all that is on earth and the same again with it to ransom against the retribution of the day of Resurrection, it will not be accepted from them; and they will have a painful retribution.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:36 Those who have rejected, if they had all that is on the earth and the same again with it to ransom against the retribution of the Day of Resurrection, it will not be accepted from them; and they will have a painful retribution.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:36 Verily, if those who are bent on denying the truth had all that is on earth, and twice as much,47 to offer as ransom from suffering on the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them: for grievous suffering awaits them.

    Note 47
    Lit., "and the like with it".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    The Cost of Disbelief5:36 Certainly, those who disbelieved, if they possessed everything on earth, even twice as much, and offered it as ransom to spare them the retribution on the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them; they have incurred a painful retribution.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:36 (Those who reject this Revelation, exclude themselves from taking part in the establishment of the Ideal Society.) If the rejecters possessed everything on earth and twice as much, and offered it as ransom to spare them from the retribution on the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them. For them is a painful doom.

    5:37 يريدون ان يخرجوا من النار وما هم بخرجين منها ولهم عذاب مقيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:37 Yureedoona an yakhrujoo mina alnnariwama hum bikharijeena minha walahum AAathabunmuqeemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:37 They want to get out of the fire, but they can never leave it; and they will have a lasting retribution.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:37 They want to exit from the Fire, but they can never exit from it; and they will have a permanent retribution.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:37 They will wish to come out of the fire, but they shall not come out of it; and long-lasting suffering awaits them.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:37 They will want to exit Hell, but alas, they can never exit therefrom; their retribution is eternal.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:37 They will wish to come out of the fire, but they will not be able to come out of it. Theirs will be a lasting punishment.

    5:38 والسارق والسارقة فاقطعوا ايديهما جزاء بما كسبا نكلا من الله والله عزيز حكيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:38 Waalssariqu waalssariqatufaiqtaAAoo aydiyahuma jazaan bimakasaba nakalan mina Allahi waAllahuAAazeezun hakeemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Penalty for thieves5:38 The male thief, and the female thief, you shall mark, cut, or cut-off their hands/means as a punishment for their crime, and to serve as a deterrent from God. God is Noble, Wise.9

    Note 9

    The Arabic word we translated as "cut," occurs 36 times with all its derivatives. Nineteen of these are read in triliteral form QaTaA, and with the exceptions of 5:38 and 13:4, in all occurrences mean the non-physical or metaphorical action of "cutting off relationship" or "ending" (2:27; 3:127; 6:45; 7:72; 8:7; 9:121; 10:27; 11:81; 15:65; 15:66; 13:25; 22:15; 27:32; 29:29; 56:33; 59:5; 69:46). In 13:4, the noun form is used to describe "pieces," and its usage in 69:46 is understood by some scholars to be physical too. The derivatives that are read in the QaTTaa form occur 17 times. This form, which expresses intensity or frequency of the action, is used both to mean physical cutting off (5:33; 7:124; 20:71; 26:49; 13:31) and metaphorical cutting off (2:166; 6:94; 7:160; 7:167; 9:110; 47:15; 47:22; 21:93; 22:19; 23:53) as well as physically cutting or marking something (12:31; 12:50).

    Verse 12:31 mentions women gathered for a party cutting their fingers with knives, for they were awed by the physical attraction of Joseph. Obviously, those women did not cut off their fingers. Thus, it is possible to understand the punishment for thieves in three alternative ways, (1) cutting off their hands, or (2) cutting or marking their hands, or (3) cutting their means to steal, or cutting their hands from committing the crime. It is up to the society to choose one of these meanings or a combination of them depending on the severity of the crime (See 7:52).

    It is not right to see theft merely as an individual crime. Family structures, social norms, economic systems, social institutions and values are also responsible for this crime. A society might reduce the crime of theft and burglary by increasing the strength of the family structure and ties, by establishing social and charity institutions, prohibiting usury, changing their wasteful lifestyle, and distributing wealth in a way that is more egalitarian. Punishment alone is not the right way to fight crimes; preventive measures need to be taken. For a discussion of this verse, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction.

    According to the Bible, thieves were punished by punitive restitution (Exodus 22:1-8 ; 2 Samuel 12:6 ). If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be sold to a Hebrew master till he could pay (Exodus 22:1-4 ). A night-thief might be smitten till he died (Exodus 22:2 ).

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:38 As for the thief, both male and female, you shall cut from their resources - as a penalty for what they have earned - to be made an example of from God. God is Noble, Wise.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:38 NOW AS FOR the man who steals and the woman who steals, cut off the hand of either of them in requital for what they have wrought, as a deterrent ordained by God:48 for God is almighty, wise.

    Note 48
    The extreme severity of this Qur'anic punishment can be understood only if one bears in mind the fundamental principle of Islamic Law that no duty (taklif) is ever imposed on man without his being granted a corresponding right (haqq); and the term "duty" also comprises, in this context, liability to punishment. Now, among the inalienable rights of every member of the Islamic society - Muslim and non-Muslim alike - is the right to protection (in every sense of the word) by the community as a whole. As is evident from innumerable Qur'anic ordinances as well as the Prophet's injunctions forthcoming from authentic Traditions, every citizen is entitled to a share in the community's economic resources and, thus, to the enjoyment of social security: in other words, he or she must be assured of an equitable standard of living commensurate with the resources at the disposal of the community. For, although the Qur'an makes it clear that human life cannot be expressed in terms of physical existence alone-the ultimate values of life being spiritual in nature-the believers are not entitled to look upon spiritual truths and values as something that could be divorced from the physical and social factors of human existence. In short, Islam envisages and demands a society that provides not only for the spiritual needs of man, but for his bodily and intellectual needs as well. It follows, therefore, that-in order to be truly Islamic - a society (or state) must be so constituted that every individual, man and woman, may enjoy that minimum of material well-being and security without which there can be no human dignity, no real freedom and, in the last resort, no spiritual progress: for, there can be no real happiness and strength in a society that permits some of its members to suffer undeserved want while others have more than they need. If the whole society suffers privations owing to circumstances beyond its control (as happened, for instance, to the Muslim community in the early days of Islam), such shared privations may become a source of spiritual strength and, through it, of future greatness. But if the available resources of a community are so unevenly distributed that certain groups within it live in affluence while the majority of the people are forced to use up all their energies in search of their daily bread, poverty becomes the 'most dangerous enemy of spiritual progress, and occasionally drives whole communities away from God-consciousness and into the arms of soul-destroying materialism. It was undoubtedly this that the Prophet had in mind when he uttered the warning words (quoted by As-Suyuti in Al-Jami' as-Saghir), "Poverty may well turn into a denial of the truth (kufr)." Consequently, the social legislation of Islam aims at a state of affairs in which every man, woman and child has (a) enough to eat and wear, (b) an adequate home, (c) equal opportunities and facilities for education, and (d) free medical care in health and in sickness. A corollary of these rights is the right to productive and remunerative work while of working age and in good health, and a provision (by the community or the state) of adequate nourishment, shelter, etc. in cases of disability resulting from illness, widowhood, enforced unemployment, old age, or under-age. As already mentioned, the communal obligation to create such a comprehensive social security scheme has been laid down in many Qur'anic verses, and has been amplified and explained by a great number of the Prophet's commandments. It was the second Caliph, `Umar ibn al-Khattab, who began to translate these ordinances into a concrete administrative scheme (see Ibn Sa'd , Tabaqat I1I/1, 213-217); but after his premature death, his successors had neither the vision nor the statesmanship to continue his unfinished work. It is against the background of this social security scheme envisaged by Islam that the Qur'an imposes the severe sentence of hand-cutting as a deterrent punishment for robbery. Since, under the circumstances outlined above, "temptation" cannot be admitted as a justifiable excuse, and since, in the last resort, the entire socio-economic system of Islam is based on the faith of its adherents, its balance is extremely delicate and in need of constant, strictly-enforced protection. In a community in which everyone is assured of full security and social justice, any attempt on the part of an individual to achieve an easy, unjustified gain at the expense of other members of the community must be considered an attack against the system as a whole, and must be punished as such: and, therefore, the above ordinance which lays down that the hand of the thief shall be cut off. One must, however, always bear in mind the principle mentioned at the beginning of this note: namely, the absolute interdependence between man's rights and corresponding duties (including liability to punishment). In a community or state which neglects or is unable to provide complete social security for all its members, the temptation to enrich oneself by illegal means often becomes irresistible - and, consequently, theft cannot and should not be punished as severely as it should be punished in a state in which social security is a reality in the full sense of the word. If the society is unable to fulfil its duties with regard to every one of its members, it has no right to invoke the full sanction of criminal law (hadd) against the individual transgressor, but must confine itself to milder forms of administrative punishment. (It was in correct appreciation of this principle that the great Caliph `Umar waived the hadd of hand-cutting in a period of famine which afflicted Arabia during his reign.) To sum up, one may safely conclude that the cutting-off of a hand in punishment for theft is applicable only within the context of an already-existing, fully functioning social security scheme, and in no other circumstances.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Mathematical Proof Supports Quranic Justice5:38 The thief, male or female, you shall mark their hands7 as a punishment for their crime, and to serve as an example from GOD. GOD is Almighty, Most Wise.,

    Note 7
    The practice of cutting off the thief's hand, as decreed by the false Muslims, is a satanic practice without Quranic basis.Due to the special importance of this example, God has provided mathematicalproof in support of marking the hand of the thief, rather than severing it.Verse12:31 refers to the women who so admiredJoseph that they "cut" their hands. Obviously, they did not "cutoff" their hands; nobody can. The sum of sura and verse numbers are the samefor 5:38 and12:31,i.e., 43. It is also the will and mercy of God that this mathematicalrelationship conforms with the Quran's 19-based code. Nineteen verses after12:31, we see the same word(12:50). 
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:38 (Theft is a crime that steals away the sense of security from a society.) A habitual thief, male or female both, must have their ability (to steal) cut off. This is the reward for their doings, and a deterrent from God. God is Mighty, Wise.16

    Note 16
    As-Saariq = Habitual thief. Nakala = Deterrent. For Qat’a yadd, the so-called cutting of hand, please see 12:31 about Egyptian women ‘cutting their hands’. Yadd = Hand = Ability = Power. ‘God’s hand’ at many places in the Qur’an, of course, denotes His Power and authority. So, consider all circumstances with wisdom, and take measures to prevent this crime in the society. See 5:39 for repentance and making amends. If the hand is cut off, where is the room for mercy? Qur’anic laws are much more rational than Biblical injunctions. Here is the reference from Mathew Chapter 18, verses 8-9, The New King James Version. “And if your hand or foot causes you to sin, cut it off and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life lame or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet, to be cast into the everlasting fire. And if your eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes, to be cast into hell fire.” Can anyone pluck out his own eye? It appears that Muslim translators of the Qur’an rendered Qat'a literally under Biblical influence

    5:39 فمن تاب من بعد ظلمه واصلح فان الله يتوب عليه ان الله غفور رحيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:39 Faman taba min baAAdi thulmihiwaaslaha fa-inna Allaha yatoobu AAalayhiinna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:39 Whoever repents after his wrongdoing and makes reparations, then God will accept his repentance. God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:39 Whoever repents after his wrongdoing and amends, then God will accept his repentance. God is Forgiving, Merciful.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:39 But as for him who repents after having thus done wrong, and makes amends,49 behold, God will accept his repentance: verily, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.

    Note 49
    Le., by restituting the stolen goods before being apprehended by the authorities (Manar VI, 382).
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:39 If one repents after committing this crime, and reforms, GOD redeems him. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:39 Whoever repents after the crime and makes amends, God grants him pardon. God is Forgiving, Merciful.17

    Note 17
    If the hand is cut off, what about making amends, pardon and mercy?

    5:40 الم تعلم ان الله له ملك السموت والارض يعذب من يشاء ويغفر لمن يشاء والله على كل شىء قدير

    Transcription (English)
    5:40 Alam taAAlam anna Allaha lahu mulku alssamawatiwaal-ardi yuAAaththibu man yashaowayaghfiru liman yashao waAllahu AAalakulli shay-in qadeerun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:40 Did you not know that God possesses the sovereignty of heavens and earth? He punishes whom He wills and He forgives whom He wills; and God is capable of all things.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:40 Did you not know that God possesses the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He punishes whom He wills and He forgives whom He wills; and God is capable of all things.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:40 Dost thou not know that God's is the dominion over the heavens and the earth? He chastises whom He wills, and He forgives whom He wills: for God has the power to will anything.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:40 Do you not know that GOD possesses the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whomever He wills, and forgives whomever He wills. GOD is Omnipotent.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:40 Do you not know that God’s is the Dominion of the heavens and earth? He is the law-giving authority. He punishes and forgives according to His Law of Requital. God has Control over all things and He has appointed due measure for all things.

    5:41 يايها الرسول لا يحزنك الذين يسرعون فى الكفر من الذين قالوا ءامنا بافوههم ولم تؤمن قلوبهم ومن الذين هادوا سمعون للكذب سمعون لقوم ءاخرين لم ياتوك يحرفون الكلم من بعد مواضعه يقولون ان اوتيتم هذا فخذوه وان لم تؤتوه فاحذروا ومن يرد الله فتنته فلن تملك له من الله شيا اولئك الذين لم يرد الله ان يطهر قلوبهم لهم فى الدنيا خزى ولهم فى الءاخرة عذاب عظيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:41 Ya ayyuha alrrasoolu layahzunka allatheena yusariAAoona fee alkufrimina allatheena qaloo amanna bi-afwahihimwalam tu/min quloobuhum wamina allatheena hadoosammaAAoona lilkathibi sammaAAoona liqawmin akhareenalam ya/tooka yuharrifoona alkalima min baAAdi mawadiAAihiyaqooloona in ooteetum hatha fakhuthoohu wa-in lamtu/tawhu faihtharoo waman yuridi Allahufitnatahu falan tamlika lahu mina Allahi shay-an ola-ikaallatheena lam yuridi Allahu an yutahhiraquloobahum lahum fee alddunya khizyun walahum feeal-akhirati AAathabun AAatheemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Corrupt People Distort the Message5:41 O messenger, do not be saddened by those who compete with each other in rejection from among those who said, "We acknowledge" with their mouths while their hearts did not acknowledge. From among the Jews, there are those who listen to lies; they listen to people who never came to you; they distort the words from their context, and they say, "If you are given this, then take it; but if you are given anything different, then beware!" Whomever God wants to test, you will not possess anything for him against God. These are the ones whose hearts God did not want to cleanse; in this world, they will have humiliation, and in the Hereafter, they will have a great retribution.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:41 O messenger, do not be saddened by those who increase in disbelief from among those who said: "We believe" with their mouths while their hearts did not believe. And from among those who are Jewish, there are those who listened to lies; they listened to people who never came to you; they distort the words from their context, and they say: "If you are given this, then take it, but if you are given anything different, then beware!" And whoever God wants to test, then you will not possess anything for him against God. These are the ones whose hearts God did not want to cleanse; in this world they will have humiliation, and in the Hereafter they will have a great retribution.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:41 O APOSTLE! Be not grieved by those who vie with one another in denying the truth: such as those50 who say with their mouths, "We believe," the while their hearts do not believe; and such of the Jewish faith as eagerly listen to any falsehood, eagerly listen to other people without having come to thee [for enlightenment].51 They distort the meaning of the [revealed] words, taking them out of their context, saying [to themselves], "If such-and-such [teaching] is vouchsafed unto you, accept it; but if it is not vouchsafed unto you, be on your guard!"52 [Be not grieved by them-] for if God wills anyone to be tempted to evil, thou canst in no wise prevail with God in his behalf.53 It is they whose hearts God is not willing to cleanse. Theirs shall be ignominy in this world, and awesome suffering in the life to come-

    Note 50
    Lit., "from among those".

    Note 51
    Although this verse is, in the first instance, addressed to the Prophet, it concerns all followers of the Qur'an and is, therefore, valid for all times. The same observation applies to the people of whom this verse speaks: although it mentions only the hypocrites and the Jews, it refers, by implication, to all people who are prejudiced against Islam and willingly lend ear to any false statement about its teachings, preferring to listen to unfriendly non-Muslim "experts" rather than to turn to the Qur'an itself for enlightenment-which is the meaning of the phrase, "without having come to thee [O Muhammad]".

    Note 52
    I.e., they are prepared to accept such of the Qur'anic teachings as might suit their preconceived notions, but are not prepared to accept anything that goes against their own inclinations.

    Note 53
    This connects with the beginning of this verse; hence my interpolation. For the meaning of fitnah, see surah 8, note 25.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:41 O you messenger, do not be saddened by those who hasten to disbelieve among those who say, "We believe," with their mouths, while their hearts do not believe. Among the Jews, some listened to lies. They listened to people who never met you, and who distorted the words out of context, then said, "If you are given this, accept it, but if you are given anything different, beware." Whomever GOD wills to divert, you can do nothing to help him against GOD. GOD does not wish to cleanse their hearts. They have incurred humiliation in this world, and in the Hereafter, they will suffer a terrible retribution.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:41 O Messenger! Let not those grieve you who run to disbelief, saying, “We believe,” with their mouths, while their hearts have no faith. And grieve not about those Jews who listen for the sake of fabricating lies. They listen and go to their people who have never met with you. Then they distort the words out of context and tell others to accept only a part and reject a part. If God intends trial for anyone, you have no authority in the least for him against God. God does not purify the hearts of such people. For them there is disgrace in this world and an awful punishment in the Hereafter.

    5:42 سمعون للكذب اكلون للسحت فان جاءوك فاحكم بينهم او اعرض عنهم وان تعرض عنهم فلن يضروك شيا وان حكمت فاحكم بينهم بالقسط ان الله يحب المقسطين

    Transcription (English)
    5:42 SammaAAoona lilkathibi akkaloonalilssuhti fa-in jaooka faohkumbaynahum aw aAArid AAanhum wa-in tuAArid AAanhumfalan yadurrooka shay-an wa-in hakamta faohkumbaynahum bialqisti inna Allaha yuhibbualmuqsiteena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:42 They listen to lies, and consume money illicitly. If they come to you, then you may judge between them or turn away from them. If you turn away from them then they cannot harm you in the least; and if you judge then you should judge between them with justice. God loves those who are just.10

    Note 10

    This verse alone is an answer to those who consider Muhammed to be God's partner in legislation (hukm); the messenger was not a co-legislator (shari) of Islam. A group of Jews who sought Muhammed to judge among them was criticized for not referring to the Bible. The criticism, as it seems, had two reasons: Muhammed was not a legislator in the divine sense. Moreover, they should not jurisdiction-shop; they should stick with the laws they had agreed to apply in their community. It seems that no Muslim during the time of Muhammed demonstrated the ignorance of seeking Muhammed's judgment on matters expressed in the Quran. No wonder, 6:114; 98:5 and many other verses emphasize that the authority in Islamic system is God alone. However, when issues do not involve universal and absolute divine rules, muslims should refer to their elected officials and their appointees. Since Muhammed was the elected leader of the city-state of Yathrib, which had multiple jurisdictions accommodating a racially and religiously diverse population, he was in position to make judgments in daily affairs and the application of its secular Constitution. See 4:60. In brief, God alone has the power to legislate the universal laws of islam, and the leaders elected by muslims should follow those laws. They may issue laws, as long as they do not contradict universal laws issued by God, after consultation, and subject to change whenever the society wishes so.

    For Biblical verses on "laws," see Genesis 26:5 ; Exodus 16:28 ; 18:16; Leviticus 26:46 ; Ezra 7:25 ; Nehemiah 9:13-14 ; Esther 1:19 ; Psalms 105:45; Isaiah 24:5 ; Ezekiel 43:11 ; 44:5; Daniel 7:25 ; 9:10; Hebrews 8:10 ; 10:16.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:42 They listen to lies, and consume money illicitly. If they come to you, then you may judge between them or turn away from them; and if you turn away from them then they cannot harm you in the least; and if you judge then judge between them with justice. God loves those who are just.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:42 those who eagerly listen to any falsehood, greedily swallowing all that is evil!54 Hence, if they come to thee [for judgment],55 thou mayest either judge between them or leave them alone: for, if thou leave them alone, they cannot harm thee in any way. But if thou dost judge, judge between them with equity :56 verily, God knows those who act equitably.

    Note 54
    The noun suht is derived from the verb sahata, "he utterly destroyed [a thing]", and signifies, primarily, the "doing of anything that leads to destruction" because it is abominable and, therefore, forbidden (Lisan al-Arab). Hence, it denotes anything that is evil itself. In the above context, the intensive expression akkalun li's-suht may denote "those who greedily devour all that is forbidden" (i.e., illicit gain), or, more probably, "those who greedily swallow all that is evil" - i.e., every false statement made about the Qur'an by its enemies with a view to destroying its impact.

    Note 55
    I.e., as to what is right and what is wrong in the sight of God. Most of the commentators assume that this passage refers to a specific judicial case, or cases, which the Jews of Medina brought before the Prophet for decision; but in view of the inherent Qur'anic principle that every historical reference contained in it has also a general import, I rather believe that the "judgment" alluded to in this verse relates to deciding as to whether any of their beliefs-other than those which the Qur'an explicitly confirms or rejects-is right or wrong.

    Note 56
    I.e., on the basis of the ethical laws revealed by God, and not personal, arbitrary likes or dislikes.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:42 They are upholders of lies, and eaters of illicit earnings. If they come to you to judge among them, you may judge among them, or you may disregard them. If you choose to disregard them, they cannot harm you in the least. But if you judge among them, you shall judge equitably. GOD loves those who are equitable.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:42 They are upholders of falsehood and they make wealth by unfair means. They are bribed into spying. If they come to you asking to judge among them, the choice to accept or reject their request is yours. You have the right to disclaim jurisdiction since they have not yet accepted the Qur’an and they have the Torah. If you disclaim jurisdiction they cannot harm you at all. However, if you decide to judge among them, do so equitably. God loves the equitable.

    5:43 وكيف يحكمونك وعندهم التورىة فيها حكم الله ثم يتولون من بعد ذلك وما اولئك بالمؤمنين

    Transcription (English)
    5:43 Wakayfa yuhakkimoonaka waAAindahumu alttawratufeeha hukmu Allahi thumma yatawallawna minbaAAdi thalika wama ola-ika bialmu/mineena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:43 How can they make you their judge when they have the Torah, containing God's judgment; then they turn away after that. They do not acknowledge.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:43 And how can they make you their judge when they have the Torah, in which there is the judgment of God; then they turn away after that. Those are not believers.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:43 But how is it that they ask thee for judgment seeing that they have the Torah, containing God's injunctions - and thereafter turn away [from thy judgment]? Such as these, then, are no [true] believers.57

    Note 57
    This verse illustrates the strange mentality of the Jews, who-despite the fact that they believe the, Torah to contain all of the Divine Law - surreptitiously turn to a religious dispensation in which they do not believe. in the hope that its verdict on certain ethical questions might confirm some of their own wishful beliefs which happen to run counter to the Torah. In other words, they are not really prepared to submit to the judgment of the Torah-although they assert their belief in it -nor the judgment of the Qur'an, which confirms some of the laws of the Torah and abrogates others: for, as soon as they come to realize that the Qur'an does not agree with their preconceived ideas, they turn away from it.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:43 Why do they ask you to judge among them, when they have the Torah, containing GOD's law, and they chose to disregard it? They are not believers.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:43 Why do they ask you to act as a judge among them when they have the Torah, containing God’s law and they disregard it? They are not believers.

    5:44 انا انزلنا التورىة فيها هدى ونور يحكم بها النبيون الذين اسلموا للذين هادوا والربنيون والاحبار بما استحفظوا من كتب الله وكانوا عليه شهداء فلا تخشوا الناس واخشون ولا تشتروا بايتى ثمنا قليلا ومن لم يحكم بما انزل الله فاولئك هم الكفرون

    Transcription (English)
    5:44 Inna anzalna alttawratafeeha hudan wanoorun yahkumu biha alnnabiyyoonaallatheena aslamoo lillatheena hadoo waalrrabbaniyyoonawaal-ahbaru bima istuhfithoomin kitabi Allahi wakanoo AAalayhi shuhadaafala takhshawoo alnnasa waikhshawniwala tashtaroo bi-ayatee thamanan qaleelanwaman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ikahumu alkafiroona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:44 We have sent down the Torah, in it is guidance and a light; the prophets who have peacefully surrendered judged with it for those who are Jews, as well as the Rabbis, and the Priests, for what they were entrusted of God's book, and they were witness over it. So do not revere the people but revere Me; and do not purchase with My signs a cheap price. Whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the ingrates.11

    Note 11

    The Torah is known as the name of the book given to Moses. However, this common knowledge might be wrong. The Quran nowhere mentions that the Torah was given to Moses. The word Torah occurs 18 times in the Quran and it refers to the collection of books given to Jewish prophets excluding the Injeel delivered by Jesus. Though the name of the book(s) given to Moses is not mentioned, it is described with various adjectives such as Furqan (the distinguisher), Emam (the leader), Rahma (mercy), Noor (light) and Huda (guidance).

    There is ample scholarly work indicating that current books of the Old Testament were extensively tampered with and written by Ezra and other rabbis. See 2:59; 2:79; 9:30. Also, see the Old Testament, Jeremiah 8:8 .

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:44 We have sent down the Torah, in it is a guidance and a light; the prophets whohave submitted judged with it for those who are Jewish, and the Devotees, and the Priests, for what they were entrusted of the Book of God, and they were witness over. So do not be concerned with the people but be concerned with Me; and do not purchase with My revelations a cheap price. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the rejecters.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:44 Verily, it is We who bestowed from on high the Torah, wherein there was guidance and light. On `its strength did the prophets, who had surrendered themselves unto God, deliver judgment unto those who followed the Jewish faith;58 and so did the [early] men of God and the rabbis, inasmuch as some of God's writ had been entrusted to their care;59 and they [all] bore witness to its truth. Therefore, [O children of Israel,] hold not men in awe, but stand in awe of Me; and do not barter away My messages for a trifling gain:60 for they who do not judge in accordance with what God has bestowed from on high are, indeed, deniers of the truth!

    Note 58
    Implying that the Law of Moses (the Torah) was intended only for the children of Israel, and was never meant to have universal validity.

    Note 59
    The expression "some of God's writ (kitab)" implies that the Torah did not exhaust the whole of God's revelation, and that more was yet to be revealed. For an explanation of the term rabbaniyun, see surah 3, note 62.

    Note 60
    I.e., for the illusory feeling of superiority based on the spurious belief that the children of Israel are "God's chosen people" and, therefore, the sole recipients of God's grace and revelation. The "messages" referred to in this sentence relate to the Qur'an as well as to the Biblical prophecies concerning the advent of Muhammad.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Honoring Previous Scripture5:44 We have sent down the Torah, containing guidance and light. Ruling in accordance with it were the Jewish prophets, as well as the rabbis and the priests, as dictated to them in GOD's scripture, and as witnessed by them. Therefore, do not reverence human beings; you shall reverence Me instead. And do not trade away My revelations for a cheap price. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD's revelations are the disbelievers.,8

    Note 8
    The Torah is a collection of all the scriptures revealed through all the prophets of Israel prior to Jesus Christ, i.e., today's Old Testament.Nowhere in the Quran do we find that the Torah was given to Moses.
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:44 We did send down the Torah containing guidance and a light. By it the Prophets who always sincerely submitted to God, judged the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests judged according to God’s scripture as they were commanded to observe. To them was entrusted the protection of God’s Book, and they were witnesses to it. So, fear not people, but fear Me and do not trade away My revelations for petty gains. And whoever fails to judge or rule by what God has revealed, such are the disbelievers (‘Kafiroon’).

    5:45 وكتبنا عليهم فيها ان النفس بالنفس والعين بالعين والانف بالانف والاذن بالاذن والسن بالسن والجروح قصاص فمن تصدق به فهو كفارة له ومن لم يحكم بما انزل الله فاولئك هم الظلمون

    Transcription (English)
    5:45 Wakatabna AAalayhim feeha annaalnnafsa bialnnafsi waalAAayna bialAAayniwaal-anfa bial-anfi waalothuna bialothuniwaalssinna bialssinni waaljurooha qisasunfaman tasaddaqa bihi fahuwa kaffaratun lahu wamanlam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ikahumu alththalimoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:45 We have decreed for them in it that a life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and wounds to be similar; and whoever remits anything of it, then it will cancel sins for him. Whoever does not judge by what God has sent down, then these are the wicked.12

    Note 12

    Compare it to Exodus 21:24-36 . Though the Old Testament version contains many more instructions, it does not mention the Quranic version reminding the Children of Israel that remission or giving up the punishment is a better choice. The Quranic version of the Old Testament rule is the Golden-plated Brazen rule, or "Generous tit-for-tat" which is the most effective moral rule in the real world. See 9:2. Also see 8:61; 4:90; 41:34.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:45 And We have decreed for them in it that a life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and wounds to be similar; and whoever remits anything of it, then it will cancel sins for him. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the wicked.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:45 And We ordained for them in that [Torah]: A life for a life, and an eye for an eye, and a nose for a nose, and an ear for an ear, and a tooth for a tooth, and a [similar] retribution for wounds;61 but he who shall forgo it out of charity will atone thereby for some of his past sins.62 And they who do not judge in accordance with what God has revealed - they, they are the evildoers! ,

    Note 61
    See Exodus xxi, 23 ff., where details of the extremely harsh penalties provided under Mosaic Law are given in accordance with their

    Note 62
    Lit., "it shall be an atonement for him". The Pentateuch does not contain this call to forgiveness which is brought out with great clarity not only in the Qur'an but also in the teachings of Jesus; especially in the Sermon on the Mount: and this, read in conjunction with the following verses, would seem to be an allusion to the time-bound quality of Mosaic Law. Alternatively, the above admonition may have been part of the original teachings of the Torah which have been subsequently corrupted or deliberately abandoned by its followers, whom the Qur'an accuses of "distorting the meaning of the revealed words" (see verse 41 above).
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    The Law of Equivalence5:45 And we decreed for them in it that: the life for the life, the eye for the eye, the nose for the nose, the ear for the ear, the tooth for the tooth, and an equivalent injury for any injury. If one forfeits what is due to him as a charity, it will atone for his sins. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD's revelations are the unjust.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:45 For them (Jews), We had decreed in the Torah: Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and equal injury for injury. But if one forgoes retaliation by way of charity, it will absolve his imperfections. And whoever fails to judge or rule by what God has revealed, such are wrongdoers (‘Zalimoon’).18

    Note 18
    Exodus 21:23 . That was a Mosaic law specific to the Israelites. The Final revelation of God, the Qur’an has updated laws for all humanity for all times. Incidentally, Exodus in the Bible as seen today leaves no room for forgiveness of the mentioned offenses

    5:46 وقفينا على ءاثرهم بعيسى ابن مريم مصدقا لما بين يديه من التورىة وءاتينه الانجيل فيه هدى ونور ومصدقا لما بين يديه من التورىة وهدى وموعظة للمتقين

    Transcription (English)
    5:46 Waqaffayna AAala atharihimbiAAeesa ibni maryama musaddiqan lima baynayadayhi mina alttawrati waataynahual-injeela feehi hudan wanoorun wamusaddiqan limabayna yadayhi mina alttawrati wahudan wamawAAithatanlilmuttaqeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    The Injeel (Good News) and the Quran5:46 We followed their teaching with Jesus the son of Mary, authenticating what was present with him of the Torah. We gave him the Injeel, in it is guidance and light, and to authenticate what is present with him of the Torah, and a guidance and lesson for the righteous.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:46 And We sent in their footsteps Jesus, son of Mary, authenticating what was present with him of the Torah. And We gave him the Gospel, in it is a guidance and a light, and authenticating what was present with him of the Torah, and a guidance and a lesson for the righteous.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:46 And We caused Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow in the footsteps of those [earlier prophets], confirming the truth of whatever there still remained63 of the Torah; and We vouchsafed unto him the Gospel, wherein there was guidance and light, confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah, and as a guidance and admonition unto the God-conscious.

    Note 63
    Regarding the meaning of ma bayna yadayhi (lit., "that which was between his [or "its"] hands") occurring twice in this verse, as well as in verse 48, see surah 3, note 3.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    The Gospel of Jesus: Guidance and Light5:46 Subsequent to them, we sent Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming the previous scripture, the Torah. We gave him the Gospel, containing guidance and light, and confirming the previous scriptures, the Torah, and augmenting its guidance and light, and to enlighten the righteous.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:46 And after them We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, confirming (the remaining truth in) what was revealed before him. We gave him the Gospel in which there was guidance and a light, and it confirmed the (truth in) what was revealed before it in the Torah, a guidance and admonition to those who wished to live upright. [2:101, 3:78]

    5:47 وليحكم اهل الانجيل بما انزل الله فيه ومن لم يحكم بما انزل الله فاولئك هم الفسقون

    Transcription (English)
    5:47 Walyahkum ahlu al-injeeli bimaanzala Allahu feehi waman lam yahkum bimaanzala Allahu faola-ika humu alfasiqoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:47 Let the people of the Injeel judge with what God has sent down in it. Whoever does not judge by what God has sent down, then these are the vile ones.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:47 And let the people of the Gospel judge with what God has sent down in it. And whoever does not judge with what God has sent down, then these are the wicked.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:47 Let, then, the followers of the Gospel judge in accordance with what God has revealed therein: for they who do not judge in the light of what God has bestowed from on high-it is they, they who are truly iniquitous!
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:47 The people of the Gospel shall rule in accordance with GOD's revelations therein. Those who do not rule in accordance with GOD's revelations are the wicked.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:47 Let the People of the Gospel judge by what God has revealed therein. And whoever fails to judge or rule by what God has revealed, are drifters from the right path (‘Faasiqoon’).

    5:48 وانزلنا اليك الكتب بالحق مصدقا لما بين يديه من الكتب ومهيمنا عليه فاحكم بينهم بما انزل الله ولا تتبع اهواءهم عما جاءك من الحق لكل جعلنا منكم شرعة ومنهاجا ولو شاء الله لجعلكم امة وحدة ولكن ليبلوكم فى ما ءاتىكم فاستبقوا الخيرت الى الله مرجعكم جميعا فينبئكم بما كنتم فيه تختلفون

    Transcription (English)
    5:48 Waanzalna ilayka alkitaba bialhaqqimusaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina alkitabiwamuhayminan AAalayhi faohkum baynahum bimaanzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum AAammajaaka mina alhaqqi likullin jaAAalna minkumshirAAatan waminhajan walaw shaa AllahulajaAAalakum ommatan wahidatan walakin liyabluwakumfeema atakum faistabiqoo alkhayratiila Allahi marjiAAukum jameeAAan fayunabbi-okum bimakuntum feehi takhtalifoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:48 We have sent down to you the book with truth, authenticating what is present of the book and superseding it. So judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires from what has come to you of the truth. For each of you We have made laws, a structure. Had God willed, He would have made you all one nation, but He tests you with what He has given you, so advance the good deeds. To God you will return all of you, and He will inform you regarding that in which you dispute.13

    Note 13

    Prophet Muhammed was not judging among people according to divine instructions besides the Quran. The Quran was the only divine authority. However, decades after Muhammed, those who turned away from the Quran turned Muhammed himself into a competing, supplementing, or contradicting authority through hadith collections and thereby regressed to the days of ignorance. The system belongs to God alone. Muhammed's sole mission was to deliver God's system to humanity. See 6:19, 112-116.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:48 And We have sent down to you the Book with the truth, authenticating what is between your hands of the Book and superseding it. So judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires from what has come to you of the truth. For each of you We have made laws, and a structure; and if God had willed, He would have made you all one nation, but He tests you with what He has given you; so strive to do good. To God you will return all of you, and He will inform you regarding that in which you dispute.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:48 And unto thee [O Prophet] have We vouchsafed this divine writ, setting forth the truth, confirming the truth of whatever there still remains of earlier revelations and determining what is true therein.64 Judge, then, between the followers of earlier revelation in accordance with what God has bestowed from on high,65 and do not follow their errant views, forsaking the truth that has come unto thee. Unto every one of you have We appointed a [different] law and way of life.66 And if God had so willed, He could surely have made you all one single community: but [He willed it otherwise] in order to test you by means of what He has vouchsafed unto, you.67 Vie, then, with one another in doing good works! Unto God you all must return; and then He will make you truly understand all that on which you were wont to differ.68

    Note 64
    The participle muhaymin is derived from the quadriliteral verb haymana, "he watched [over a thing]" or "controlled [it]", and is used here to describe the Qur'an as the determinant factor in deciding what is genuine and what is false in the earlier scriptures (see Manar VI, 410 ff.).

    Note 65
    Lit., "judge, then, between them. . .", etc. This apparently applies not merely to judicial cases but also to opinions as to what is right or wrong in the ethical sense (see note 55 above'). As is evident from the mention of the "followers of the Gospel" in the preceding verse, and of the Torah in the earlier passages, the people spoken of here are both the Jews and the Christians.

    Note 66
    The expression "every one of you" denotes the various communities of which mankind is composed. The term shir`ah (or shari'ah) signifies, literally, "the way to a watering-place" (from which men and animals derive the element indispensable to their life), and is used in the Qur'an to denote a system of law necessary for a community's social and spiritual welfare. The term minhaj, on the other hand, denotes an "open road", usually in an abstract sense: that is, "a way of life". The terms shir'ah and minhaj are more restricted in their meaning than the term din, which comprises not merely the laws relating to a particular religion but also the basic, unchanging spiritual truths which, according to the Qur'an, have been preached by every one of God's apostles, while the particular body of laws (shir'ah or shari'ah) promulgated through them, and the way of life (minhaj) recommended by them, varied in accordance with the exigencies of the time and of each community's cultural development. This "unity in diversity" is frequently stressed in the Qur'an (e.g., in the first sentence of 2:148, in 21:92, or in 23:52 ff.). Because of the universal applicability and textual incorruptibility of its teachings-as well as of the fact that the Prophet Muhammad is "the seal of all prophets", i.e., the last of them (see 33:40) -the Qur'an represents the culminating point of all revelation and offers the final, perfect way to spiritual fulfilment. This uniqueness of the Qur'anic message does not, however, preclude all adherents of earlier faiths from attaining to God's grace: for-as the Qur'an so often points out-those among them who believe uncompromisingly in the One God and the Day of Judgment (i.e., in individual moral responsibility) and live righteously "need have no fear, and neither shall they grieve".

    Note 67
    I.e., "in order to test, by means of the various religious laws imposed on you, your willingness to surrender yourselves to God and to obey Him" (Zamakhshari, Razi), "and thus to enable you to grow, spiritually and socially, in accordance with the God-willed law of evolution" (Manar VI, 418 f.).

    Note 68
    Lit., "inform you of that wherein you used to differ" (cf. surah 2, note 94). Thus, the Qur'an impresses upon all who believe in God - Muslims and non-Muslims alike - that the differences in their religious practices should make them "vie with one another in doing good works" rather than lose themselves in mutual hostility.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Quran: The Ultimate Reference5:48 Then we revealed to you this scripture, truthfully, confirming previous scriptures, and superseding them. You shall rule among them in accordance with GOD's revelations, and do not follow their wishes if they differ from the truth that came to you. For each of you, we have decreed laws and different rites. Had GOD willed, He could have made you one congregation. But He thus puts you to the test through the revelations He has given each of you. You shall compete in righteousness. To GOD is your final destiny - all of you - then He will inform you of everything you had disputed.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:48 (O Messenger) We have sent to you this Divine Writ, setting forth the truth. It confirms the remaining truth in the earlier scriptures since it is a Watcher over them. So, judge between them by what God has revealed, and do not follow their desires diverging from the truth that has come to you. For each community among you We have appointed certain evolving trends and a traced-out way. If God had willed, He could have made you all one single community. But He decided to let you test yourselves by what (potentials) He has granted you. So, outdo one another in doing good to the society. To God you will all return, and He will then make you understand wherein you differed.19

    Note 19
    2:101, 2:148, 3:78, 21:92, 23:52. Muhaimin = Watcher. Shari’ah = Evolving trends of a community = Rites. Minhaaj = A traced-out way = A set of laws. ‘min-al-kitab’ = From or remaining from the scripture

    5:49 وان احكم بينهم بما انزل الله ولا تتبع اهواءهم واحذرهم ان يفتنوك عن بعض ما انزل الله اليك فان تولوا فاعلم انما يريد الله ان يصيبهم ببعض ذنوبهم وان كثيرا من الناس لفسقون

    Transcription (English)
    5:49 Waani ohkum baynahum bimaanzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum waihtharhuman yaftinooka AAan baAAdi ma anzala Allahuilayka fa-in tawallaw faiAAlam annama yureedu Allahuan yuseebahum bibaAAdi thunoobihim wa-innakatheeran mina alnnasi lafasiqoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:49 You should rule among them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their wishes, and beware lest they divert you away from some of what God has sent down to you. If they turn away, then know that God wants to inflict them with some of their sins. Indeed, many among the people are corrupt.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:49 And judge between them by what God has sent down, and do not follow their desires, and beware lest they divert you away from some of what God has sent down to you. If they turn away, then know that God wants to inflict them with some of their sins; and many of the people are wicked.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:49 Hence, judge between the followers of earlier revelation69 in accordance with what God has bestowed from on high, and do not follow their errant views; and beware of them, lest they tempt thee away from aught that God has bestowed from on high upon thee. And if they turn away [from His commandments], then know that it is but God's will [thus] to afflict them for some of their sins:70 for, behold, a great many people are iniquitous indeed.

    Note 69
    Lit., "between them": see notes 55 and 65 above.

    Note 70
    The implication is that a conscious disregard of God's commandments brings with it its own punishment: namely, a gradual corruption of the community's moral values and, thus, growing social disruption and internecine conflict.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:49 You shall rule among them in accordance with GOD's revelations to you. Do not follow their wishes, and beware lest they divert you from some of GOD's revelations to you. If they turn away, then know that GOD wills to punish them for some of their sins. Indeed, many people are wicked.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:49 So judge between them by what God has revealed. And do not follow their vain desires. Beware of them, lest they divert you from some of what God has revealed to you. If they turn away from the truth, be assured that God has decided to chastise them for some of their crimes. A great many people drift away from the right path.

    5:50 افحكم الجهلية يبغون ومن احسن من الله حكما لقوم يوقنون

    Transcription (English)
    5:50 Afahukma aljahiliyyatiyabghoona waman ahsanu mina Allahu hukmanliqawmin yooqinoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:50 Is it the judgment of the days of ignorance that they seek? Who is better than God as a judge for a people that comprehend?
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:50 Is it the judgment of the days of ignorance that they seek? Who is better than God as a judge for a people who comprehend?
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:50 Do they, perchance, desire [to be ruled by] the law of pagan ignorance?71 But for people who have inner certainty, who could be a better law-giver than God?

    Note 71
    By "pagan ignorance" (jahiliyyah) is meant here not merely the time before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad but, in general, a state of affairs characterized by a lack of moral perception and a submission of all personal and communal concerns to the criterion of "expediency" alone: that is, exclusively to the consideration as to whether a particular aim or action is useful or damaging (in the short-term, practical sense of these words) to the interests of the person concerned or of the community to which he belongs. Inasmuch as this "law of expediency" is fundamentally opposed to the concepts of morality preached by every higher religion, it is described in the Qur'an as "the law (hukm) of pagan ignorance".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:50 Is it the law of the days of ignorance that they seek to uphold? Whose law is better than GOD's for those who have attained certainty?,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:50 Do they seek judgment of the Days of Ignorance? But who can give better judgment than God, for a people who have attained conviction in the truth?

    5:51 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تتخذوا اليهود والنصرى اولياء بعضهم اولياء بعض ومن يتولهم منكم فانه منهم ان الله لا يهدى القوم الظلمين

    Transcription (English)
    5:51 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tattakhithoo alyahooda waalnnasaraawliyaa baAAduhum awliyao baAAdinwaman yatawallahum minkum fa-innahu minhum inna Allaha layahdee alqawma alththalimeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Why Do the People of the book Hate Muslims?5:51 O you who acknowledge, do not take the Jews and the Nazarenes as allies, for they are allies to one another; and whoever takes them as such from amongst you is one of them. God does not guide the wicked people.14

    Note 14

    Verse 5:57 provides the characteristics of the people of the book, whom we are instructed not to ally ourselves with. Muslims should not ally themselves with those who insult their values or promote hatred against them. Obviously, this instruction is in the context of religious conflict; not in the context of social, personal, or financial relationship. There are righteous people among the people of the book (3:113; 3:199: 5:69). Eating their food or marriage with them is permitted (5:5). Verses 5:57 and 60:7 are among the verses that provide us with basic principles in dealing with others.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:51 O you who believe, do not take the Jews and the Nazarenes as allies, for they are allies to one another; and whoever takes them as such from among you is one of them. God does not guide the wicked people.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:51 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not take the Jews and the Christians for your allies: they are but allies of one another72 and whoever of you allies himself with them becomes, verily, one of them; behold, God does not guide such evildoers.73

    Note 72
    According to most of the commentators (e.g., Tabari), this means that each of these two communities extends genuine friendship only to its own adherents-i.e., the Jews to the Jews, and ,the Christians to the Christians-and cannot, therefore, be expected to be really friendly towards the followers of the Qur'an. See also 8:73, and the corresponding note.

    Note 73
    Lit., "the evildoing folk": i.e., those who deliberately sin in this respect. As regards the meaning of the "alliance" referred to here, see 3:28, and more particularly 4:139 and the corresponding note, which explains the reference to a believer's loss of his moral identity if he imitates the way of life of, or-in Qur'anic terminology-"allies himself" with, non-Muslims. However, as has been made abundantly clear in 60:7 (and implied in verse 57 of this surah), this prohibition of a "moral alliance" with non-Muslims does not constitute an injunction against normal, friendly relations with such of them as are well-disposed towards Muslims. It should be borne in mind that the term wali has several shades of meaning: "ally", "friend", "helper", "protector", etc. The choice of the particular term - and sometimes a -combination of two termms-is always dependent on the context.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Certain Jews and Christians Cannot Be Friends5:51 O you who believe, do not take certain Jews and Christians as allies; these are allies of one another. Those among you who ally themselves with these belong with them. GOD does not guide the transgressors.9 ,

    Note 9
    Relations with other people are governed by the basic rule in5:57 &60:8.The Jews and Christians who cannot be friends are specifically mentioned in5:57; they are the oneswho mock and ridicule the believers, or attack them.
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:51 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! (Since they deny the Final Revelation that is the Constitution of your state,) do not take the Jews and Christians as your allies. They are allies of one another. He among you who takes them for allies is one of them. God does not guide those who choose to do wrong.20

    Note 20
    This verse points to taking allies on a national scale, and not to individual friendship. See 60:7

    5:52 فترى الذين فى قلوبهم مرض يسرعون فيهم يقولون نخشى ان تصيبنا دائرة فعسى الله ان ياتى بالفتح او امر من عنده فيصبحوا على ما اسروا فى انفسهم ندمين

    Transcription (English)
    5:52 Fatara allatheena feequloobihim maradun yusariAAoona feehim yaqooloonanakhsha an tuseebana da-iratun faAAasaAllahu an ya/tiya bialfathi aw amrin minAAindihi fayusbihoo AAala ma asarroofee anfusihim nadimeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:52 You will see those who have a disease in their hearts hurrying to them, saying, "We fear that a disaster will befall us!" Perhaps God will bring a victory or a decree from Himself, then they will become regretful over what they had kept hidden within themselves.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:52 You will see those who have a disease in their hearts hurrying to them, saying: "We are concerned that a disaster will befall us!" Perhaps God will bring a victory or a decree from Himself, then they will become regretful over what they had kept hidden within themselves.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:52 And yet thou canst see how those in whose hearts there is disease vie with one another for their good will,74 saying [to themselves], "We fear lest fortune turn against us." But God may well bring about good fortune [for the believers] or any [other] event of His own devising,75 whereupon those [waverers] will be smitten with remorse for the thoughts which they had secretly harboured within themselves-

    Note 74
    Lit., "vie with one another concerning them" - the pronoun referring to the hostile Jews and Christians, for whose good-will the hypocrites within the Muslim community vie with one another by trying to imitate their way of life.

    Note 75
    Lit., "from Himself". Some of the commentators assume that the word fath (lit., "victory" or "triumph") occurring in this sentence is a prophetic reference to the conquest of Mecca by the Muslims. This assumption, however, cannot be correct since Mecca was already in the hands of the Muslims at the time of the revelation of this surah. Hence, the term fath has obviously been used here in its primary significance of "opening" - namely, the opening of good fortune. (Cf. the idiomatic expression futiha 'ala fulan, "so-and-so became fortunate" or "possessed of good fortune", mentioned in Zamakhshari's Asas and in the Taj al' Arus.) The "other event of God's own devising" may conceivably refer to a divine punishment of the hypocrites apart from the good fortune that might be in store for the true believers.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:52 You will see those who harbor doubt in their hearts hasten to join them, saying, "We fear lest we may be defeated." May GOD bring victory, or a command from Him, that causes them to regret their secret thoughts.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:52 You will see those who harbor doubt in their hearts running to them saying, “We fear that a change of fortune may befall us.” But, God will bring you victory, or His command will come to pass and they will regret what they harbored in their hearts.

    5:53 ويقول الذين ءامنوا اهؤلاء الذين اقسموا بالله جهد ايمنهم انهم لمعكم حبطت اعملهم فاصبحوا خسرين

    Transcription (English)
    5:53 Wayaqoolu allatheena amanoo ahaola-iallatheena aqsamoo biAllahi jahda aymanihiminnahum lamaAAakum habitat aAAmaluhum faasbahookhasireena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:53 Those who acknowledge said, "Were these the ones who swore oaths by God that they were with you?" Their works have collapsed, and they have become losers.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:53 And those who believe said: "Were these the ones who swore oaths by God that they are with you?" Their works have collapsed, and they have become losers.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:53 while those who have attained to faith will say [to one another], "Are these the selfsame people who swore by God with their most solemn oaths that they were indeed with you? In vain are all their works, for now they are lost!"
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:53 The believers will then say, "Are these the same people who swore by GOD solemnly that they were with you?" Their works have been nullified; they are the losers.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:53 The believers will then wonder: "Are these the same people who swore by God that they were with the believers?" Eventually, all their deeds will go to waste and they will be great losers.

    5:54 يايها الذين ءامنوا من يرتد منكم عن دينه فسوف ياتى الله بقوم يحبهم ويحبونه اذلة على المؤمنين اعزة على الكفرين يجهدون فى سبيل الله ولا يخافون لومة لائم ذلك فضل الله يؤتيه من يشاء والله وسع عليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:54 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooman yartadda minkum AAan deenihi fasawfa ya/tee Allahubiqawmin yuhibbuhum wayuhibboonahu athillatinAAala almu/mineena aAAizzatin AAala alkafireenayujahidoona fee sabeeli Allahi wala yakhafoonalawmata la-imin thalika fadlu Allahiyu/teehi man yashao waAllahu wasiAAunAAaleemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:54 O you who acknowledge, whoever from among you turns away from His system, then God will bring a people whom He loves and they love Him; humble towards those who acknowledge, dignified towards the ingrates; they strive in the cause of God and do not fear the blame of those who blame. This is God's grace, He bestows it upon whom He wills; God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:54 O you who believe, whoever from among you turns away from His system, then God will bring a people whom He loves and they love Him; humble towards the believers, proud towards the rejecters; they strive in the cause of God and do not fear to be blamed by those who blame. This is the grace of God, He bestows it upon whom He wills; God is Encompassing, Knowledgeable.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:54 O you who have attained to faith! If you ever abandon your faith,"76 God will in time bring forth [in your stead] people whom He loves and who love Him - humble towards the believers, proud towards all who deny the truth: [people] who strive hard in God's cause, and do not fear to be censured by anyone who might censure them: such is God's favour, which He grants unto whom He wills. And God is infinite, all-knowing.

    Note 76
    Lit., "whosoever from among you abandons his faith" - i.e., in result of having placed his reliance on non-Muslims who are hostile to Islam, and having taken them for his "allies" and spiritual mentors.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:54 O you who believe, if you revert from your religion, then GOD will substitute in your place people whom He loves and who love Him. They will be kind with the believers, stern with the disbelievers, and will strive in the cause of GOD without fear of any blame. Such is GOD's blessing; He bestows it upon whomever He wills. GOD is Bounteous, Omniscient.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:54 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! If you revert from your Religion21 , God will soon bring forth people whom He will love and they will love Him. They will be kind to the believers and stern towards the rejecters. They will strive in the cause of God without fear of any blame of a fault-finder. Such is the bounty of God that He bestows according to His laws. God is All Encompassing, All Knowing.

    Note 21
    Lit. *Whoever among you reverts from his faith

    5:55 انما وليكم الله ورسوله والذين ءامنوا الذين يقيمون الصلوة ويؤتون الزكوة وهم ركعون

    Transcription (English)
    5:55 Innama waliyyukumu Allahuwarasooluhu waallatheena amanoo allatheenayuqeemoona alssalata wayu/toona alzzakatawahum rakiAAoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:55 Your ally is God, His messenger and those who acknowledge, who hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment, and they are kneeling.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:55 For your supporter are God and His messenger and those who believe; they hold the contact prayer and contribute towards purification, and they kneel.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:55 Behold, your only helper shall be God, and His Apostle, and those who have attained to faith - those that are constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues, and bow down [before God]:
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:55 Your real allies are GOD and His messenger, and the believers who observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and they bow down.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:55 Your real friends and protectors are God, His Messenger and those believers who establish the Divine System, set up the equitable Economic Order and humble themselves before God's commands.

    5:56 ومن يتول الله ورسوله والذين ءامنوا فان حزب الله هم الغلبون

    Transcription (English)
    5:56 Waman yatawalla Allaha warasoolahu waallatheenaamanoo fa-inna hizba Allahi humu alghaliboona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:56 Whoever allies God, His messenger and those who acknowledge; then the party of God is the ones who will be victorious.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:56 And whoever allies God and His messenger and those who believe; then the party of God are the ones who will be victorious.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:56 for, all who ally themselves with God and His Apostle and those who have attained to faith - behold, it is they, the partisans of God, who shall be victorious!
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:56 Those who ally themselves with GOD and His messenger, and those who believed, belong in the party of GOD; absolutely, they are the victors.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:56 Those who ally themselves with God and His Messenger and the believers, belong in the party of God. Absolutely, they are the victorious.

    5:57 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تتخذوا الذين اتخذوا دينكم هزوا ولعبا من الذين اوتوا الكتب من قبلكم والكفار اولياء واتقوا الله ان كنتم مؤمنين

    Transcription (English)
    5:57 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tattakhithoo allatheena ittakhathoodeenakum huzuwan walaAAiban mina allatheena ootoo alkitabamin qablikum waalkuffara awliyaa waittaqooAllaha in kuntum mu/mineena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:57 O you who acknowledge, do not take as allies those who have taken your system as fun and games from among those who have been given the book before you and the ingrates. Be aware of God if you are those who acknowledge.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:57 O you who believe, do not take as allies those who have taken your system for mockery and play from among those who have been given the Book before you and the rejecters. And be aware of God if you are believers.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:57 O you who have attained to faith! Do not take for your friends such as mock at your, faith and make a jest of it-be they from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time, or [from among] those who deny the truth [of revelation as such] -but remain conscious of God, if you are [truly] believers:
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Which Jews and Christians5:57 O you who believe, do not befriend those among the recipients of previous scripture who mock and ridicule your religion, nor shall you befriend the disbelievers. You shall reverence GOD, if you are really believers.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:57 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not take for allies, some of the people who were given the scripture before you, and the rejecters who mock and ridicule your Religion. Be mindful of God if you are true believers.

    5:58 واذا ناديتم الى الصلوة اتخذوها هزوا ولعبا ذلك بانهم قوم لا يعقلون

    Transcription (English)
    5:58 Wa-itha nadaytum ila alssalatiittakhathooha huzuwan walaAAiban thalikabi-annahum qawmun la yaAAqiloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:58 If you call to the contact prayer, they take it as fun and games. That is because they are a people who do not reason.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:58 And if you call to the contact prayer, they take it for mockery and play. That is because they are a people who do not comprehend.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:58 for, when you call to prayer, they mock at it and make a jest of it-simply because they are people who do not use their reason.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Recipients of the Scriptures Transgress5:58 When you call to the Contact Prayers (Salat), they mock and ridicule it. This is because they are people who do not understand.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:58 When you call to Salaat congregations, they mock it and make a jest of it, simply because they are a people who do not use reason.22

    Note 22
    They do not know that the call with its clearest Mission Statement is unique in the world and speaks volumes of the conviction behind it

    5:59 قل ياهل الكتب هل تنقمون منا الا ان ءامنا بالله وما انزل الينا وما انزل من قبل وان اكثركم فسقون

    Transcription (English)
    5:59 Qul ya ahla alkitabi haltanqimoona minna illa an amanna biAllahiwama onzila ilayna wama onzila min qabluwaanna aktharakum fasiqoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:59 Say, "O people of the book, do you hate us simply because we acknowledge God and what was sent down to us and what was sent down before?" Alas, most of them are wicked.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:59 Say: "O people of the Book, do you hate us simply because we believe in God and in what was sent down to us and what was sent down before?" Alas, the majority of them are wicked.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:59 Say: "O followers of earlier revelation! Do you find fault with us for no other reason than that we believe in God [alone], and in that which He has bestowed from on high upon us as well as that which He has bestowed aforetime? - or [is it only] because most of you are iniquitous?"
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:59 Say, "O people of the scripture, do you not hate us because we believe in GOD, and in what was revealed to us, and in what was revealed before us, and because most of you are not righteous?",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:59 Say, "O People of the Scripture! Do you not blame us just because we believe in God, and what is revealed to us and what was revealed before? And because most of you are drifting away from the Right Direction?”

    5:60 قل هل انبئكم بشر من ذلك مثوبة عند الله من لعنه الله وغضب عليه وجعل منهم القردة والخنازير وعبد الطغوت اولئك شر مكانا واضل عن سواء السبيل

    Transcription (English)
    5:60 Qul hal onabbi-okum bisharrin min thalikamathoobatan AAinda Allahi man laAAanahu Allahuwaghadiba AAalayhi wajaAAala minhumu alqiradata waalkhanazeerawaAAabada alttaghooti ola-ika sharrun makananwaadallu AAan sawa-i alssabeeli
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:60 Say, "Shall I inform you of worse than this as a punishment from God? Those whom God cursed and displeased with them, and He made from them apes, pigs and servants of the aggressor. Those have a worst place and are more astray from the right path."15

    Note 15

    See 2:65 and 7:166.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:60 Say: "Shall I inform you of worse than this as a punishment from God? Those whom God cursed and became angry at them, and He made from them apes and pigs and servants of evil. Those have a worse place and are more astray from the right path."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:60 Say: "Shall I tell you who, in the sight of God, deserves a yet worse retribution than these? They whom God has rejected and whom He has condemned, and whom He has turned into apes and swine because they worshipped the powers of evil:77 these are yet worse in station, and farther astray from the right path [than the mockers]."78

    Note 77
    Contrary to many of the commentators who take this reference to "apes and swine" in a literal sense, the famous tabi'i Mujahid explains it as a metaphorical description (mathal) of the moral degradation which such sinners undergo: they become wildly unpredictable like apes, and as abandoned to the pursuit of lusts as swine (Manar VI, 448). This interpretation has also been quoted by Tabari in his commentary on 2 : 65. - As regards the expression "powers of evil" (at-,taghut), see surah 2, note 250.

    Note 78
    As is evident from the following verses, the sinners who are even worse than the mockers are the hypocrites, and particularly those among them who claim to be followers of the Bible: for the obvious reason that, having been enlightened through revelation, they have no excuse for their behaviour. Although in verse 64 the Jews are specifically mentioned, the reference to the Gospel in verse 66 makes it clear that the Christians, too, cannot be exempted from this blame.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:60 Say, "Let me tell you who are worse in the sight of GOD: those who are condemned by GOD after incurring His wrath until He made them (as despicable as) monkeys and pigs, and the idol worshipers. These are far worse, and farther from the right path.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:60 Say, “Shall I point out to you something much worse for retribution with God? Worse is the case of those whom God has rejected, and His requital hits them. And remember those whom God’s law relegated from the honorable stature of humanity and they started behaving like apes and swine. And they fell into becoming the slaves of Taaghoot (tyrants and the priesthood of any religion). Such are in worse plight, and farther astray than the mockers.” [2:65, 4:51]

    5:61 واذا جاءوكم قالوا ءامنا وقد دخلوا بالكفر وهم قد خرجوا به والله اعلم بما كانوا يكتمون

    Transcription (English)
    5:61 Wa-itha jaookum qaloo amannawaqad dakhaloo bialkufri wahum qad kharajoo bihi waAllahuaAAlamu bima kanoo yaktumoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Sinful, Hateful, Greedy, and yet Self-Righteous5:61 If they come to you, they say, "We acknowledge," while they had entered in with rejection and went out with the same. God is aware of what they were hiding.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:61 And if they come to you they say: "We believe," while they had entered in with rejection and went out with the same. God is aware of what they were hiding.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:61 For, when they come unto you, they say, "We do believe": whereas, in fact, they come with the resolve to deny the truth, and depart in the same state.79 But God is fully aware of all that they would conceal.

    Note 79
    Lit., "they come in with a denial of the truth and depart with it".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:61 When they come to you, they say, "We believe," even though they were full of disbelief when they entered, and they are full of disbelief when they leave. GOD is fully aware of everything they conceal.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:61 When they come to you O believers, they say, "We believe". In fact they come in disbelief and depart in disbelief. God knows best what they conceal.

    5:62 وترى كثيرا منهم يسرعون فى الاثم والعدون واكلهم السحت لبئس ما كانوا يعملون

    Transcription (English)
    5:62 Watara katheeran minhum yusariAAoonafee al-ithmi waalAAudwani waaklihimu alssuhtalabi/sa ma kanoo yaAAmaloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:62 You see many of them hasten to sin, animosity, and consuming money illicitly. Miserable indeed is what they were doing.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:62 And you see many of them hasten to sin and transgression and consuming money illicitly. Miserable indeed is what they were doing.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:62 And thou canst see many of them vie with one another in sinning and tyrannical conduct and in their swallowing of all that is evil.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:62 You see many of them readily committing evil and transgression, and eating from illicit earnings. Miserable indeed is what they do.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:62 You will see many of them race towards actions that drag down the human potential, create division in the society and they earn wealth through illicit means. Indeed condemnable is what they do.

    5:63 لولا ينهىهم الربنيون والاحبار عن قولهم الاثم واكلهم السحت لبئس ما كانوا يصنعون

    Transcription (English)
    5:63 Lawla yanhahumu alrrabbaniyyoonawaal-ahbaru AAan qawlihimu al-ithmawaaklihimu alssuhta labi/sa ma kanooyasnaAAoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:63 Shouldn't the Rabbis and Priests deter them from speaking evil and consuming money illicitly? Miserable indeed is what they had done.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:63 If only the Devotees and Priests had prohibited them for speaking evil and consuming money illicitly. Miserable indeed is what they have done.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:63 Why do not their men of God and their rabbis80 forbid them to make sinful assertions and to swallow all that is evil? Vile indeed is what they contrive!

    Note 80
    According to Baghawi', the rabbaniyun ("men of God" - see surah 3, note 62) stand, in this 156 context, for the spiritual leaders of the Christians, and the ahbar for the Jewish scholars ("rabbis"). Regarding the "swallowing of evil", see note 54 above.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:63 If only the rabbis and the priests enjoin them from their sinful utterances and illicit earnings! Miserable indeed is what they commit.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:63 Why do not the rabbis and the priests forbid them from their down-grading assertions and illicit earnings? Indeed condemnable is what they manufacture. (A great many religious leaders, rabbis, priests, monks, Mullahs, yogis, and mystics devour the wealth of people deceptively, and hinder them from the way of God 9:34).

    5:64 وقالت اليهود يد الله مغلولة غلت ايديهم ولعنوا بما قالوا بل يداه مبسوطتان ينفق كيف يشاء وليزيدن كثيرا منهم ما انزل اليك من ربك طغينا وكفرا والقينا بينهم العدوة والبغضاء الى يوم القيمة كلما اوقدوا نارا للحرب اطفاها الله ويسعون فى الارض فسادا والله لا يحب المفسدين

    Transcription (English)
    5:64 Waqalati alyahoodu yadu Allahimaghloolatun ghullat aydeehim waluAAinoo bima qaloobal yadahu mabsootatani yunfiqu kayfa yashaowalayazeedanna katheeran minhum ma onzila ilayka minrabbika tughyanan wakufran waalqaynabaynahumu alAAadawata waalbaghdaa ilayawmi alqiyamati kullama awqadoo naran lilharbiatfaaha Allahu wayasAAawna fee al-ardifasadan waAllahu la yuhibbualmufsideena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:64 The Jews said, "The hand of God is tied-down!" Their hands will be tied-down, and they will be cursed for what they have said. No, His hands are wide open, spending as He wills. For many of them, what has been sent down to you will increase them in aggression and rejection; and We have cast between them animosity and hatred until the day of Resurrection. Every time they ignite the fire of war, God puts it out; and they seek to make corruption in the land; and God does not like the corrupters.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:64 And the Jews said: "The hand of God is tied-down!" Their hands will be tied-down, and they will be cursed for what they have said. No, His hands are wide open spending as He wills. And for many of them, what has been sent down to you will increase them in rebellion and rejection; and We have cast between them animosity and hatred until the Day of Resurrection. Every time they ignite the fire of war, God puts it out; and they seek to make corruption in the land; and God does not love the corrupters.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:64 And the Jews say, "God's hand is shackled!" It is their own hands that are shackled; and rejected [by God] are they because of this their assertion.81 Nay, but wide are His hands stretched out: He dispenses [bounty] as He wills. But all that has been bestowed from on high upon thee [O Prophet] by thy Sustainer is bound to make many of them yet more stubborn in their overweening arrogance and in their denial of the truth. And so We have cast enmity and hatred among the followers of the Bible ,82 [to last] until Resurrection Day; every time they light the fires of war, God extinguishes them ;83 and they labour hard to spread corruption on earth: and God does not -love the spreaders of corruption.

    Note 81
    The phrase "one's hand is shackled" is a metaphorical expression denoting niggardliness, just as its opposite-"his hand is stretched out wide" -signifies generosity (Zamakhshari). However, these two phrases have a wider meaning as well, namely, "lack of power" and "unlimited power", respectively (Razi). It would appear that the Jews of Medina, seeing the poverty of the Muslims, derided the latters' conviction that they were struggling in God's cause and that the Qur'an was divinely revealed. Thus, the "saying" of the Jews mentioned in this verse, "God's hand is shackled", as well as the parallel one in 3:181, "God is poor while we are rich", is an elliptical description of their attitude towards Islam and the Muslims - an attitude of disbelief and sarcasm which could be thus paraphrased: "If it were true that you Muslims are doing God's will, He would have bestowed upon you power and riches; but your poverty and your weakness contradict your claim - or else this claim of yours amounts, in effect, to saying that God cannot help you." This outstanding example of the elliptic mode of expression (ijaz) so often employed in the Qur'an has, however, a meaning that goes far beyond the historical circumstances to which it refers: it illustrates an attitude of mind which mistakenly identifies worldly riches or power with one's being, spiritually, "on the right way". In the next sentence the Qur'an takes issue with this attitude and declares, in an equally elliptical manner, that all who see in material success an alleged evidence of God's approval are blind to spiritual truths and, therefore, morally powerless and utterly self-condemned in the sight of God.

    Note 82
    Lit., "among them". The personal pronoun refers to the hypocritical followers of the Bible - both the Jews and the Christians - spoken of in verses 57-63 (Tabari); cf. verse 14 of this surah, which makes a similar statement with regard to such of the Christians as "have forgotten much of what they had been told to bear in mind".

    Note 83
    Le., He does not allow any of the warring parties to resolve their conflicts through a final victory, with the result that they continue to live in a state of "enmity and hatred".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Blaspheming Against God5:64 The Jews even said, "GOD's hand is tied down!" It is their hands that are tied down. They are condemned for uttering such a blasphemy. Instead, His hands are wide open, spending as He wills. For certain, your Lord's revelations to you will cause many of them to plunge deeper into transgression and disbelief. Consequently, we have committed them to animosity and hatred among themselves until the Day of Resurrection. Whenever they ignite the flames of war, GOD puts them out. They roam the earth wickedly, and GOD dislikes the evildoers.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:64 (The Divine System wants people to contribute to the society.) The Jews say, "God's hand is tied down." It is their hands that are tied down and they are condemned for saying so. Nay, His hands are wide open and He showers His bounties according to His laws. What your Lord reveals to you (O Prophet) is certain to increase many of them in transgression and rejection of the truth. Consequently, We have placed enmity and malice among them until the Day of Resurrection. God has already put down the flames of war that they repeatedly ignited. But they strive to create corruption and disorder in the land, although God does not love those who create corruption and disorder.23

    Note 23
    22:40. The Qur’an increases many people in their opposition since it is a great equalizer of humanity

    5:65 ولو ان اهل الكتب ءامنوا واتقوا لكفرنا عنهم سياتهم ولادخلنهم جنت النعيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:65 Walaw anna ahla alkitabi amanoowaittaqaw lakaffarna AAanhum sayyi-atihimwalaadkhalnahum jannati alnnaAAeemi
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:65 If the people of the book only would have acknowledged and been aware, We would have cancelled for them their sins and admitted them to gardens of paradise.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:65 And if the people of the Book only had believed and been aware, We would have cancelled for them their sins and admitted them to gardens of bliss.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:65 If the followers of the Bible would but attain to [true] faith and God-consciousness, We should indeed efface their [previous] bad deeds, and indeed bring them into gardens of bliss;
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Salvation For Jews and Christians5:65 If only the people of the scripture believe and lead a righteous life, we will then remit their sins, and admit them into gardens of bliss.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:65 If the People of the Scripture would believe in the Qur’an and be mindful of the Divine laws, We would remit their sins from them and admit them into the Gardens of bliss.

    5:66 ولو انهم اقاموا التورىة والانجيل وما انزل اليهم من ربهم لاكلوا من فوقهم ومن تحت ارجلهم منهم امة مقتصدة وكثير منهم ساء ما يعملون

    Transcription (English)
    5:66 Walaw annahum aqamoo alttawratawaal-injeela wama onzila ilayhim min rabbihimlaakaloo min fawqihim wamin tahti arjulihim minhum ommatunmuqtasidatun wakatheerun minhum saa mayaAAmaloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:66 If they had upheld the Torah, the Injeel, and what was sent down to them from their Lord, they would have been rewarded from above them and below their feet. From among them is a pious nation, but many of them commit evil.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:66 And if they had upheld the Torah and the Gospel, and what was sent down to them from their Lord, they would have been rewarded from above them and from beneath their feet. From among them is a pious nation, but most of them only do evil.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:66 and if they would but truly observe the Torah and the Gospel and all [the revelation] that has been bestowed from on high upon them by their Sustainer, they would indeed partake of all the blessings of heaven and earth. Some of them do pursue a right course; but as for most of them -vile indeed is what they do!84

    Note 84
    The expression "partake of all the blessings of heaven and earth" (lit., "eat from above them and from beneath their feet") is an allusion to the blessing which accompanies the realization of a spiritual truth, as well as to the social happiness which is bound to follow an observance of the moral principles laid down in the genuine teachings of the Bible. It should be borne in mind that the phrase "if they would but truly observe (law annahum aqamu) the Torah and the Gospel", etc., implies an observance of those scriptures in their genuine spirit, free of the arbitrary distortions due to that "wishful thinking" of which the Qur'an so often accuses the Jews and the Christians such as the Jewish concept of "the chosen people", or the Christian doctrines relating to the alleged divinity of Jesus and the "vicarious redemption" of his followers.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    They Must Believe in This Quran5:66 If only they would uphold the Torah and the Gospel, and what is sent down to them herein from their Lord, they would be showered with blessings from above them and from beneath their feet. Some of them are righteous, but many of them are evildoers.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:66 If they had upheld the Torah and the Gospel, and all that was sent down upon them by their Lord, they would have received the blessings of the heavens and earth. Among them there are people who are moderate, but a great many of them follow a course that is evil.24

    Note 24
    Literally, min fauqihim wa min tahti arjulihim = From above them and from underneath their feet’. Akl = Food = Eating = Partaking = Blessings

    5:67 يايها الرسول بلغ ما انزل اليك من ربك وان لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته والله يعصمك من الناس ان الله لا يهدى القوم الكفرين

    Transcription (English)
    5:67 Ya ayyuha alrrasooluballigh ma onzila ilayka min rabbika wa-in lam tafAAal famaballaghta risalatahu waAllahu yaAAsimukamina alnnasi inna Allaha la yahdeealqawma alkafireena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:67 O messenger, deliver what was sent down to you from your Lord; if you do not, then you have not delivered His message. God will protect you from the people. God does not guide the rejecting people.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:67 O messenger, deliver what was sent down to you from your Lord, and if you do not then you have not delivered His message; and God will protect you from the people. And God does not guide the rejecting people.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:67 O APOSTLE! Announce all that has been bestowed from on high upon thee by thy Sustainer: for unless thou doest it fully, thou wilt not have delivered His message [at all]. And God will protect thee from [unbelieving] men: behold, God does not guide people who refuse to acknowledge the truth.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    The Messenger Must Deliver5:67 O you messenger, deliver what is revealed to you from your Lord - until you do, you have not delivered His message - and GOD will protect you from the people. GOD does not guide the disbelieving people.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:67 O Messenger! Convey all that your Lord has revealed to you. Unless you do it, you will not have conveyed His messages at all. God will protect you from the people. God does not guide those in stubborn denial.

    5:68 قل ياهل الكتب لستم على شىء حتى تقيموا التورىة والانجيل وما انزل اليكم من ربكم وليزيدن كثيرا منهم ما انزل اليك من ربك طغينا وكفرا فلا تاس على القوم الكفرين

    Transcription (English)
    5:68 Qul ya ahla alkitabi lastumAAala shay-in hatta tuqeemoo alttawratawaal-injeela wama onzila ilaykum min rabbikumwalayazeedanna katheeran minhum ma onzila ilayka minrabbika tughyanan wakufran fala ta/sa AAalaalqawmi alkafireena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:68 Say, "O people of the book, you are not upon anything until you uphold the Torah and the Injeel and what was sent down to you from your Lord." For many of them, what was sent down to you from your Lord will only increase them in transgression and rejection. So do not feel sorry for the ingrates.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:68 Say: "O people of the Book, you are not upon anything until you uphold the Torah and the Gospel and what was sent down to you from your Lord." And for many of them, what was sent down to you from your Lord will only increase them in transgression and rejection. So do not feel sorry for the rejecting people.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:68 Say: "O followers of the Bible! You have no valid ground for your beliefs -unless you [truly] observe the Torah and the Gospel, and all that has been bestowed from on high upon you by your Sustainer!"85 Yet all that has been bestowed from on high upon thee [O Prophet] by thy Sustainer is bound to make many of them yet more stubborn in their overweening arrogance and in their denial of the truth. But sorrow not over people who deny the truth:

    Note 85
    Le., all the other God-inspired books of the Old Testament which stress the oneness of God and are full of prophecies relating to the advent of the Prophet Muhammad (Razi). This must be understood in conjunction with' the oft-repeated Qur'anic statement that the Bible, as it exists now, has undergone many textual changes and corruptions.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:68 Say, "O people of the scripture, you have no basis until you uphold the Torah, and the Gospel, and what is sent down to you herein from your Lord." For sure, these revelations from your Lord will cause many of them to plunge deeper into transgression and disbelief. Therefore, do not feel sorry for the disbelieving people.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:68 Say, "O People of the Scripture! You have no valid ground for your beliefs unless you uphold the Torah and the Gospel and all that has been revealed to you from your Lord." (The truth in them has been incorporated into the Final revelation). Yet all that has been revealed to you (O Prophet), by your Lord is bound to make many of them more stubborn in their arrogance and denial. But grieve not for the disbelieving folk.

    5:69 ان الذين ءامنوا والذين هادوا والصبون والنصرى من ءامن بالله واليوم الءاخر وعمل صلحا فلا خوف عليهم ولا هم يحزنون

    Transcription (English)
    5:69 Inna allatheena amanoo waallatheenahadoo waalssabi-oona waalnnasaraman amana biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiriwaAAamila salihan fala khawfun AAalayhim walahum yahzanoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Requirements for Attaining Eternal Salvation5:69 "Those who acknowledge, those who are Jewish, those who are the followers of other religions, and the Nazarenes… Whoever acknowledges God and the Last day and does good works, then they will have nothing to fear nor will they grieve."16

    Note 16

    See 2:62.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:69 Surely those who believe; and those who are Jewish, and the Sabians, and the Nazarenes, whoever of them believes in God and the Last Day and does good works; then they will have nothing to fear nor will they grieve.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:69 for, verily, those who have attained to faith [in this divine writ], as well as those who follow the Jewish faith, and the Sabians,86 and the Christians - all who believe in God and the Last Day and do righteous deeds - no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve.

    Note 86
    See surah 2, note 49.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Minimum Requirements For Salvation5:69 Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the converts, and the Christians; any of them who (1) believe in GOD and (2) believe in the Last Day, and (3) lead a righteous life, have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:69 Those who attain belief (and call themselves Muslims) and those who are Jews, and the Agnostics, and Christians; whoever believes in God and the Last Day, and does acts of welfare, for them shall be no fear from without, nor shall grief touch them from within.25

    Note 25
    Those who attain belief and call themselves Muslims, and those who are Jews, and Christians and the agnostics, whoever believes in God and the Last Day and helps people, shall have their reward with their Lord. For them there shall be no fear from without, nor shall grief touch them from within. 2:62. Note: Dear reader, I am not aware of any instance in the Qur’an where the use of Tasreef, the Big Picture could be more crucial than in the understanding of these verses, 2:62, 5:69. Respectfully speaking, some great commentators have misinterpreted this verse for not looking at other related verses. Please read on the Tasreef.

    It is inconceivable that those who oppose the truth, whether they are the People of the Book or the idolaters, could get out of error until the clear proof Al-Qur’an comes to them. 98:1

    ---- The non-Israelite Prophet liberates the People of the Book from the shackles of their manmade dogmas and brings them from darkness to light ------. 7:157

    They say, “Be Jews or Christians, then you will be rightly guided.” Say, “Nay, we follow the religion of Abraham, the upright. He associated no one with the One True God.” And Abraham was neither a Jew nor a Christian. 2:135

    O you who believe, say, “We believe in God and the revelation that has been conveyed to us, and in what was sent down to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob as well as the tribal Israelite Prophets; and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and to other Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction among them since all of them were one in purpose and they got their guidance from the One True God. And for Him, we are Muslims.” 2:136

    So, if they come to believe in the way you believe, they will be rightly guided. But if they turn away, they will be falling into opposition and God will be Sufficient for you against them. He is the Hearer, Knower of all things and events. 2:137

    5:70 لقد اخذنا ميثق بنى اسرءيل وارسلنا اليهم رسلا كلما جاءهم رسول بما لا تهوى انفسهم فريقا كذبوا وفريقا يقتلون

    Transcription (English)
    5:70 Laqad akhathna meethaqabanee isra-eela waarsalna ilayhim rusulan kullamajaahum rasoolun bima la tahwaanfusuhum fareeqan kaththaboo wafareeqan yaqtuloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:70 We have taken the covenant of the Children of Israel and We sent to them Our messengers. Every time a messenger came to them with what their minds did not desire, a group of them they would reject, and a group of them they would kill.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:70 We have taken the covenant of the Children of Israel and We sent to them Our messengers. Every time a messenger came to them with what their souls did not desire, a group of them they would reject, and a group of them they would kill.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:70 INDEED, We accepted a solemn pledge from the children of Israel, and We sent apostles unto them; [but] every time an apostle came unto them with anything that was not to their liking, [they rebelled:] to some of them they gave the lie, while others they would slay,87

    Note 87
    Lit., "and some they are slaying". Regarding the significance of the change from the past to the present tense (yaqtulun), see surah 2, note 72.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:70 We have taken a covenant from the Children of Israel, and we sent to them messengers. Whenever a messenger went to them with anything they disliked, some of them they rejected, and some they killed.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:70 We took a Covenant with the Children of Israel (to follow the commandments) and sent Messengers to them. Whenever We sent a Messenger to them with what they disliked, some of these they rejected, and some they killed.

    5:71 وحسبوا الا تكون فتنة فعموا وصموا ثم تاب الله عليهم ثم عموا وصموا كثير منهم والله بصير بما يعملون

    Transcription (English)
    5:71 Wahasiboo alla takoonafitnatun faAAamoo wasammoo thumma taba AllahuAAalayhim thumma AAamoo wasammoo katheerun minhum waAllahubaseerun bima yaAAmaloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:71 They did not consider that it might be a test, so they turned blind and deaf. Then God accepted the repentance from them. But again many of them turned blind and deaf. God is watcher over what they do.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:71 And they did not consider it might be a test, so they were blind and deaf. But God would have accepted the repentance from them; but many of them were still blind and deaf. God is Seer over what they do.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:71 thinking that no harm would befall them; and so they became blind and deaf [of heart]. Thereafter God accepted their repentance: and again many of them became blind and deaf. But God sees all that they do.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:71 They thought that they would not be tested, so they turned blind and deaf, then GOD redeemed them, but then many of them turned blind and deaf again. GOD is Seer of everything they do.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:71 They thought there would be no trial, so they became blind and deaf (to reason). Yet God turned to them, but again many of them (faltered and) became blind and deaf. But God is Seer of all they did.

    5:72 لقد كفر الذين قالوا ان الله هو المسيح ابن مريم وقال المسيح يبنى اسرءيل اعبدوا الله ربى وربكم انه من يشرك بالله فقد حرم الله عليه الجنة وماوىه النار وما للظلمين من انصار

    Transcription (English)
    5:72 Laqad kafara allatheena qalooinna Allaha huwa almaseehu ibnu maryama waqalaalmaseehu ya banee isra-eela oAAbudoo Allaharabbee warabbakum innahu man yushrik biAllahi faqadharrama Allahu AAalayhi aljannata wama/wahualnnaru wama lilththalimeenamin ansarin
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Many Modern Christians are Not the Followers of Jesus, the Messiah5:72 Ingrates indeed are those who have said, "God is the Messiah son of Mary!" Although the Messiah had said, "O Children of Israel, serve God, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever sets up partners with God, then God will forbid paradise for him, and his destiny will be the fire; and the wicked will have no supporters."17

    Note 17

    Despite the Pauline Church's polytheistic teaching that transformed ONE God into a fictional Triune god with contradictory multiple personalities, the Gospels are filled with verses rejecting the deity of Jesus. See John 7:16,28-29 ; 5:30; 14:28; 12:44; 20:127; Mark 10:17-18 ; 12:29; Matthew 7:21 . One of the chapters in 19 Questions for Christians is dedicated to the discussion of the few Biblical verses abused to promote polytheism. See 4:171. Also, see 2:59; 3:45; 4:11; 7:162; 19:36.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:72 Rejecters indeed are those who have said: "God is the Messiah, son of Mary." And the Messiah said: "O Children of Israel, serve God, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever sets up partners with God, then God will restrict the Paradise from him, and his destiny will be the Fire; and the wicked will have no supporters."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:72 Indeed, the truth deny they who say, "Behold, God is the Christ, son of Mary" - seeing that the Christ [himself] said, "O children of Israel! Worship God [alone], who is my Sustainer as well as your Sustainer."88 Behold, whoever ascribes divinity to any being beside God, unto him will God deny paradise, and his goal shall be the fire: and such evildoers will have none to succour them!89

    Note 88
    Cf. Matthew iv; 10; Luke iv, 8; John xx, 17.

    Note 89
    The purport of this passage is that Jesus was but a mortal like all the other apostles who lived before him, and that Mary never claimed to be "the mother of God".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Today's Christianity Not Jesus' Religion5:72 Pagans indeed are those who say that GOD is the Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah himself said, "O Children of Israel, you shall worship GOD; my Lord and your Lord." Anyone who sets up any idol beside GOD, GOD has forbidden Paradise for him, and his destiny is Hell. The wicked have no helpers.10 ,

    Note 10
    In John 20:17 , we see that Jesus taught that he was neither God, nor the son of God. Many theologians have concluded, after careful research,that today's Christianity is not the same Christianity taught by Jesus. Twooutstanding books on this subject are "The Myth of God Incarnate" (TheWestminster Press, Philadelphia, 1977) and The "Mythmaker" (Harper &Row, New York, 1986). On the front jacket of "The Mythmaker" we read thefollowing statement: " ...Hyam Maccoby presents new arguments to support the view that Paul,not Jesus, was the founder of Christianity....it was Paul alone who createda new religion through his vision of Jesus as a divine Saviour who died tosave humanity."
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:72 Rejecters of the truth certainly are those who proclaim that God is Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah himself taught them, "O Children of Israel! You shall worship God, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever associates deities with God, for such God has forbidden Paradise and their abode is the fire. For those who choose to do wrong, there will be no helpers.

    5:73 لقد كفر الذين قالوا ان الله ثالث ثلثة وما من اله الا اله وحد وان لم ينتهوا عما يقولون ليمسن الذين كفروا منهم عذاب اليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:73 Laqad kafara allatheena qalooinna Allaha thalithu thalathatin wamamin ilahin illa ilahun wahidun wa-inlam yantahoo AAamma yaqooloona layamassanna allatheenakafaroo minhum AAathabun aleemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:73 Ingrates indeed are those who have said, "God is the third of trinity!" There is no god but One god. If they do not cease from what they are saying, then those who reject from among them will be afflicted with a painful retribution.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:73 Rejecters indeed are those who have said: "God is a trinity!" There is no god except One god. If they do not cease from what they are saying, then those who reject from among them will be afflicted with a painful retribution.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:73 Indeed, the truth deny they who say, "Behold, God is the third of a trinity" - seeing that there is no deity whatever save the One God. And unless they desist from this their assertion, grievous suffering is bound to befall such of them as are bent on denying the truth.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:73 Pagans indeed are those who say that GOD is a third of a trinity. There is no god except the one god. Unless they refrain from saying this, those who disbelieve among them will incur a painful retribution.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:73 And certainly they disbelieve who say that God is one of three (in a Trinity) when there is no god whatsoever but the One God. Unless they desist from saying what they say, grievous suffering is bound to befall such of them who oppose the truth.

    5:74 افلا يتوبون الى الله ويستغفرونه والله غفور رحيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:74 Afala yatooboona ila Allahiwayastaghfiroonahu waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:74 Would they not repent to God and seek His forgiveness? God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:74 Would they not repent to God and seek His forgiveness? God is Forgiving, Merciful.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:74 Will they not, then, turn towards God in repentance, and ask His forgiveness? For God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:74 Would they not repent to GOD, and ask His forgiveness? GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:74 Will they not rather turn to God and seek His forgiveness? For God is Forgiving, Merciful.

    5:75 ما المسيح ابن مريم الا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل وامه صديقة كانا ياكلان الطعام انظر كيف نبين لهم الءايت ثم انظر انى يؤفكون

    Transcription (English)
    5:75 Ma almaseehu ibnu maryama illarasoolun qad khalat min qablihi alrrusulu waommuhu siddeeqatunkana ya/kulani alttaAAamaonthur kayfa nubayyinu lahumu al-ayatithumma onthur anna yu/fakoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:75 The Messiah son of Mary, was no more than a messenger; like the messengers before him. His mother was trustworthy, and they used to eat the food. See how We clarify the signs for them, then see how they deviate.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:75 The Messiah, son of Mary, is no more than a messenger; like whom messengers have passed away; and his mother was trustworthy, they used to eat the food. See how We clarify the signs for them, then see how they deviate.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:75 The Christ, son of Mary, was but an apostle: all [other] apostles had passed away before him; and his mother was one who never deviated from the truth; and they both ate food [like other mortals].90 Behold how clear We make these messages unto them: and then behold how perverted are their minds!*

    Note 90
    Lit., "how turned away they are [from the truth]". Primarily, the verb afaka signifies "he turned [someone or something] away"; in an abstract sense it often denotes "he uttered a lie" (because it implies a turning away from the truth). The passive form ufika has frequently the meaning of "he was turned away from his opinion" (or "from his judgment") and, thus, "his mind became perverted" or "deluded". (Cf. Qamus and Taj al' Arus; also Lane 1, 69.)
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:75 The Messiah, son of Mary, is no more than a messenger like the messengers before him, and his mother was a saint. Both of them used to eat the food. Note how we explain the revelations for them, and note how they still deviate!,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:75 The Messiah, son of Mary, was no other than a Messenger, like other Messengers before him who passed on. And his mother was a woman of truth. Both of them were human beings who had to eat food (like all other mortals). See how clearly We explain Our verses for them, and note how they still deviate!

    5:76 قل اتعبدون من دون الله ما لا يملك لكم ضرا ولا نفعا والله هو السميع العليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:76 Qul ataAAbudoona min dooni Allahi mala yamliku lakum darran wala nafAAan waAllahuhuwa alssameeAAu alAAaleemu
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:76 Say, "Do you serve other than God what cannot harm you or benefit you?" God is the Hearer, the Knower.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:76 Say: "Do you serve other than God what cannot harm you or benefit you?" God is the Hearer, the Knower.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:76 Say: "Would you worship, beside God, aught that has no power either to harm or to benefit you-when God alone is all-hearing, all-knowing?"
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:76 Say, "Would you worship beside GOD powerless idols who can neither harm you, nor benefit you? GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:76 Say, “Would you worship in place of God what possesses no power of harm or benefit to you?” God is the One Who is the Hearer, the Knower.

    5:77 قل ياهل الكتب لا تغلوا فى دينكم غير الحق ولا تتبعوا اهواء قوم قد ضلوا من قبل واضلوا كثيرا وضلوا عن سواء السبيل

    Transcription (English)
    5:77 Qul ya ahla alkitabi lataghloo fee deenikum ghayra alhaqqi wala tattabiAAooahwaa qawmin qad dalloo min qablu waadallookatheeran wadalloo AAan sawa-i alssabeeli
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:77 Say, "O followers of the book, do not be extreme in your system other than the truth, and do not follow the desires of a people who have been misguided before, and they misguide many; and they strayed from the right path."
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:77 Say: "O people of the Book, do not overstep in your system other than the truth, and do not follow the desires of a people who have been misguided before, and they misguide many; and they strayed from the right path."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:77 Say: "O followers of the Gospel! Do not overstep the bounds [of truth] in your religious beliefs;91 and do not follow the errant views of people who have gone astray aforetime, and have led many [others] astray, and are still straying from the right path."92

    Note 91
    Cf. 4:171. This passage, like the preceding ones, is obviously addressed to the Christians, whose love for Jesus has caused them to "overstep the bounds of truth" by elevating him to the rank of divinity; therefore my rendering, in this context, of ahl al-kitab as "followers of the Gospel".

    Note 92
    Lit., "have gone astray from the right path": i.e., are persisting in this condition until now (Razi): an allusion to the many communities who, in the course of time, have come to attribute divinity to their spiritual leaders -a phenomenon frequently encountered in the history of religions.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Choose Your Friends Carefully5:77 Say, "O people of the scripture, do not transgress the limits of your religion beyond the truth, and do not follow the opinions of people who have gone astray, and have misled multitudes of people; they are far astray from the right path.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:77 Say, “O People of the Book! Do not overstep the bounds of truth in your religious beliefs. And do not follow the errant views of people who have gone astray long before, and led a great many others astray, and those who are still straying from the even way.

    5:78 لعن الذين كفروا من بنى اسرءيل على لسان داود وعيسى ابن مريم ذلك بما عصوا وكانوا يعتدون

    Transcription (English)
    5:78 LuAAina allatheena kafaroo min baneeisra-eela AAala lisani dawoodawaAAeesa ibni maryama thalika bima AAasawwakanoo yaAAtadoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:78 Cursed are those who have rejected from among the Children of Israel by the tongue of David and Jesus son of Mary. That is for what they have disobeyed, and for what they transgressed.18

    Note 18

    The following Biblical verses where David and Jesus condemn the unappreciative people among the Children of Israel fit the Quranic reference: Psalms 109; Matthew 16:11-12 ; 23:1; Luke 12:1-2 .

    13"Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You shut the kingdom of heaven in men's faces. You yourselves do not enter, nor will you let those enter who are trying to. 15"Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You travel over land and sea to win a single convert, and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as you are. 16"Woe to you, blind guides! You say, 'If anyone swears by the temple, it means nothing; but if anyone swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath.' 17You blind fools! Which is greater: the gold, or the temple that makes the gold sacred? 18You also say, 'If anyone swears by the altar, it means nothing; but if anyone swears by the gift on it, he is bound by his oath.' 19You blind men! Which is greater: the gift, or the altar that makes the gift sacred? 20Therefore, he who swears by the altar swears by it and by everything on it. 21And he who swears by the temple swears by it and by the one who dwells in it. 22And he who swears by heaven swears by God's throne and by the one who sits on it. 23"Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You give a tenth of your spices—mint, dill and cumin. But you have neglected the more important matters of the law—justice, mercy and faithfulness. You should have practiced the latter, without neglecting the former. 24You blind guides! You strain out a gnat but swallow a camel. 25"Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. 26Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean. 27"Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of dead men's bones and everything unclean. 28In the same way, on the outside you appear to people as righteous but on the inside you are full of hypocrisy and wickedness. 29"Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You build tombs for the prophets and decorate the graves of the righteous. 30And you say, 'If we had lived in the days of our forefathers, we would not have taken part with them in shedding the blood of the prophets.' 31So you testify against yourselves that you are the descendants of those who murdered the prophets. 32Fill up, then, the measure of the sin of your forefathers! 33"You snakes! You brood of vipers! How will you escape being condemned to hell? (Matthew 23:13-33 ).

    To learn the identity of a "Pharisee" and a "hypocrite" who turned the above Biblical condemnation into a prophecy, see the New Testament, Acts 23:6 ; 1. Corinthians 9:20-22 ; Acts 15:36-41 ; Galatians 2:11-14 ; 4:10; Galatians 3:13 & Deuteronomy 21:23 . See the Quran 2:59; 3:45; 4:11; 5:72; 7:162; 19:36.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:78 Cursed are those who have rejected from among the Children of Israel by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary. That is for what they have disobeyed, and for what they transgressed.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:78 THOSE of the children of Israel who were bent on denying the truth have [already] been cursed by the tongue of David and of Jesus, the son of Mary?93 this, because they rebelled [against God] and persisted in transgressing the bounds of what is right.

    Note 93
    Cf. Psalms lxxviii, 21-22, 31-33, and passim; also Matthew xii, 34, and xxiii, 33-35.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:78 Condemned are those who disbelieved among the Children of Israel, by the tongue of David and Jesus, the son of Mary. This is because they disobeyed and transgressed.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:78 Those Children of Israel who were bent upon opposing the truth have already been condemned by the tongue of David and of Jesus, son of Mary. This is so because they rebelled and persisted in overstepping the bounds of what is right.

    5:79 كانوا لا يتناهون عن منكر فعلوه لبئس ما كانوا يفعلون

    Transcription (English)
    5:79 Kanoo la yatanahawnaAAan munkarin faAAaloohu labi/sa ma kanooyafAAaloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:79 They would not stop each other from doing sin. Wickedness is what they used to do.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:79 They would not stop each other from doing vice. Wickedness is what they used to do.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:79 They would not prevent one another from doing whatever hateful things they did: vile indeed was what they were wont to do!
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Apathy Condemned5:79 They did not enjoin one another from committing evil. Miserable indeed is what they did.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:79 They did not restrain one another from violating the Permanent Values. Evil was what they used to do.

    5:80 ترى كثيرا منهم يتولون الذين كفروا لبئس ما قدمت لهم انفسهم ان سخط الله عليهم وفى العذاب هم خلدون

    Transcription (English)
    5:80 Tara katheeran minhum yatawallawnaallatheena kafaroo labi/sa ma qaddamat lahumanfusuhum an sakhita Allahu AAalayhim wafee alAAathabihum khalidoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:80 You see many of them allying the ingrates. Wicked is what they have provided for themselves, for God's wrath is upon them, and in the retribution they will abide.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:80 You see many of them allying the rejecters. Wicked is what their souls have provided for them, for the wrath of God is upon them, and in the retribution they will abide.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:80 [And now] thou canst see many of them allying themselves with those who are bent on denying the truth! [So] vile indeed is what their passions make them do94 that God has condemned them; and in suffering shall they abide.

    Note 94
    Lit., "what their passions (anfusuhum) have proffered to them". (Regarding the rendering of nafs as "passion", see note 37 on verse 30 of this surah.) What is alluded to here is their stubborn belief that they are "God's chosen people" and, consequently, their rejection of any revelation that may have been vouchsafed to others.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:80 You would see many of them allying themselves with those who disbelieve. Miserable indeed is what their hands have sent forth on behalf of their souls. GOD is angry with them and, consequently, they will abide forever in retribution.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:80 Even now you see many of them allying themselves with the rejecters. Evil indeed is what they send forth for their own ‘self’. God is displeased with them, and they will abide in the doom.

    5:81 ولو كانوا يؤمنون بالله والنبى وما انزل اليه ما اتخذوهم اولياء ولكن كثيرا منهم فسقون

    Transcription (English)
    5:81 Walaw kanoo yu/minoona biAllahiwaalnnabiyyi wama onzila ilayhi ma ittakhathoohumawliyaa walakinna katheeran minhum fasiqoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:81 If they had only acknowledged God and the prophet, and what was sent down to him, then they would not have taken them as allies; but many of them are corrupt.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:81 And if they had believed in God and the prophet, and what was sent down to him, then they would not have taken them as allies; but many of them are wicked.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:81 For, if they [truly] believed in God and their Prophet95 and all that was bestowed upon him from on high, they would not take those [deniers of the truth] for their allies: but most of them are iniquitous.

    Note 95
    Lit., "the Prophet". According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the prophet referred to is Moses, whom the Jews claim to follow -a claim which the Qur'an denies by implication.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:81 Had they believed in GOD, and the prophet, and in what was revealed to him herein, they would not have befriended them. But many of them are evil.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:81 If they had believed in God and the Prophet, and what is revealed to him, they (the People of the Scripture) would not ally themselves with the rejecters. But a great many of them are drifting away from the truth.

    5:82 لتجدن اشد الناس عدوة للذين ءامنوا اليهود والذين اشركوا ولتجدن اقربهم مودة للذين ءامنوا الذين قالوا انا نصرى ذلك بان منهم قسيسين ورهبانا وانهم لا يستكبرون

    Transcription (English)
    5:82 Latajidanna ashadda alnnasiAAadawatan lillatheena amanoo alyahooda waallatheenaashrakoo walatajidanna aqrabahum mawaddatan lillatheena amanooallatheena qaloo inna nasara thalikabi-anna minhum qisseeseena waruhbanan waannahum layastakbiroona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:82 You will find the people with greatest animosity towards those who acknowledge are the Jews and those who set up partners; and you will find the closest in affection to those who acknowledge are those who said, "We are Nazarenes;" that is because amongst them are Priests and Monks, and they are not arrogant.19

    Note 19

    The word Masihiy (Christian) is not used in the Quran. The Quran refers to the supporters of Jesus with the Arabic word, Nasara, literally meaning "supporters (2:62; 5:14, 51,69,82; 9:30; 22:17). When Jesus asked them who would be his supporters in the cause of God, his disciples answered, "We are supporters of God" (3:52; 61:14). It is interesting that Jesus was called Jesus the Nazarene in the Bible, from the name of the town of Nasara. The name of the town Nasara (supporters) perhaps comes from what Jesus’ disciples called themselves. Ironically, the name of the son of Mary was not Jesus either. Christianity, as the product of the Pharisee-son-of-a-Pharisee is a polytheistic religion with a fabricated name and falsely attributed to a fabricated idol (See 3:45 and 2:62).

    When we read this verse within context, starting from verse 5:77, it becomes clear that the Jews referred to in verse 5:82 are not all Jews, but those who are considered unappreciative of God's blessings and message.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:82 You will find the people with the greatest animosity towards those who believe are the Jews and those who are polytheists; and you will find the closest in affection to those who believe are those whosaid: "We are Nazarenes;" that is because among them are Priests and Monks, and they are not arrogant.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:82 Thou wilt surely find that, of all people, the most hostile to those who believe [in this divine writ] are the Jews as well as those who are bent on ascribing divinity to aught beside God; and thou wilt surely find that, of all people,96 they who say, "Behold, we are Christians," come closest to feeling affection for those who believe [in this divine writ]: this is so because there are priests and monks among them, and because these are not given to arrogance.97

    Note 96
    Lit., "of them".

    Note 97
    I.e., they do not believe, as do the Jews, that revelation is God's exclusive gift to the children of Israel; and their "priests and monks" teach them that humility is the essence of all true faith. -It is noteworthy that the Qur'an does not in this context include the Christians among "those who are bent on ascribing divinity to aught beside God" (alladhina ashraku-the element of intent being expressed in the use of the past tense, similar to alladhina kafaru, alladhina zalamu, etc.): for although, by their deification of Jesus, they are guilty of the sin of shirk ("the ascribing of divinity to anyone or anything beside God"), the Christians do not consciously worship a plurality of deities inasmuch as, theoretically, their theology postulates belief in the One God, who is conceived as manifesting Himself in a trinity of aspects, or "persons", of whom Jesus is supposed to be one. However repugnant this doctrine may be to the teachings of the Qur'an, their shirk is not based on conscious intent, but rather flows from their "overstepping the bounds of truth" in their veneration of Jesus (see 4:171, 5:77). Cf. in this context Razi's remarks mentioned in note 16 on 6:23.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    A Statement of Fact5:82 You will find that the worst enemies of the believers are the Jews and the idol worshipers. And you will find that the closest people in friendship to the believers are those who say, "We are Christian." This is because they have priests and monks among them, and they are not arrogant.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:82 (O Prophet) you will find the most vehement of mankind in hostility to the believers to be the Jews and the idolaters. Closer in affection to the believers you will find those who say, "We are Christians." That is because among them there are priests and monks and because they are not given to arrogance.

    5:83 واذا سمعوا ما انزل الى الرسول ترى اعينهم تفيض من الدمع مما عرفوا من الحق يقولون ربنا ءامنا فاكتبنا مع الشهدين

    Transcription (English)
    5:83 Wa-itha samiAAoo ma onzila ilaalrrasooli tara aAAyunahum tafeedu mina alddamAAimimma AAarafoo mina alhaqqi yaqooloona rabbanaamanna faoktubna maAAa alshshahideena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:83 If they hear what was sent down to the messenger you see their eyes flooding with tears, for what they have known as the truth, they say, "Our Lord, we acknowledge, so record us with the witnesses."
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:83 And if they hear what was sent down to the messenger you see their eyes flooding with tears, for what they have known as the truth, they say: "Our Lord, we believe, so record us with the witnesses."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:83 For, when they come to understand what has been bestowed from on high upon this Apostle, thou canst see their eyes overflow with tears, because they recognize something of its truth;98 [and] they say: "O our Sustainer! We do believe; make us one, then, with all who bear witness to the truth.

    Note 98
    Regarding this rendering of the phrase mimma `arafu min al-hagq, see Zamakhshari and Razi; also Manar VII, 12. As for my translation of the expression idhd sami'u as "when they come to understand", it is to be noted that beyond its primary significance of "he heard", the verb sami'a has often the meaning of "he understood" or "came to understand" (cf. Lane IV, 1427).
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:83 When they hear what was revealed to the messenger, you see their eyes flooding with tears as they recognize the truth therein, and they say, "Our Lord, we have believed, so count us among the witnesses.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:83 When they hear and understand what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflow with tears because they recognize the truth in it. They say, "Our Lord! We choose to believe, so write us down with those who bear witness to the truth.”26

    Note 26
    Sama’ = Hear = Hear and understand

    5:84 وما لنا لا نؤمن بالله وما جاءنا من الحق ونطمع ان يدخلنا ربنا مع القوم الصلحين

    Transcription (English)
    5:84 Wama lana la nu/minu biAllahiwama jaana mina alhaqqi wanatmaAAuan yudkhilana rabbuna maAAa alqawmi alssaliheena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:84 "Why shouldn't we acknowledge God and what has come to us of the truth? We yearn that our Lord admits us with the righteous people."
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:84 "And why should we not believe in God and what has come to us of the truth? And we yearn that our Lord admits us with the righteous people."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:84 And how could we fail to believe in God and in whatever truth has come unto us, when we so fervently desire that our Sustainer count us among the righteous?"
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:84 "Why should we not believe in GOD, and in the truth that has come to us, and hope that our Lord may admit us with the righteous people?",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:84 "How could we not believe in God and the truth that has come to us? We so fervently desire for our Lord to admit us to the company of the righteous?"

    5:85 فاثبهم الله بما قالوا جنت تجرى من تحتها الانهر خلدين فيها وذلك جزاء المحسنين

    Transcription (English)
    5:85 Faathabahumu Allahu bimaqaloo jannatin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu khalideena feeha wathalikajazao almuhsineena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:85 So God rewarded them for what they have said with paradises that have rivers flowing beneath them, in them they shall abide; such is the reward of the good doers.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:85 So God recompensed them for what they have said with estates with rivers flowing beneath them, abiding therein; such is the recompense of the good doers.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:85 And for this their belief99 God will reward them with gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide: for such is the requital of the doers of good;

    Note 99
    Lit., "for what they have said"- i.e., expressed as their belief (Zamakhshari).
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:85 GOD has rewarded them for saying this; He will admit them into gardens with flowing streams. They abide therein forever. Such is the reward for the righteous.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:85 For their saying this, God rewarded them with Gardens, with rivers flowing underneath, to abide therein. Such is the recompense of the doers of good.27

    Note 27
    Muhsineen = Doers of good = Benefactors of humanity = Those who create balance in the society

    5:86 والذين كفروا وكذبوا بايتنا اولئك اصحب الجحيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:86 Waallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboobi-ayatina ola-ika as-habualjaheemi
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:86 Those who rejected and denied Our signs, they are the dwellers of hell.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:86 And those who rejected and denied Our revelations; they are the dwellers of Hell.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:86 whereas they who are bent on denying the truth and giving the lie to Our messages - they are destined for the blazing fire.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:86 As for those who disbelieve and reject our revelations, they are the dwellers of Hell.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:86 Whereas those who oppose the truth and deny Our revelations, are companions of the Insurmountable Barrier.28

    Note 28
    Their own ‘self’ face Jaheem, a great hindrance to self-actualization = Blazing fire

    5:87 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تحرموا طيبت ما احل الله لكم ولا تعتدوا ان الله لا يحب المعتدين

    Transcription (English)
    5:87 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tuharrimoo tayyibati ma ahallaAllahu lakum wala taAAtadoo inna Allaha layuhibbu almuAAtadeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Do not Transgress by Fabricating Prohibitions in the Name of God5:87 O you who acknowledge, do not forbid the good things that God has made lawful to you, and do not transgress; God does not like the transgressors.20

    Note 20

    The Quran condemns those who decree laws in the name of God as the worst people. Throughout history, Perverse used clergymen of all sorts as his favorite tool to fight against God's system by introducing a myriad of man-made rules and prohibitions in the name of God. They turned God's system into a theo-fiction consisting of superstitions, collections of silly rituals, frivolous rules, absurd doctrines, numerous prohibitions, opium of masses, intellectual slavery and wishful thinking. See 6:21; 7:17; 42:21.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:87 O you who believe, do not make unlawful the good things that God has made lawful to you, and do not aggress; God does not love the aggressors.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:87 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not deprive yourselves of the good things of life which God has made lawful to you,100 but do not transgress the bounds of what is right: verily, God does not love those who transgress the bounds of what is right.

    Note 100
    Most of the commentators - including tabari, Zamakhshari and Razi - explain the expression la tuharrimu (lit., "do not forbid" or "do not declare as forbidden") in the sense given by me above, and take it to refer to the self-mortification practiced, in particular, by Christian priests and monks. The term at-tayyibat comprises all that is good and wholesome in life - "the delightful things which human beings desire and towards which their hearts incline" (Tabari): hence my rendering, "the good things of life".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Do Not Prohibit Lawful Things5:87 O you who believe, do not prohibit good things that are made lawful by GOD, and do not aggress; GOD dislikes the aggressors.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:87 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not deprive yourselves of the good things of life that God has made lawful to you. But commit no excesses. God does not love those who exceed the limits.29

    Note 29
    Self-mortification by ascetics, monks and mystics is not the way to ‘purify’ the ‘soul’

    5:88 وكلوا مما رزقكم الله حللا طيبا واتقوا الله الذى انتم به مؤمنون

    Transcription (English)
    5:88 Wakuloo mimma razaqakumu Allahuhalalan tayyiban waittaqoo Allahaallathee antum bihi mu/minoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:88 Eat from what God has provided for you, good and lawful; and be aware of God in whom you acknowledge.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:88 And eat from what God has provided for you, good and lawful; and be aware of God in whom you believe.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:88 Thus, partake of the lawful, good things which God grants you as sustenance, and be conscious of God, in whom you believe.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:88 And eat from the good and lawful things that GOD has provided for you. You shall reverence GOD, in whom you are believers.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:88 Thus, partake of the lawful, good things that God grants you as sustenance. And be conscious of God, in Whom you are believers.

    5:89 لا يؤاخذكم الله باللغو فى ايمنكم ولكن يؤاخذكم بما عقدتم الايمن فكفرته اطعام عشرة مسكين من اوسط ما تطعمون اهليكم او كسوتهم او تحرير رقبة فمن لم يجد فصيام ثلثة ايام ذلك كفرة ايمنكم اذا حلفتم واحفظوا ايمنكم كذلك يبين الله لكم ءايته لعلكم تشكرون

    Transcription (English)
    5:89 La yu-akhithukumu Allahubiallaghwi fee aymanikum walakin yu-akhithukumbima AAaqqadtumu al-aymana fakaffaratuhu itAAamuAAasharati masakeena min awsati ma tutAAimoonaahleekum aw kiswatuhum aw tahreeru raqabatin faman lamyajid fasiyamu thalathati ayyamin thalikakaffaratu aymanikum itha halaftum waihfathooaymanakum kathalika yubayyinu Allahu lakum ayatihilaAAallakum tashkuroona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:89 God will not hold you for your unintentional oaths, but He will hold you for what oaths you have made binding with consideration. Its cancellation shall be the feeding of ten poor people from the average of what you feed your family, or that you clothe them, or that you free a slave; whoever cannot find shall fast for three days; as an atonement when you swear. You shall fulfill your oaths. It is such that God clarifies for you His signs that you may be thankful.21

    Note 21

    Slavery is prohibited by the Quran. See 4:3;92; 3:79; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39; 79:24.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:89 God will not hold you for your casual oaths, but He will hold you for what oaths you have made binding; its cancellation shall be the feeding of ten poor from the average of what you feed your family, or that you clothe them, or that you free a slave; whoever cannot find such shall fast for three days; this is a cancellation for making your oaths when you swear. And be careful from making oaths. It is such that God clarifies for you His revelations that you may be thankful.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:89 GOD will not take you to task for oaths which you may have uttered without thought,101 but He will take you to task for oaths which you have sworn in earnest. Thus, the breaking of an oath must be atoned for by102 feeding ten needy persons with more or less the same food as you are wont to give to your own families,103 or by clothing them, or by freeing a human being from bondage; and he who has not the wherewithal shall fast for three days [instead]. This shall be the atonement for your oaths whenever you have sworn [and broken them]. But be mindful of your oaths!'104 Thus God makes clear unto you His messages, so that you might have cause to be grateful.

    Note 101
    Lit., "for a thoughtless word (laghw) in your oaths". This refers primarily to oaths aiming at denying to oneself something which the Law of Islam does not prohibit (i.e.. "the good things of life"); and, generally, to all oaths uttered without premeditation, e.g., under the influence of anger (cf. 2:224; also 38:44 and the corresponding note 4l).

    Note 102
    Lit., "its atonement shall be" - the pronoun referring to the (implied) sin of breaking an oath. It is obvious from the context that this possibility of atonement relates only to "oaths uttered without thought", and not to deliberate undertakings affecting other persons. which-as has been explicitly stated in the opening sentence of this surah -a believer is bound to observe faithfully to the best of his ability. Regarding exceptions from this general rule, see surah 2, note 212.

    Note 103
    Lit., "the average of what you feed your families with".

    Note 104
    Le., "do not make them lightly or often" (Razi).
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Do Not Take God's Name in Vain5:89 GOD does not hold you responsible for the mere utterance of oaths; He holds you responsible for your actual intentions. If you violate an oath, you shall atone by feeding ten poor people from the same food you offer to your own family, or clothing them, or by freeing a slave. If you cannot afford this, then you shall fast three days. This is the atonement for violating the oaths that you swore to keep. You shall fulfill your oaths. GOD thus explains His revelations to you, that you may be appreciative.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:89 God will not call you to account for vain utterances of your oaths. He will hold you accountable for your deliberate and intentional oaths. If you violate such oaths, that would be a transgression against your own ‘self’. If you do violate an oath, the expiation for that is: Feeding ten needy persons of what is standard for your own family, or clothing them - Or, freeing one human being from bondage, whether it is slavery, extreme poverty, heavy debt, or oppression. If you do not have the means to do so, then observe ‘Saum’ for three days. This is the expiation of your (breaking of) intentional oaths. But be mindful of your oaths. God explains His messages, so that you may have reason to be grateful.30

    Note 30
    ‘Saum’, Abstinence 2:183

    5:90 يايها الذين ءامنوا انما الخمر والميسر والانصاب والازلم رجس من عمل الشيطن فاجتنبوه لعلكم تفلحون

    Transcription (English)
    5:90 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooinnama alkhamru waalmaysiru waal-ansabuwaal-azlamu rijsun min AAamali alshshaytanifaijtaniboohu laAAallakum tuflihoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Stay Away from Alcohol, Drugs, Gambling5:90 O you who acknowledge, intoxicants, and gambling, and altars, and arrows of chance are tools of affliction used by the devil. You shall avoid him so that you may be successful.22

    Note 22

    Hamr is derived from the verb that means, "to cover," and is used for all intoxicants and drugs that cover the mind. Translating it as "wine" limits its intended reference. While accepting some benefits of intoxicants, the Quran prohibits its intake (2:219). This prohibition is categorical and the Quran does not recommend the slippery and deceptive measure known as "drinking in moderation." The Quran does not legally prohibit alcohol though. It is up to society to regulate its consumption. The societies that lack strict moral or religious norms against alcohol pay a hefty price in terms of loss and problems with economy, social life, relationships, health, and personal happiness. See 2:219.

    The word ansab denotes altars and shrines. For instance, worshipping Kaba, which was originally a temple built to worship God alone violates the principles of monotheism. Kaba is not a holy building, but merely a historic point for the annual conference of Monotheists. Visiting a place to commemorate God does not mean idolizing such a place. The black stone next to Kaba, which was perhaps originally used as a marker to indicate the start of circumvolution, is another big idol with millions of worshipers. Muhammed's grave, which did not exist during the revelation of the Quran, is too one of the most popular idols in the world. All these shrines and stones are within the reference set of the word ansab. Contrary to unequivocal verses of the Quran, millions of Sunnis and Shiites worship rocks, stones, shrines, and the rotten bones of their idols. See 2:48; 25:3.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:90 O you who believe, alcohol, and gambling, and altars, and arrows of chance are tainted - by the work of the devil. You shall avoid him so that you may be successful.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:90 O YOU who have attained to faith! Intoxicants, and games of chance, and idolatrous practices, and the divining of the future are but a loathsome evil of Satan's doing:'105 shun it, then, so that you might attain to a happy state!

    Note 105
    According to all the lexicographers, the word khamr (derived from the verb khamara, "he concealed" or "obscured") denotes every substance the use of which obscures the intellect, i.e., intoxicates. Hence, the prohibition of intoxicants laid down in this verse comprises not merely alcoholic drinks, but also drugs which have a similar effect. The only exception from this total prohibition arises in cases of "dire necessity" (in the strictest sense of these words), as stipulated in the last sentence of verse 3 of this surah: that is to say, in cases where illness or a bodily accident makes the administration of intoxicating drugs or of alcohol imperative and unavoidable. - As regards the expression "idolatrous practices" (ansab, lit., "idolatrous altars"), see note 8 of this surah. This term has, I believe, been used here metaphorically, and is meant to circumscribe all practices of an idolatrous nature -like saint-worship, the attribution of "magic" properties to certain inanimate objects, the observance of all manner of superstitious taboos, and so forth. -For an explanation of the expression rendered by me as "divining of the future" (al-azlam, lit., "divining-arrows"), see note 9 on the second paragraph of verse 3 of this surah.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Intoxicants and Gambling Prohibited5:90 O you who believe, intoxicants, and gambling, and the altars of idols, and the games of chance are abominations of the devil; you shall avoid them, that you may succeed.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:90 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Intoxicants and gambling and games of chance, sacrificing animals on stones (altars of idols) and forecasting the future by such means as arrows, raffles and omens (all) is an immoral handiwork of Satan. Refrain from it that you may prosper.31

    Note 31
    Handiwork of Satan, since these things are based on vain emotions at the cost of human intellect

    5:91 انما يريد الشيطن ان يوقع بينكم العدوة والبغضاء فى الخمر والميسر ويصدكم عن ذكر الله وعن الصلوة فهل انتم منتهون

    Transcription (English)
    5:91 Innama yureedu alshshaytanuan yooqiAAa baynakumu alAAadawata waalbaghdaafee alkhamri waalmaysiri wayasuddakum AAan thikriAllahi waAAani alssalati fahal antummuntahoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:91 The devil only wants to cause strife between you through intoxicants and gambling, and to repel you away from remembering God and from the contact prayer. Will you then desist?
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:91 The devil only wants to cause strife between you through alcohol and gambling, and to repel you away from remembering God and from the contact prayer. Will you be deterred?
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:91 By means of intoxicants and games of chance Satan seeks only to sow enmity and hatred among you, and to turn you away from the remembrance of God and from prayer. Will you not, then, desist?'106

    Note 106
    Lit., "Will you, then, desist?" -a rhetorical question implying the necessity of desisting, which can be expressed in English only by the use of the negative form.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:91 The devil wants to provoke animosity and hatred among you through intoxicants and gambling, and to distract you from remembering GOD, and from observing the Contact Prayers (Salat). Will you then refrain?,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:91 By means of intoxicants and games of chance Satan (your rebellious and selfish desire) incites you to enmity and hatred among you and hinders you from being conscious of God and following the Divine System. Will you not then abstain? [2:219]

    5:92 واطيعوا الله واطيعوا الرسول واحذروا فان توليتم فاعلموا انما على رسولنا البلغ المبين

    Transcription (English)
    5:92 WaateeAAoo Allaha waateeAAooalrrasoola waihtharoo fa-in tawallaytum faiAAlamooannama AAala rasoolina albalaghualmubeenu
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:92 Obey God and obey the messenger, and beware. If you turn away then know that the duty of the messenger is clear deliverance.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:92 And obey God and obey the messenger, and be aware. If you turn away then know that it is the duty of Our messenger to deliver clearly.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:92 Hence, pay heed unto God, and pay heed unto the Apostle, and be ever on your guard [against evil]; and if you turn away, then know that Our Apostle's only duty is a clear delivery of the message [entrusted to him].107

    Note 107
    This implies that he cannot force people to believe, and cannot, therefore, be held responsible for their failure to do so.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:92 You shall obey GOD, and you shall obey the messenger, and beware. If you turn away, then know that the sole duty of our messenger is to deliver the message efficiently.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:92 You shall obey God and obey the Messenger, the Divine System that the Messenger has established, and be careful in this regard. If you turn away, it will be to your own detriment. Know that the duty of Our Messenger is just to convey the Message clearly.

    5:93 ليس على الذين ءامنوا وعملوا الصلحت جناح فيما طعموا اذا ما اتقوا وءامنوا وعملوا الصلحت ثم اتقوا وءامنوا ثم اتقوا واحسنوا والله يحب المحسنين

    Transcription (English)
    5:93 Laysa AAala allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati junahun feemataAAimoo itha ma ittaqaw waamanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati thumma ittaqaw waamanoothumma ittaqaw waahsanoo waAllahu yuhibbualmuhsineena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:93 There is no sin upon those who acknowledge and promote reforms for what they eat when they are aware, acknowledge, and promote reforms; then they are aware and acknowledge, then they are aware and do good; God loves the good doers.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:93 There is no sin upon those who believe and do good works for what they eat if they are aware and believe and do good works, then they are aware and believe, then they are aware and do good; God loves the good doers.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:93 Those who have attained to faith and do righteous deeds incur no sin by partaking of whatever they may,108 so long as they are conscious of God and [truly] believe and do righteous deeds, and continue to be conscious of God and to believe, and grow ever more109 conscious of God, and persevere in doing good: for God loves the doers of good.

    Note 108
    Lit., "in whatever they eat" or "taste" (fi-ma ta'imu). The verb ta'ima, which primarily signifies "he ate", applies to eating and drinking as well as - metaphorically - to "partaking of" anything that may be desirable. Most of the commentators assume that this verse relates to the believers who had died before the promulgation of the prohibitions mentioned in verse 90 above. It seems to me, however, that it has a much wider meaning, and relates to the partaking of "the good things of life"-i.e., to those which have not been prohibited by God and which, therefore, the believers need not deny themselves (cf. verse 87 above).

    Note 109
    Lit., "and then (thumma) are...": a sequence expressing growth and intensification (Razi). Hence, the particle thumma - occurring twice in this sentence - has been rendered by me, in the first instance, as "[they] continue to be" and, in the second instance, as "[they] grow ever more [conscious of God]".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:93 Those who believe and lead a righteous life bear no guilt by eating any food, so long as they observe the commandments, believe and lead a righteous life, then maintain their piety and faith, and continue to observe piety and righteousness. GOD loves the righteous.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:93 Those who have chosen to believe and do works beneficial to the society, bear no guilt for whatever they partake (of the lawful), as long as they live upright and continue to believe, and grow ever in righteousness, and continue with their good works benefiting others. Remember that God loves the benefactors of humanity.32

    Note 32
    Ta’m, beyond eating and drinking, includes enjoying God’s bounties in all forms

    5:94 يايها الذين ءامنوا ليبلونكم الله بشىء من الصيد تناله ايديكم ورماحكم ليعلم الله من يخافه بالغيب فمن اعتدى بعد ذلك فله عذاب اليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:94 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoolayabluwannakumu Allahu bishay-in mina alssayditanaluhu aydeekum warimahukum liyaAAlama Allahuman yakhafuhu bialghaybi famani iAAtadabaAAda thalika falahu AAathabun aleemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Respect the Environmental Restrictions5:94 O you who acknowledge, God will test you with some of the game for hunting, coming within reach of your hands and your spears, so that God will know who reveres Him when unseen. Whoever transgresses after this, then he will have a painful retribution.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:94 O you who believe, God will test you with some of the game for hunting coming within reach of your hands and your spears, so that God will know who reverences Him while unseen. Whoever transgresses from now on, then he will have a painful retribution.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:94 O YOU who have attained to faith! Most certainly God will try you by means of the game which may come within the reach of your hands and your weapons110 [while you are on pilgrimage], so that God might mark out those who fear Him although He is beyond the reach of human perception.111 And as for him who, after all this, transgresses the bounds of what is right-grievous suffering awaits him!

    Note 110
    Lit., "with something of the game which your hands and your lances [may] reach".

    Note 111
    With this verse, the Qur'an returns to the prohibition of hunting during pilgrimage enunciated in verse 1 of this surah. The "trial" arises from the fact that hunting, although lawful in itself (and therefore included among the things which the beliver, according to the preceding verse, may normally partake of), is prohibited in the state of pilgrimage. -As regards the expression bi'lghayb, rendered by me as "although He is beyond the reach of human perception", see surah 2,. note 3.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Game Conservation5:94 O you who believe, GOD will test you with some game within reach of your hands and your arrows (during pilgrimage). GOD thus distinguishes those among you who observe Him in their privacy. Those who transgress after this have incurred a painful retribution.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:94 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! During Hajj, God may let you test your belief in privacy with some game or someone else’s wandering livestock within easy reach of your hands and your arrows. Refrain from hunting it. Whoever crosses the limits after this, will face an awful requital.

    5:95 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تقتلوا الصيد وانتم حرم ومن قتله منكم متعمدا فجزاء مثل ما قتل من النعم يحكم به ذوا عدل منكم هديا بلغ الكعبة او كفرة طعام مسكين او عدل ذلك صياما ليذوق وبال امره عفا الله عما سلف ومن عاد فينتقم الله منه والله عزيز ذو انتقام

    Transcription (English)
    5:95 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqtuloo alssayda waantum hurumunwaman qatalahu minkum mutaAAammidan fajazaon mithlu maqatala mina alnnaAAami yahkumu bihi thawaAAadlin minkum hadyan baligha alkaAAbati aw kaffaratuntaAAamu masakeena aw AAadlu thalika siyamanliyathooqa wabala amrihi AAafa AllahuAAamma salafa waman AAada fayantaqimu Allahuminhu waAllahu AAazeezun thoo intiqamin
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:95 O you who acknowledge, do not kill any game while you are restricted; and whosoever of you kills it deliberately, then the recompense is to value what was killed against the livestock, which shall be judged by two equitable persons from you, and to make such as a donation to reach the Quadrangle. Or, its expiation shall be in using it to feed the needy ones, or by an equivalent fast; to taste the consequence of his deed; God forgives what has past. Whosoever returns, then God will avenge it. God is Noble, Avenger.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:95 O you who believe, do not kill any game while you are restricted; and whoever of you kills it deliberately, then the recompense is to value what was killed against the livestock, which shall be judged by two equitable persons from you, and to make it as a donation to reach the Ka'aba. Or, its expiation shall be in using it to feed the needy ones, while he abstains from it; that is to suffer the results of his deed; God forgives what has past. And whoever returns, then God will seek vengeance on him. God is Noble, capable of vengeance.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:95 O you who have attained to faith! Kill no game while you are in the state of pilgrimage. And whoever of you kills it intentionally,112 [shall make] amends in cattle equivalent to what he has killed - with two persons of probity giving their judgment thereon- to be brought as an offering to the Ka`bah;113 or else he may atone for his sin by feeding the needy, or by the equivalent thereof in fasting:114 [this,] in order that. he taste the full gravity of his deed, [while] God shall have effaced the past. But whoever does it again, God will inflict His retribution on him: for God is almighty, an avenger of evil.

    Note 112
    From the last sentence of this verse it appears that by the "intentional" killing referred to here only an isolated incident (or a first offence) can be meant, and not a wilful, persistent "transgressing of the bounds of what is right", which the preceding verse condemns so severely. It is to be borne in mind that the term "game" (sayd) relates in this context only to edible animals: for, according to several authentic Traditions, the killing of a dangerous or highly obnoxious animal-for instance, a snake, a scorpion, a rabid dog, etc.-is permitted even in the state of pilgrimage.

    Note 113
    I.e., for distribution among the poor. In this context, the Ka`bah signifies, metonymically, the sacred precincts of Mecca, and not only the sanctuary itself (Razi). The "two persons of probity" are supposed to determine the approximate flesh-value of the wild animal which has been killed, and to decide on this basis as to what domestic animal should be offered in compensation.

    Note 114
    Lit., "or [there shall be] an atonement by way of feeding the needy, or an equivalent by way of fasting". These two alternatives are open to a pilgrim who is too poor to provide a head or heads of cattle corresponding in value to the game which he has killed, or-in the last-named alternative - too poor even to feed other poor people. Since neither the Qur'an nor any authentic Tradition specifies the number of poor to be fed or the number of days of fasting, these details are obviously left to the conscience of the person concerned.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:95 O you who believe, do not kill any game during pilgrimage. Anyone who kills any game on purpose, his fine shall be a number of livestock animals that is equivalent to the game animals he killed. The judgment shall be set by two equitable people among you. They shall make sure that the offerings reach the Ka`bah. Otherwise, he may expiate by feeding poor people, or by an equivalent fast to atone for his offense. GOD has pardoned past offenses. But if anyone returns to such an offense, GOD will avenge it. GOD is Almighty, Avenger.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:95 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not kill animals of game while you are in the state of Pilgrimage. Whoever kills it intentionally must send a permissible domestic animal to the Ka’bah, as a gift for the needy. Two equitable persons will decide what domestic animal is equivalent to the game animal that was killed. They must ensure that the gift reaches the Ka’bah (for use by the needy pilgrims 22:28). Or for expiation, feed some poor at a cost equal to the cost of the animal. If someone has no means to do that, then observe ‘Saum’ for three days. God has pardoned past violations. An appropriate court shall punish those who persist in violating this law. God is Almighty, Able to requite.

    5:96 احل لكم صيد البحر وطعامه متعا لكم وللسيارة وحرم عليكم صيد البر ما دمتم حرما واتقوا الله الذى اليه تحشرون

    Transcription (English)
    5:96 Ohilla lakum saydu albahriwataAAamuhu mataAAan lakum walilssayyaratiwahurrima AAalaykum saydu albarri ma dumtum hurumanwaittaqoo Allaha allathee ilayhi tuhsharoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:96 Lawful for you is the catch of the sea, to eat it as enjoyment for you and for those who travel; and forbidden for you is the catch of the land as long as you are under restriction; and be aware of God to whom you will be summoned.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:96 Lawful for you is the catch of the sea, to eat it as enjoyment for you and for those who travel; and unlawful for you is the catch of the land as long as you are under restriction; and be aware of God to whom you will be gathered.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:96 Lawful to you is all water-game, and what the sea brings forth,115 as a provision for you [who are settled] as well as for travellers, although you are forbidden to hunt on land while you are in the state of pilgrimage.116 And be conscious of God, unto whom you shall be gathered.

    Note 115
    Lit., "the game of the sea and its food". Since the term bahr denotes any large ac- cumulation of water, the classical commentators and jurists agree in that the above ordinance comprises all water-game, whether derived from seas, rivers, lakes or ponds (tabari). The pronoun in ta'amuhu (lit., "its food") relates to the word bahr, and thus indicates the fish and other marine animals which may have been cast forth by the waves onto the shore (tabari, Razi). Zamakhshari, however, regards the pronoun as relating to the object of the game (sayd) as such, and, consequently, understands the phrase as meaning "the eating thereof". Either of these two readings is agreeable with the text inasmuch as the above verse lays down that all kinds of water-game are lawful to a believer - even if he is in the state of pilgrimage - whereas hunting on land (sayd al-barr) is forbidden to the pilgrim.

    Note 116
    According to Al-Hasan al-Basri (as quoted by tabari), the "travellers" are, in this context, synonymous with "pilgrims": in other words, water-game of all descriptions is lawful to the believers irrespective of whether they are on pilgrimage or not.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    All Creatures of the Sea Lawful to Eat5:96 All fish of the sea are made lawful for you to eat. During pilgrimage, this may provide for you during your journey. You shall not hunt throughout the pilgrimage. You shall reverence GOD, before whom you will be summoned.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:96 Lawful to you is all water-game. This is decent provision for you and for those who are traveling by sea. Do not pursue land-game during Pilgrimage. Be mindful of God to Whom you will be summoned.33

    Note 33
    Bahr = Sea = River = Any body of water

    5:97 جعل الله الكعبة البيت الحرام قيما للناس والشهر الحرام والهدى والقلئد ذلك لتعلموا ان الله يعلم ما فى السموت وما فى الارض وان الله بكل شىء عليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:97 JaAAala Allahu alkaAAbata albayta alharamaqiyaman lilnnasi waalshshahra alharamawaalhadya waalqala-ida thalikalitaAAlamoo anna Allaha yaAAlamu ma fee alssamawatiwama fee al-ardi waanna Allaha bikullishay-in AAaleemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:97 God has made the Quadrangle, the Restricted Sanctuary, a maintenance for the people, and also the restricted month, the donations, the regulations so that you know that God knows what is in heavens and what is in earth, and that God is aware of all things.23

    Note 23

    The Quran mentions only one restricted masjid; yet the followers of hadith and sunna centuries after the revelation of the Quran increased the number to two by calling Muhammed's tomb the second "restricted masjid."

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:97 God has made the Ka'aba to be the Restricted Sanctuary; to stand for the people, and the restricted month, and the donations, and the regulations; that is so you may know that God knows what is in the heavens and what is in earth, and that God is aware of all things.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:97 God has laid down that the Ka'bah, the Inviolable Temple, shall be a symbol for all mankind;117 and [so, too,J the sacred month [of pilgrimage] and the garlanded offerings [are symbols] meant to make you aware118 that God is aware of all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth, and that God has full knowledge of everything.

    Note 117
    All hunting, whether by pilgrims or non-pilgrims, is prohibited in the vicinity of the Ka'bah -i.e., within the precincts of Mecca and its environs -because it is a sanctuary (amn, see 2:125) for all living beings. For its association with Abraham, see 2 :125 ff., and the corresponding notes. The noun ka`bah, by which, owing to its shape, the sanctuary has always been known, denotes any "cubical building". It would seem that he who first built the Ka`bah (for, since the time of Abraham, it has been rebuilt several times. always in the same shape) consciously chose the simplest three-dimensional form imaginable - a cube - as a parable of man's humility and awe before the idea of God, whose glory is beyond anything that man could conceive by way of architectural beauty. This symbolism is clearly expressed in the term giyam (lit., "support" or "mainstay"), which - in its abstract sense - signifies "a standard by which [men's] affairs are made sound or improved" (Razi): hence my rendering of qiyam li'n-nas as "a symbol for all mankind".

    Note 118
    Lit., "this, so that you may know". The "garlanded offerings" (lit., "offerings and garlands") are a reference to the sacrificial animals (see note 4 of this surah). Thus, the pilgrimage and the rites connected, with it are stated to be symbols of man's self-surrender to God.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:97 GOD has appointed the Ka`bah, the Sacred Masjid, to be a sanctuary for the people, and also the Sacred Months, the offerings (to the Sacred Masjid), and the garlands marking them. You should know that GOD knows everything in the heavens and the earth, and that GOD is Omniscient.,11

    Note 11
    The idol-worshiping Muslims have instituted two "Sacred Masjids" by consecrating the Prophet's tomb. The Quran talks only about one SacredMasjid.
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:97 God has appointed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, a Standard for mankind to unite and stand at their feet, as also the Sacred Months, the gifts for pilgrims, and their identification marks, such as garlands. Remind yourselves that God knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth, and that God is Aware of all things and events. [2:194]

    5:98 اعلموا ان الله شديد العقاب وان الله غفور رحيم

    Transcription (English)
    5:98 IAAlamoo anna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabiwaanna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:98 Know that God is powerful in retribution, and that God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:98 Know that God is powerful in retribution, and that God is Forgiving, Merciful.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:98 Know that God is severe in retribution -and that God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:98 Know that GOD is strict in enforcing retribution, and that GOD is Forgiving, Most Merciful.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:98 Beware that God’s Law of Requital is ever vigilant. God is Forgiving, Merciful.34

    Note 34
    So, He has shown you how to become worthy of His grace

    5:99 ما على الرسول الا البلغ والله يعلم ما تبدون وما تكتمون

    Transcription (English)
    5:99 Ma AAala alrrasooli illaalbalaghu waAllahu yaAAlamu matubdoona wama taktumoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:99 The only duty of the messenger is to deliver. God knows what you reveal and what you conceal.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:99 The messenger is only to deliver. And God knows what you reveal and what you conceal.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:99 No more is the Apostle bound to do than deliver the message [entrusted to him]: and God knows all that you do openly, and all that you would conceal.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:99 The sole duty of the messenger is to deliver the message, and GOD knows everything you declare and everything you conceal.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:99 The Messenger's duty is but to convey the Message, and God knows what you declare and what you hide.

    5:100 قل لا يستوى الخبيث والطيب ولو اعجبك كثرة الخبيث فاتقوا الله ياولى الالبب لعلكم تفلحون

    Transcription (English)
    5:100 Qul la yastawee alkhabeethu waalttayyibuwalaw aAAjabaka kathratu alkhabeethi faittaqoo Allahaya olee al-albabi laAAallakum tuflihoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Trivial Questions Create an Abundance of False Teachings5:100 Say, "The bad and the good are not equal, even if the abundance of the bad pleases you." So be aware of God, O you who have intelligence, that you may succeed.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:100 Say: "The bad and the good are not equal, even if the abundance of the bad impresses you." So be aware of God, O you who possess intelligence, that you may succeed.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:100 Say: "There is no comparison between the bad things and the good things,119 even though very many of the bad things may please thee greatly. Be, then, conscious of God, O you who are endowed with insight, so that you might attain to a happy state!"

    Note 119
    Lit., "the bad things and the good things are not equal".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:100 Proclaim: "The bad and the good are not the same, even if the abundance of the bad may impress you. You shall reverence GOD, (even if you are in the minority) O you who possess intelligence, that you may succeed.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:100 Say, “The bad and the good are not same. Let not the abundance of evil dazzle you. O People of understanding! Be mindful of God if you wish to reap a rich harvest.35

    Note 35
    The bad or evil is what harms the collective good of humanity and drags the ‘self’ down 14:24. The right is right, and the wrong is wrong regardless of what the majority think. 2:243, 6:116, 11:17

    5:101 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا تسلوا عن اشياء ان تبد لكم تسؤكم وان تسلوا عنها حين ينزل القرءان تبد لكم عفا الله عنها والله غفور حليم

    Transcription (English)
    5:101 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tas-aloo AAan ashyaa in tubda lakum tasu/kumwa-in tas-aloo AAanha heena yunazzalu alqur-anutubda lakum AAafa Allahu AAanha waAllahughafoorun haleemun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:101 O you who acknowledge, do not ask about things, which if revealed to you, would harm you. If you ask about them after the Quran has been sent down, then they will become clear to you. God pardons for them, and God is Forgiving, Compassionate.24

    Note 24

    The Quran explains and details all that we need for attaining salvation. Those who were not satisfied with the details provided by God, asked many trivial questions like some Jews asked before (2:67), and since they could not find answers in the Quran to their questions, they were attracted to hadith. Because of the great demand for more and more details on trivial issues, hadith narration and collection became a booming business. We are told many things ranging from, which order one should clip his or her fingernails in , and how long one should grow his beard, to which foot one should use to first step into the bathroom and on which side one should sleep on (9:31; 42:21).

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:101 O you who believe, do not ask about things which, if clarified, would harm you - and if you ask about them with the Qur'an being revealed, then they will become clear to you. God pardons for them, and God is Forgiving, Compassionate.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:101 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not ask about matters which, if they were to be made manifest to you [in terms of law], might cause you hardship;120 for, if you should ask about them while the Qur'an is being revealed, they might [indeed] be made manifest to you [as laws].121 God has absolved [you from any obligation] in this respect: for God is much-forgiving, forbearing.122

    Note 120

    Note 121
    I.e., with possibly unfortunate consequences. An illustration of this problem has been provided in the following authentic Tradition, quoted by Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayrah. In one of his sermons, the Prophet said: "O my people! God has ordained the pilgrimage (al-hajj) for you; therefore perform it." Thereupon somebody asked, "Every year, O Apostle of God?" The Prophet remained silent; and the man repeated his question twice. Then the Prophet said: "Had I answered `yes', it would have become incumbent on you [to perform the pilgrimage every year]: and, indeed, it would have been beyond your ability to do so. Do not ask me about matters which I leave unspoken: for, behold, there were people before you who went to their doom because they had put too many questions to their prophets and thereupon disagreed [about their teachings]. Therefore, if I command you anything, do of it as much as you are able to do. and if I forbid you anything, abstain from it." Discussing this Tradition, Ibn Hazm observes: "It circumscribes all the principles of religious law (ahkam ad-din) from the first to the last namely: what the Prophet has left unspoken-neither ordering nor forbidding it-is allowed (mubah), that is, neither forbidden nor obligatory; whatever he ordered is obligatory (fard), and whatever he forbade is unlawful (haram); and whatever he ordered us to do is binding on us to the extent of our ability alone" (Muhalla I, 64). It should be borne in mind that the term "the Prophet" comprises, in this context, the Qur'an as well, since it was through the Prophet that the Qur'anic message was communicated to mankind.

    Note 122
    I.e., by leaving certain matters unspoken, God has left them to man's discretion, thus enabling him to act in accordance with his conscience and the best interests of the community.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:101 O you who believe, do not ask about matters which, if revealed to you prematurely, would hurt you. If you ask about them in light of the Quran, they will become obvious to you. GOD has deliberately overlooked them. GOD is Forgiver, Clement.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:101 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not ask unnecessary details of things (as the Israelites asked of Moses about the cow 2:68.) This attitude may bring unpleasant consequences for you. But if you ask them as the Qur’an is being revealed, the minor details of Ordinances might be given which will be hard for you to follow. God pardons you in this respect. For, God is Forgiving, Clement.36

    Note 36
    The general rule has been given that all pure and good things are permissible to you. Your questions are very clearly answered in the Qur’an 5:15, 15:1, 22:40. The Qur’an is for all times, and while the basic Laws and Principles remain immutable, minor details are intended to be flexible according to temporal and spatial requirements 11:1. This Day I have perfected your religious law for you, completed My favor upon you, and chosen for you Al-Islam as the Way of Life. 5:3

    5:102 قد سالها قوم من قبلكم ثم اصبحوا بها كفرين

    Transcription (English)
    5:102 Qad saalaha qawmun min qablikumthumma asbahoo biha kafireena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:102 A community before you had asked the same, then they became ingrates in it.25

    Note 25

    Jewish Rabbis produced piles of Mishna (words) and Gemara (practice) to explain, detail, and supplement God's book, which contained sufficient explanation and details (5:13; 6:154; 7:145; 37:117). Thus, they distorted God's system. Muslims too repeated the exact same blunder and produced piles of Hadith (words) and Sunna (practice), to explain, detail, and supplement God's book, which contained sufficient explanation and details (6:38; 114; 12:111; 16:89). As a result, they divided themselves into sects and factions (23:52; 25:30). Many people with sound minds have chosen to stay away from this mishmash collection of nonsense. Agnostics are much closer to God than the majority of people who follow manmade teachings in the name of God.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:102 A people before you had asked the same, then they became rejecters in it.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:102 People before your time have indeed asked such questions-and in result thereof have come to deny the truth.123

    Note 123
    Following -Ibn Hazm's principles of jurisprudence, Rashid Rida' thus explains the above verse: "Many of our jurists (fugaha') have, by their subjective deductions, unduly widened the range of man's religious obligations (takalif), thus giving rise to the very difficulties and complications which the clear wording (of the Qur'an] had put an end to; and this has led to the abandonment, by many individual Muslims as well as by their governments, of Islamic Law in its entirety" (Manar VII, 138).
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:102 Others before you have asked the same questions, then became disbelievers therein.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:102 Some people before you asked such questions and then rejected the instructions. [2:68]

    5:103 ما جعل الله من بحيرة ولا سائبة ولا وصيلة ولا حام ولكن الذين كفروا يفترون على الله الكذب واكثرهم لا يعقلون

    Transcription (English)
    5:103 Ma jaAAala Allahu min baheeratinwala sa-ibatin wala waseelatin walahamin walakinna allatheena kafarooyaftaroona AAala Allahi alkathibawaaktharuhum la yaAAqiloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Superstitions, Responsibility and Will5:103 God did not prohibit livestock for begetting five or seven, for oaths, for begetting twins, for fathering ten; but the people who rejected invented lies to God, and most of them do not reason.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:103 God did not decree any restrictions for combining of livestock, or roaming livestock, or ones that give twin births, or a male camel freed from work; but the people who rejected invented lies to God, and most of them do not comprehend.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:103 IT IS NOT of God's ordaining that certain kinds of cattle should be marked out by superstition and set aside from the use of man;124 yet those who are bent on denying the truth attribute their own lying inventions to God. And most of them never use their reason:

    Note 124
    Lit., "God has not ordained anything [in the nature] of a bahirah, nor a sa'ibah, nor a wasilah, nor a ham." These expressions denote certain categories of domestic animals which the pre-Islamic Arabs used to dedicate to their various deities by setting them free to pasture and prohibiting their use or slaughter. They were selected mainly on the basis of the number, sex and sequence of their offspring; but the lexicographers and commentators are by no means unanimous in their attempts at definition. For this reason-as well as because of their inherent complexity the above four terms cannot be translated into any other language; consequently, I am rendering them in the text as "certain kinds of cattle marked out by superstition and set aside from the use of man": this being, in the consensus of all authorities, the common denominator of the four categories. It is obvious that their mention at this place (as well as, by implication, in 6:138 and 143-144) serves as an illustration of the arbitrary invention of certain supposedly "religious" obligations and prohibitions alluded to in the preceding two verses and explained in the corresponding notes.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:103 GOD did not prohibit livestock that begets certain combinations of males and females, nor livestock liberated by an oath, nor the one that begets two males in a row, nor the bull that fathers ten. It is the disbelievers who invented such lies about GOD. Most of them do not understand.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:103 God did not ordain that certain kinds of cattle and other livestock be marked out, assigned names, and set aside from human use or consumption. Disbelievers invented such superstitions and attributed them to God. Most of them do not use their intellect.

    5:104 واذا قيل لهم تعالوا الى ما انزل الله والى الرسول قالوا حسبنا ما وجدنا عليه ءاباءنا اولو كان ءاباؤهم لا يعلمون شيا ولا يهتدون

    Transcription (English)
    5:104 Wa-itha qeela lahum taAAalawila ma anzala Allahu wa-ila alrrasooliqaloo hasbuna ma wajadnaAAalayhi abaana awa law kana abaohumla yaAAlamoona shay-an wala yahtadoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:104 If they are told, "Come to what God has sent down, and to the messenger;" they say, "We are content with what we found our fathers doing." What if their fathers did not know anything nor were they guided?
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:104 And if they are told: "Come to what God hassent down, and to the messenger;" they say: "We are content with what we found our fathers doing." What if their fathers did not know anything nor were guided?
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:104 for when they are told, "Come unto that which God has bestowed from on high, and unto the Apostle" - they answer, "Enough for us is that which we found our forefathers believing in and doing." Why, even though their forefathers knew nothing, and were devoid of all guidance?
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Do Not Follow Your Parents' Religion Blindly5:104 When they are told, "Come to what GOD has revealed, and to the messenger," they say, "What we found our parents doing is sufficient for us." What if their parents knew nothing, and were not guided?,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:104 When it is said to them, “Come to what God has revealed and to His Messenger, they say, "Enough for us is what we found our parents doing." What! Even though their parents had no knowledge whatsoever and no guidance?

    5:105 يايها الذين ءامنوا عليكم انفسكم لا يضركم من ضل اذا اهتديتم الى الله مرجعكم جميعا فينبئكم بما كنتم تعملون

    Transcription (English)
    5:105 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooAAalaykum anfusakum la yadurrukum man dallaitha ihtadaytum ila Allahi marjiAAukumjameeAAan fayunabbi-okum bima kuntum taAAmaloona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:105 O you who acknowledge, you are responsible for yourselves. None of the misguided can harm you when you are guided. To God is your return, all of you, and then He will inform you of what you have done.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:105 O you who believe, you are responsible for yourselves; none who are misguided can harm you if you are guided. To God is your return, all of you, and then He will inform you of what you have done.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:105 O you who have attained to faith! It is [but] for your own selves that you are responsible: those who go astray can do you no harm if you [yourselves] are on the right path. Unto God you all must return: and then He will make you [truly] understand all that you were doing [in life].
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:105 O you who believe, you should worry only about your own necks. If the others go astray, they cannot hurt you, as long as you are guided. To GOD is your ultimate destiny, all of you, then He will inform you of everything you had done.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:105 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! You are responsible for yourselves. He who goes astray cannot harm you if you are rightly guided. All of you will return to God; and He will make you understand all that you were doing in life.

    5:106 يايها الذين ءامنوا شهدة بينكم اذا حضر احدكم الموت حين الوصية اثنان ذوا عدل منكم او ءاخران من غيركم ان انتم ضربتم فى الارض فاصبتكم مصيبة الموت تحبسونهما من بعد الصلوة فيقسمان بالله ان ارتبتم لا نشترى به ثمنا ولو كان ذا قربى ولا نكتم شهدة الله انا اذا لمن الءاثمين

    Transcription (English)
    5:106 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooshahadatu baynikum itha hadara ahadakumualmawtu heena alwasiyyati ithnani thawaAAadlin minkum aw akharani min ghayrikum in antum darabtumfee al-ardi faasabatkum museebatu almawti tahbisoonahumamin baAAdi alssalati fayuqsimani biAllahiini irtabtum la nashtaree bihi thamanan walaw kana thaqurba wala naktumu shahadata Allahiinna ithan lamina al-athimeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:106 O you who acknowledge, witnessing a will when death is approaching to one of you shall be done by two who are just amongst you. Or, if you have ventured out in the land, then two others may suffice if death is approaching you; you will hold them after the contact prayer, and let them swear by God if you have doubt, "We will not sell it for any price, even if he was a near relative, and we will not conceal the testimony of God, or else we are then of the sinners."
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:106 O you who believe, witnessing shall be done if death is approaching one of you and a will is being made, by two among you who are equitable. If you have gone forth in the land, and death is approaching, then any two may suffice - if you have doubt regarding them, then detain them after making the contact prayer, and they will swear by God: "We will not purchase with it any price, even if it was from a near relative, and we will not conceal the testimony of God, else we are of the sinners."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:106 O YOU who have attained to faith! Let there be witnesses to what you do when death approaches you and you are about to make bequests:125 two persons of probity from among your own people, or -if the pangs of death come upon you while you are travelling far from home126 -two other persons from [among people] other than your own. Take hold of the two after having prayed; and if you have any doubt in your mind, let each of them swear by God, "We shall not sell this [our word] for any price, even though it were [for the sake of] a near kinsman; and neither shall we conceal aught of what we have witnessed before God127 -or else, may we indeed be counted among the sinful."

    Note 125
    Lit., "[let there be] testimony between you" - i.e., between you and your heirs - "when death approaches any of you, at the time of [making a] bequest".

    Note 126
    Lit., "travelling on earth". According to most of the commentators (cf. Razi), the expression minkum (lit., "from among you") signifies here "from among your own people", i.e., from among the Muslim community.

    Note 127
    Lit., "we shall not conceal God's, testimony".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    Witnessing A Will5:106 O you who believe, witnessing a will when one of you is dying shall be done by two equitable people among you. If you are traveling, then two others may do the witnessing. After observing the Contact Prayer (Salat), let the witnesses swear by GOD, to alleviate your doubts: "We will not use this to attain personal gains, even if the testator is related to us. Nor will we conceal GOD's testimony. Otherwise, we would be sinners.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:106 (Where necessary, even minor details of law have been given in the Qur’an) O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! When death approaches you, two equitable persons among you should witness your will. If the pangs of death come upon you when you are traveling far from home, then two of others (equitable persons other than your own people, non-Muslims) may do the witnessing. After you have prayed, let the witnesses swear by God, “We shall not sell our word for any price, even if the beneficiary is our near relative, and we will not conceal what we have witnessed before God, or we will be among the violators of law.”

    5:107 فان عثر على انهما استحقا اثما فاخران يقومان مقامهما من الذين استحق عليهم الاولين فيقسمان بالله لشهدتنا احق من شهدتهما وما اعتدينا انا اذا لمن الظلمين

    Transcription (English)
    5:107 Fa-in AAuthira AAala annahumaistahaqqa ithman faakharani yaqoomanimaqamahuma mina allatheena istahaqqaAAalayhimu al-awlayani fayuqsimani biAllahilashahadatuna ahaqqu min shahadatihimawama iAAtadayna inna ithan lamina alththalimeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:107 In case it is noticed that they were biased, then two others belonging to the discriminated party shall take their place. They should swear by God, "Our testimony is more truthful than their testimony, and if we transgress, then we are of the wicked."
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:107 If it is then found that they had indeed incurred the sin, then two others, from those who have been named as beneficiaries, will take their place; and they will swear by God: "Our testimony is more truthful than their testimony, and if we aggress, then we are of the wicked."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:107 But if afterwards it should come to light that the two [witnesses] have become guilty of [this very] sin, then two others - from among those whom the two former have deprived of their right128 - shall take their place and shall swear by God, "Our testimony is indeed truer than the testimony of these two, and we have not transgressed the bounds of what is right - or else, may we indeed be counted among the evildoers!"

    Note 128
    I,e., from among the rightful heirs of the deceased.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:107 If the witnesses are found to be guilty of bias, then two others shall be asked to take their places. Choose two persons who were victimized by the first witnesses, and let them swear by GOD: "Our testimony is more truthful than theirs; we will not be biased. Otherwise, we will be transgressors.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:107 If it is ascertained that these two have been guilty of bias, then let two others take their place - nearest in kin from among those who claim a lawful right - and let them swear by God, "We affirm that our testimony is truer than the testimony of these two, and we have not trespassed beyond truth. If we did, we would be among the wrongdoers."

    5:108 ذلك ادنى ان ياتوا بالشهدة على وجهها او يخافوا ان ترد ايمن بعد ايمنهم واتقوا الله واسمعوا والله لا يهدى القوم الفسقين

    Transcription (English)
    5:108 Thalika adna an ya/too bialshshahadatiAAala wajhiha aw yakhafoo an turadda aymanunbaAAda aymanihim waittaqoo Allaha waismaAAoowaAllahu la yahdee alqawma alfasiqeena
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:108 This is best so that they would bring the testimony on its face value, for fear that their oaths would be discarded after being made. Be aware of God, and listen; God does not guide the wicked people.
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:108 This is best as they are more likely to bring the testimony as intended, or face that their oaths would be disregarded as the previous oaths. And be aware of God, and listen; God does not guide the wicked people.
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:108 Thus it will be more likely that people will offer testimony in accordance with the truth-or else they will [have cause to] fear that their oaths will be refuted by the oaths of others.129 Be, then, conscious of God, and hearken [unto Him]: for God does not bestow His guidance upon iniquitous folk.

    Note 129
    Lit., "lest [contradictory] oaths be proffered after their oaths".
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:108 This is more apt to encourage an honest testimony on their part, fearing that their oath may be disregarded like that of the previous witnesses. You shall observe GOD and listen. GOD does not guide the wicked.,
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:108 This procedure will encourage an honest testimony to begin with. The first witnesses will be more likely to bear true witness fearing that after their oath, the oath of others might be taken. Be mindful of God and listen: God does not guide people who drift away from the truth.

    5:109 يوم يجمع الله الرسل فيقول ماذا اجبتم قالوا لا علم لنا انك انت علم الغيوب

    Transcription (English)
    5:109 Yawma yajmaAAu Allahu alrrusulafayaqoolu matha ojibtum qaloo la AAilma lanainnaka anta AAallamu alghuyoobi
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Dead Messengers and Saints Cannot Hear You5:109 The day God will gather the messengers and He will say, "What was the response you received?"; they said, "We have no knowledge, you are the Knower of all the unseen."26

    Note 26

    What about those who believe that Muhammed would save them on the Day of Judgment? They will be rejected by their idol on that day, and they will be surprised to hear his intercession in the form of testimony to the truth (25:30). Also, see 2:48.

    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:109 The Day God will gather the messengers and He will say: "What was the response you received?" They said: "We have no knowledge, you are the Knower of all the unseen."
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:109 ON THE DAY when God shall assemble all the apostles and shall ask, "What response did you receive?" -they will answer, "We have no knowledge; verily, it is Thou alone who fully knowest all the things that are beyond the reach of a created being's perception."130

    Note 130
    Cf. verse 99 above: "No more is the Apostle bound to do than deliver the message"-for, neither can he force people to follow the right path, nor can he know what is in their hearts. (See also 4:41.)
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    The Dead Messengers Totally Unaware5:109 The day will come when GOD will summon the messengers and ask them, "How was the response to you?" They will say, "We have no knowledge. You are the Knower of all secrets.",
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:109 On the Day when God will assemble all Messengers and ask them, “What was the long term response to your teachings?” They will say, “We have no knowledge. You are the Knower of the Unseen.”

    5:110 اذ قال الله يعيسى ابن مريم اذكر نعمتى عليك وعلى ولدتك اذ ايدتك بروح القدس تكلم الناس فى المهد وكهلا واذ علمتك الكتب والحكمة والتورىة والانجيل واذ تخلق من الطين كهية الطير باذنى فتنفخ فيها فتكون طيرا باذنى وتبرئ الاكمه والابرص باذنى واذ تخرج الموتى باذنى واذ كففت بنى اسرءيل عنك اذ جئتهم بالبينت فقال الذين كفروا منهم ان هذا الا سحر مبين

    Transcription (English)
    5:110 Ith qala Allahu yaAAeesa ibna maryama othkur niAAmatee AAalaykawaAAala walidatika ith ayyadtuka biroohialqudusi tukallimu alnnasa fee almahdi wakahlanwa-ith AAallamtuka alkitaba waalhikmatawaalttawrata waal-injeela wa-ithtakhluqu mina altteeni kahay-ati alttayribi-ithnee fatanfukhu feeha fatakoonu tayranbi-ithnee watubri-o al-akmaha waal-abrasabi-ithnee wa-ith tukhriju almawta bi-ithneewa-ith kafaftu banee isra-eela AAanka ithji/tahum bialbayyinati faqala allatheenakafaroo minhum in hatha illa sihrun mubeenun
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    Jesus and His Disciples Were Muslims5:110 God said, "O Jesus son of Mary, recall My blessings upon you and your mother that I supported you with the Holy Spirit; you spoke to the people in the cradle and in old age; and I taught you the book and the wisdom, and the Torah, and the Injeel; and you would create from clay the shape of a bird, then blow into it and it becomes a bird by My leave; and you heal the blind and the leper by My leave; and you brought out the dead by My leave. I have restrained the Children of Israel from you, that you came to them with proofs; but those who rejected amongst them said, "This is an obvious magic!""
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:110 God said: "O Jesus, son of Mary, recall My blessings upon you and your mother, that I supported you with the Holy Spirit; you spoke to the people in the cradle and middle-age; and I taught you the Book and the wisdom, and the Torah, and the Gospel; and you would create from clay the shape of a bird, then blow into it and it becomes a bird with My permission; and you would heal the blind and the leaper with My permission; and you would bring out the dead with My permission. And I have restrained the Children of Israel from you, that you came to them with proofs; but those who rejected among them said: 'This is clearly magic!'"
    Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
    5:110 Lo!131 God will say: "O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember the blessings which I bestowed upon thee and thy mother-how I strengthened thee with holy inspiration,132 so that thou couldst speak unto men in thy cradle, and as a grown man; and how I imparted unto thee revelation and wisdom, including the Torah and the Gospel;133 and how by My leave thou didst create out of clay, as it were, the shape of [thy followers'] destiny, and then didst breathe into it, so that it might become, by My leave, [their] destiny ;134 and how thou didst heal the blind and the leper by My leave, and how thou didst raise the dead by My leave;135 and how I prevented the children of Israel from harming thee when thou camest unto them with all evidence of the truth, and [when] those of them who were bent on denying the truth were saying, `This is clearly nothing but deception!"'

    Note 131
    Regarding my occasional rendering of idh (at the beginning of a sentence) as "lo", see surah 2, note 21. In the above context, this interjection connects with the preceding passage, which states, by implication, that the apostles are not responsible for the reactions of those to whom they communicate the divine message: a connection that is brought out fully in verses 116-117 below.

    Note 132
    See surah 2, note 71.

    Note 133
    Lit., "and the Torah and the Gospel". The conjunction "and" at the beginning of this clause is meant to stress the fact that both the Torah and the Gospel were included in the revelation (al-kitab) vouchsafed to Jesus. Although the Torah was an earlier revelation, it is described as "imparted to Jesus" because his own prophetic mission was based on the Law of Moses, which was only confirmed, and not abrogated, by the Gospel (cf. Matthew v, 17-19). As regards the expression "in thy cradle", see surah 3, note 33 (first sentence).

    Note 134
    See 3:49, as well as the corresponding note 37.

    Note 135
    See surah 3, note 38.
    Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
    5:110 GOD will say, "O Jesus, son of Mary, remember My blessings upon you and your mother. I supported you with the Holy Spirit, to enable you to speak to the people from the crib, as well as an adult. I taught you the scripture, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel. Recall that you created from clay the shape of a bird by My leave, then blew into it, and it became a live bird by My leave. You healed the blind and the leprous by My leave, and revived the dead by My leave. Recall that I protected you from the Children of Israel who wanted to hurt you, despite the profound miracles you had shown them. The disbelievers among them said, `This is obviously magic.',
    Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
    5:110 Then God will say, “O Jesus, son of Mary! Recall My blessings upon you and your mother. I strengthened you with Ruh-ul-Qudus, enabled you to speak eloquently to the people in childhood, and also at the advanced age. I gave you revelation and wisdom including the Torah and the Gospel. Recall that you told them that you would raise them from dust up into the heights of glory, by My leave. You made people see the truth otherwise given to blind following, by My leave. You healed the wounds of inequity on people, by My leave, and you gave a new meaning to life to those who were otherwise no better than dead, by My leave. Recall, how I prevented the Children of Israel from harming you when you came to them with all evidence of the truth. And those who were bent upon denying the truth said, “This is nothing but clear deception.”37

    Note 37
    3:45, 3:111, 4:157, 6:123. 7:176. Ruh-ul-Qudus = Ruh-il-Qudus = Ruh-il-Amin = Gabriel 2:87, 2:97, 2:253, 5:110, 16:2, 16:102, 26:193, 42:52

    5:111 واذ اوحيت الى الحوارين ان ءامنوا بى وبرسولى قالوا ءامنا واشهد باننا مسلمون

    Transcription (English)
    5:111 Wa-ith awhaytu ila alhawariyyeenaan aminoo bee wabirasoolee qaloo amannawaishhad bi-annana muslimoona
    Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
    5:111 I inspired the disciples that you shall acknowledge Me and My messenger; they Said, 'We acknowledge, and bear witness that we have peacefully surrendered.'
    The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
    5:111 "And I inspired the disciples: 'You shall believe in Me and My messenger;' they said: 'We believe, and bear witness that we have submitted.'"