بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
11:1 Alif-lam-ra kitabun ohkimatayatuhu thumma fussilat min ladun hakeeminkhabeerin
11:1 A1L30R200. A book whose signs have been ascertained, then detailed, from One who is Wise, Ever-aware.1
Verses of the Quran are treasures of details and they contain even further details when evaluated within their semantic network. For instance, when we study 46:15; 31:14; 22:5; 23:14; 16:58 and 17:31 carefully together with God's signs in the nature, they provide specific guidelines regarding abortion. When we study the verse recommending the punishment for theft (5:38) together with other verses using the same key word, we learn a flexible legal system. When we study the multiple-meaning key words in 4:34, we come across a different picture, much different than what the all-male scholars have taught us. The details related to the mathematical system prophesied in chapter 74, themselves can fill many volumes of books.
11:1 ALR, a Book in which its revelations have been made lawgiving, then detailed, from One who is Wise, Expert.
11:1 Alif. Lam. Ra.1 A DIVINE WRIT [is this], with messages that have been made clear in and by themselves, and have been distinctly spelled out as well2 - [bestowed upon you] out of the grace of One who is wise, all-aware,
See Appendix II. In the somewhat strange opinion of Sibawayh (cf. Manar XII, 3) and of Razi in his commentary on this verse, the letters Alif-Lam-Ra represent the title of this surah, and ought therefore to be read in conjunction with the following sentence, thus: "Alif-Lam-Ra is a divine writ...", etc. However, this opinion conflicts sharply with that of several earlier authorities of great standing, e.g., Az-Zajjaj (quoted by Razi), and is, moreover, unacceptable in view of the fact that a number of other surahs are preceded by such letter-symbols without any syntactic possibility of their being regarded as "titles".
According to Zamakhshari and Razi, the conjunction thumma at the beginning of the clause thumma fussilat (lit., "and then have been distinctly spelled out") does not denote a sequence in time but, rather, a co-ordination of qualities or conditions; therefore my rendering. As regards my translation of the phrase uhkimat ayatuhu as "messages that have been made clear in and by themselves", see the first sentence of 3:7 as well as the corresponding note 5, which explains the expression ayat muhkamat. Rashid Rida' interprets this phrase in the same sense (see Manar XII, 3 f.).
The Quran: Messenger of God11:1 A.L.R. This is a scripture whose verses have been perfected, then elucidated. It comes from a Most Wise, Most Cognizant.,1
Our generation is fortunate to witness two awesome phenomena in the Quran: (1) an extraordinary mathematical code (Appendix 1), and (2) aliterary miracle of incredible dimensions. If humans attempt to write amathematically structured work, the numerical manipulations will adverselyaffect the literary quality. The Quran sets the standard for literaryexcellence.
11:1 A.L.R. Alif–Laam-Ra. (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Raaziq the Provider, states that), A Divine Writ this is, the verses wherein are perfected and well expounded. It comes from One Wise, Aware.1
This is the 11th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 123 verses. As we have learned earlier, Prophet Hud was sent to the powerful tribe of ‘Aad. He is considered to be the next in line to Prophet Noah only and that puts his times several millennia BC. He is also thought to be the first ever Messenger to be raised in the Arabian Peninsula. Let us bear in mind that the inhabitants of the Peninsula were not Arabs before Prophet Ishmael whose period of advent is about 2000 BC. For a brief history of how the Arabs are the descendants of Ishmael, please see 2:125. All communities have received their Messengers from God. None of the Messengers asked for a return for their services to humanity. They met stiff resistance as well as enjoyed loyal following.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
11:2 Alla taAAbudoo illa Allahainnanee lakum minhu natheerun wabasheerun
The Quran as Warner and Good News11:2 "That you shall serve none other than God. I am to you from Him a warner and a bearer of good news."
11:2 "That you shall serve none other than God. I am to you from Him a warner and a bearer of good news."
11:2 so that you may worship none but God. [Say, O Prophet:] "Behold, I come unto you from Him [as] a warner and a bearer of glad tidings:3
The conjunction an ("that") preceding the next sentence ("that you shall. ..", etc.) is in this rendering expressed by means of a colon. The interpolation. between brackets, of the words "Say, O Prophet" is necessitated by the first-person construction of this sentence. The subsequent passage - up to the end of verse 4 - outlines both the "warning" and the "glad tidings" referred to above, and thus circumscribes elliptically the whole of the message entrusted to the Prophet.
11:2 Proclaiming: "You shall not worship except GOD. I come to you from Him as a warner, as well as a bearer of good news.,
11:2 Serve God by serving fellow humans. (Say O Prophet), “I am from Him a warner to you and a bearer of good news.
11:3 Waani istaghfiroo rabbakum thumma toobooilayhi yumattiAAkum mataAAan hasanan ilaajalin musamman wayu/ti kulla thee fadlin fadlahuwa-in tawallaw fa-inee akhafu AAalaykum AAathabayawmin kabeerin
11:3 "Seek forgiveness from your Lord, then repent to Him; He will make you enjoy an enjoyment until a predetermined period. He gives His endowment to those who are endowed. If you turn away, then I do fear for you the retribution of a great day!"
11:3 "And seek forgiveness from your Lord, then repent to Him; He will provide you with good provisions to an appointed term. And He bestows His grace upon those who are of grace." And if they turn away: "Indeed, I fear for you the retribution of a great day!"
11:3 Ask your Sustainer to forgive you your sins, and then turn towards Him in repentance - [whereupon] He will grant you a goodly enjoyment of life [in this world] until a term set [by Him is fulfilled];4 and [in the life to come] He will bestow upon everyone possessed of merit [a full reward for] his merit.5 But if you turn away, then, verily, I dread for you the suffering [which is bound to befall you] on that awesome Day6
I.e., "till the end of your lives" (for an explanation of the term ajal musamma, see note 2 on 6:2). Since God, in His unfathomable wisdom, does not always grant worldly happiness and material benefits to everyone who believes in Him and lives righteously, it is only reasonable to assume -as Rashid Rida' does in Manar XII, 7 ff. -that the "goodly enjoyment of life" (i.e., in this world) promised in the above sentence relates to the community of the believers as a whole, and not necessarily to individuals. (Cf. 3:139-"you are bound to rise high if you are [truly] believers".)
The noun fadl, when used with reference to God, invariably denotes "bounty" or "favour"; in its reference to man, it' usually signifies "merit" or, occasionally, "eminence". The above verse makes it clear that, in contrast to the partial and often only moral rewards and punishments in the life of this world, God will, in the life to come, bestow the full measure of His favours upon everyone who has acquired merit by virtue of his faith and his actions. (Cf. 3:185 - "only on the Day of Resurrection will you be requited in full for whatever you have done".)
Lit., "the suffering of a great Day". See in this connection 9:128.
11:3 "You shall seek your Lord's forgiveness, then repent to Him. He will then bless you generously for a predetermined period, and bestow His grace upon those who deserve it. If you turn away, then I fear for you the retribution of an awesome day.",
11:3 Seek your Lord’s forgiveness turning to Him in repentance. He will then grant you a goodly enjoyment of life in this world until a term appointed. He will bestow His abounding grace on all who abound in merit. But if you turn away, then I fear for you the chastisement of a Great Day.”
11:4 Ila Allahi marjiAAukum wahuwaAAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
11:4 "To God is your return, and He is capable of all things."
11:4 "To God is your return, and He is capable of all things."
11:4 Unto God you all must return: and He has the power to will anything."
11:4 To GOD is your ultimate return, and He is Omnipotent.,
11:4 To God is your return and He has power over all things.
11:5 Ala innahum yathnoona sudoorahumliyastakhfoo minhu ala heena yastaghshoona thiyabahumyaAAlamu ma yusirroona wama yuAAlinoona innahuAAaleemun bithati alssudoori
11:5 Alas, they folded their chests to hide from Him. Even when they hide themselves under their outer garments, He knows what they keep secret and what they declare. He is the knower of all that is in the chests.4
Such as robes, indicating religious rank or holiness.
11:5 Alas, they have folded their chests to hide from it. Even when they cover themselves under their garments, He knows what they keep secret and what they declare. He is Knower of all that is in the chests.
11:5 Oh, verily, they [who are bent on denying the truth of this divine writ] are enshrouding their hearts in order to hide from Him.7 Oh, verily, [even] when they cover themselves with their garments [in order not to see or hear],8 He knows all that they keep secret as well as all that they bring into the open - for, behold, He has full knowledge of what is in the hearts [of men].
Since the people referred to in this verse obviously do not believe in the divine origin of Muhammad's message, their "hiding from God" can have, in this context, only one meaning-namely, that of a metaphor for their unwillingness to listen to the truth which emanates from Him: and this also explains the statement that they are "enshrouding their hearts" (lit., "bosoms", as at the end of this verse), i.e., are allowing their hearts and minds to remain wrapped-up in prejudices, thus making them impervious to spiritual perception. See in this connection 8:55 and the corresponding note 58.
The above interpolation corresponds to the meaning given to the preceding phrase by most of the lexicographers (cf. Lane VI, 2262).
11:5 Indeed, they hide their innermost thoughts, as if to keep Him from knowing them. In fact, as they cover themselves with their clothes, He knows all their secrets and declarations. He knows the innermost thoughts.,
11:5 See how they fold up their chests that they may hide their thoughts from Him! Even when they cover themselves with their garments, He knows what they conceal and what they reveal. He is Knower of the innermost thoughts of the hearts. [71:7]
11:6 Wama min dabbatin fee al-ardiilla AAala Allahi rizquha wayaAAlamumustaqarraha wamustawdaAAaha kullun fee kitabinmubeenin
11:6 There is not a creature on earth except that its provision is due from God. He knows their habitat and their depository. All is in a clear record.2
Starvation and famine are the consequences of ignorance, wars, laziness, monopoly, myopic selfishness, dictatorship, wasting natural resources, injustice, and apathy. Communities that follow God's system have little chance of experiencing famine and starvation. See 17:31.
11:6 And there is not a creature on the earth but on God is its provision. And He knows where it dwells and where it hides. All is in a clear record.
11:6 And there is no living creature on earth but depends for its sustenance on God; and He knows its time-limit [on earth] and its resting-place [after death]:9 all [this] is laid down in [His] clear decree.
For this rendering of mustaqarr and mustawda`, see note 83 on 6:98. The above reference to God's all-embracing knowledge connects with the end of the preceding verse ("He has full knowledge of all that is in the hearts of men").
Provisions Guaranteed11:6 There is not a creature on earth whose provision is not guaranteed by GOD. And He knows its course and its final destiny. All are recorded in a profound record.,
11:6 There is no living creature on earth but its sustenance depends on God. He knows its habitation and its destiny. (He carries them from one station to another until the final destination.) All this is laid down in the Divine Database [6:99, 55:29]
11:7 Wahuwa allathee khalaqa alssamawatiwaal-arda fee sittati ayyamin wakanaAAarshuhu AAala alma-i liyabluwakum ayyukum ahsanuAAamalan wala-in qulta innakum mabAAoothoona min baAAdi almawtilayaqoolanna allatheena kafaroo in hatha illasihrun mubeenun
11:7 He is the One who created the heavens and earth in six days, and His dominion was upon the water, and to test who from amongst you works the best. When you say, "You will be resurrected after death." those who rejected will say, "This is but clear magic!"3
The expression "six days" provide comparison. For instance, we learn that though the creation of galaxies took two days, the creation of earth to be habitable for life took four days (41:10). In other words, the creation of earth started 13.7 billion x 4/6 years ago. As for time, the Quran informs us that it is relative (32:5 and 70:4). The earth was initially covered with water; lands emerged later.
11:7 He is the One who has created the heavens and the earth in six days, and His Throne was upon the water; so as to test who from among you works the best. And when you say: "You will be resurrected after the death," those who have rejected say: "This is but clear magic!"
11:7 And He it is who has created the heavens and the earth in six aeons; and [ever since He has willed to create life,] the throne of His almightiness has rested upon water.10 [God reminds you of your dependence on Him] in order to test you [and thus to make manifest] which of you is best in conduct. For thus it is: if11 thou sayest [unto men], "Behold, you shall be raised again after death!" - they who are bent on denying the truth are sure to answer, "This is clearly nothing but an enchanting delusion"12
As regards my rendering of ayyam (lit., "days") as "aeons" and `arsh as the "throne of [God's] almightiness", see Surah 7, note 43. The symbolic reference to "the throne of His almightiness resting upon water" would seem to point to the God-willed evolution of all life out of water -a fact clearly brought out by the Qur'an (see 21:30 and the corresponding note 39) and in modern times confirmed by biological research. This tentative interpretation is strengthened by the mention, in the preceding verse, of "living creatures". My interpolation, between brackets, of the phrase "ever since He has willed to create life" is in accordance with the views advanced by Rashid Rida' in his lengthy commentary on this verse (Manar XII, 16 ff.).
The expression la'in (lit., "indeed, if . . .") appearing here as well as in each of the next three verses is meant to stress the typical -i.e., recurrent -character of the situation to which it refers. In my opinion, it is best rendered as "thus it is: if. . .", etc.
The term sihr, which is often used in the sense of "sorcery" or "magic", denotes, primarily, "the turning of something from its proper [i.e., natural] condition of being into another condition" (Taj al-'Arus); hence, it signifies any act which causes something that is false or unreal to assume the appearance of reality. Since, however, the Qur'anic statement that "you shall be raised again after death" is not - as has been pointed out by Razi - an "act" in the proper connotation of this word, it would be illogical to assume that this statement could be characterized as "sorcery" even by those who do not believe in it. On the other hand, it is obvious that they dismiss it contemptuously as a mere "enchanting delusion" intended to prevent those who are able to do so from enjoying their worldly life to the full (Razi) or, alternatively, to induce the poor and unfortunate to remain passively satisfied with their miserable lot on earth: and this is the meaning of sihr in the above context. (Cf. 10:2, where the epithet sahir -in the sense of "spellbinder"- is applied by unbelievers to the Prophet Muhammad.)
11:7 He is the One who created the heavens and the earth in six days - and His (earthly) domain was completely covered with water - in order to test you, to distinguish those among you who work righteousness. Yet, when you say, "You will be resurrected after death," those who disbelieve would say, "This is clearly witchcraft.",2
The earth was initially covered with water. Subsequently, the land mass emerged, and the continents drifted apart.
11:7 He created the heavens and earth in six stages and established Himself on the Throne of His Almightiness. He has Supreme Control over the origination of life which began in water (21:30). Life is a test for yourselves to see which of you leads a balanced life and is best in conduct. Yet, if you tell them, “You will be raised again after death,” those in denial will say, “This is nothing but obvious deception!”2
11:8 Wala-in akhkharna AAanhumu alAAathabaila ommatin maAAdoodatin layaqoolunna ma yahbisuhuala yawma ya/teehim laysa masroofan AAanhum wahaqabihim ma kanoo bihi yastahzi-oona
11:8 If We delay for them the retribution to a near period, they will say, "What has kept it?" Alas, on the day it comes to them, nothing will turn it away from them, and what they used to mock will catch up with them.
11:8 And if We delay for them the retribution to a near period, they will say: "What has kept it?" Alas, on the day it comes to them, nothing will turn it away from them, and they will be surrounded by that which they used to mock.
11:8 And thus it is: if We defer their suffering until a time-limit set [by Us],13 they are sure to say, "What is preventing it [from coming now]?"14 Oh, verily, on the Day when it befalls them there will be nothing to avert it from them; and they shall be overwhelmed by the very thing which they were wont to deride.15
Lit., "a time computed [by Us]", i.e., the Day of Judgment: a reference to the last sentence of verse 3 above, where the Prophet is made to say, "I dread for you the suffering [which is bound to befall you] on that awesome Day!" Among the several meanings which the noun ummah comprises, that of "time" or "a period of time" is the most appropriate here (Zamakhshari, Ibn Kathir and other classical commentators).
For an explanation of this allusion to the attitude of the unbelievers, see 8:32 and 10:50, as well as the corresponding notes; cf. also 6:57. The repeated Qur'anic references to the above derisive query are evidently meant to show that the attitude of mind responsible for it is not restricted to an isolated historic incident (see Surah 8, note 32) but is symptomatic of most, if not all, people "who are bent on denying the truth".
Lit., "that which they were wont to deride enfolded them (haqa bihim)". According to almost all the commentators, the use of the past tense in the verb haqa, despite the fact that it refers to the future, has the syntactic value of a stress, implying the inevitability of the happening to which it relates. (See also note 9 on 6:10.)
11:8 And if we delay the retribution they have incurred - for we reserve it for a specific community - they say, "What is keeping Him?" In fact, once it comes to them, nothing can stop it, and their mocking will come back to haunt them.,
11:8 And when We delay for them the retribution until after the period of respite, they will say, “What is keeping it back?” Ah! On the day it actually reaches them, nothing will turn it away from them. And what they mock will completely surround them.
11:9 Wala-in athaqna al-insanaminna rahmatan thumma nazaAAnahaminhu innahu layaoosun kafoorun
11:9 If We give the human being a taste of mercy from Us, then We withdraw it from him; he becomes despairing, rejecting.
11:9 And if We give man a taste of a mercy from Us, then We withdraw it from him; he becomes despairing, rejecting.
11:9 And thus it is: if We let man taste some of Our grace,16 and then take it away from him -behold, he abandons all hope,17 forgetting all gratitude [for Our past favours].
The sequence makes it clear that the generic term "man" referred to in this and the next verse applies, primarily, to the agnostics who are either unconvinced of the existence of God or are "bent upon denying the truth"; in its wider implication, however, it applies also to those who, while believing in God, are weak in faith and therefore easily swayed by external circumstances, and particularly by whatever happens to themselves.
Lit., "he is [or "becomes"] utterly hopeless" or "despairing" (ya'us); inasmuch as he attributes his past happy state to a merely accidental chain of causes and effects-in short, to what is commonly regarded as "luck"-and not to God's grace. Hence, the term ya'us, in its Qur'anic usage, is indicative of spiritual nihilism.
11:9 Whenever we bless the human being with mercy from us, then remove it, he turns despondent, unappreciative.,
11:9 Thus it is: If We let the human being taste some of Our grace, and then take it away from him, he abandons all hope, forgetting all gratitude.
11:10 Wala-in athaqnahu naAAmaabaAAda darraa massat-hu layaqoolanna thahabaalssayyi-atu AAannee innahu lafarihunfakhoorun
11:10 If We give him the taste of a blessing after hardship had afflicted him, he will say, "Evil has gone from me!" he becomes happy, boastful;
11:10 And if We give him the taste of a blessing after hardship has afflicted him, he says: "Evil has gone from me!" He becomes happy, boastful.
11:10 And thus it is: if We let him taste ease and plenty18 after hardship has visited him, he is sure to say, "Gone is all affliction from me!"-for, behold, he is given to vain exultation, and glories only in himself.19
This combination of two words is necessary to bring out the full meaning of the noun na'ma' which occurs in this form in the Qur'an only once. For my rendering of lain as "thus it is: if . . .", etc., see note 11 above.
Lit., "he is exultant beyond all measure, excessively self-glorifying" -i.e., he usually attributes the turn of fortune to his own good qualities and his supposed "good luck".
11:10 Whenever we bless him, after adversity had afflicted him, he says, "All adversity has gone away from me;" he becomes excited, proud.,
11:10 But if We let him taste a blessing after adversity had afflicted him, he will say, “All adversity has gone away from me!” He is exultant, boastful.
11:11 Illa allatheena sabaroowaAAamiloo alssalihati ola-ika lahummaghfiratun waajrun kabeerun
11:11 Except for those who are steadfast and promote reforms; these will have a pardon, and a great reward.
11:11 Except for those who are patient and do good works; these will have a pardon, and a great reward.
11:11 [And thus it is with most men-] save those who are patient in adversity and do righteous deeds: it is they whom forgiveness of sins awaits, and a great reward.
11:11 As for those who steadfastly persevere, and lead a righteous life, they deserve forgiveness and a generous recompense.,
11:11 Except those who are steadfast in adversity and prosperity, and work to improve human potential. For them is the protection of forgiveness and a great reward.3
A’maal Saaleh = Deeds that increase the individual and collective potential of a society = Helping people = Improving the environment = Fulfilling others’ needs = Contributing to the society
11:12 FalaAAallaka tarikun baAAda mayooha ilayka wada-iqun bihi sadruka anyaqooloo lawla onzila AAalayhi kanzun aw jaamaAAahu malakun innama anta natheerun waAllahuAAala kulli shay-in wakeelun
11:12 So perhaps you wish to ignore some of what has been inspired to you, and you are depressed by it, because they say, "If only a treasure was sent down with him, or an controller had come with him!" You are but a warner, and God is caretaker over all things.
11:12 So perhaps you wish to ignore some of what has been inspired to you, and you are depressed by it, because they say: "If only a treasure was sent down with him, or an angel had come with him!" You are but a warner, and God is Caretaker over all things.
11:12 IS IT, then, conceivable [O Prophet] that thou couldst omit any part of what is being revealed unto thee [because the deniers of the truth dislike it,-and] because thy heart is distressed at their saying,20 "Why has not a treasure been bestowed upon him from on high?" -or, "[Why has not] an angel come [visibly:: with him ?"21 [They fail to understand that] thou art only a warner, whereas God has everything in His care ;22
Lit., "because thy bosom is constricted [for fear] lest they say". According to all available authorities, the expression la'alla (lit., "it may well be that") at the beginning of the above sentence denotes a wrong expectation on the part of the opponents of Muhammad's message; it is, therefore, best rendered in the form of a query which implies its own denial-thus: "Is it conceivable that. . .", etc. As regards the expectation that the Prophet might omit a part of what was being revealed to him, it has been reported by `Abd Allah ibn `Abbas and other Companions (see Razi's commentary on this verse) that the pagan Quraysh demanded of the Prophet, "Bring us a revelation (kitab) which does not contain a defamation of our deities, so that we could follow thee and believe in thee."
Explaining this verse, Ibn `Abbas mentions that some of the pagan chieftains of Mecca said, "O Muhammad, cause the mountains of Mecca to be turned into gold, if thou art truly an apostle of God", while others exclaimed derisively, "Bring before us angels who would bear witness to thy being a prophet!" - whereupon the above verse was revealed (Razi). Cf. 6:8 and 17:90.
Sc., "and so it is He who will cause the truth to prevail". Regarding the Prophet's denial of any ability on his part to perform miracles, see 6:50 and the corresponding note 38.
God's Revelation is Heavy11:12 You may wish to disregard some of that which is revealed to you, and you may be annoyed by it. Also, they may say, "How come no treasure comes down to him, or an angel?" You are only a warner; GOD controls all things.,
11:12 Is it then conceivable (O Prophet), that you omit any part of what is being revealed to you (because the rejecters dislike it)? Or because you feel uncomfortable on their saying, "Why has not a treasure been sent down for him, or an angel come with him?" You are but a warner, and it is God Who is the Custodian of all things.
11:13 Am yaqooloona iftarahu qul fa/toobiAAashri suwarin mithlihi muftarayatin waodAAoomani istataAAtum min dooni Allahi in kuntum sadiqeena
The Quran is a Unique Book with Extraordinary Features11:13 Or do they say, "He invented it!" Say, "Bring ten invented chapters like it, and call on whom you can besides God if you are truthful."5
The mathematical structure of the Quran is too intricate to be imitated.
11:13 Or do they say: "He has invented it!" Say: "Then bring ten invented chapters like it, and call on whom you can besides God if you are truthful."
11:13 and so they assert, "[Muhammad himself] has invented this [Qur'an)!"23 Say [unto them]: "Produce, then, ten surahs of similar merit, invented [by yourselves], and [to this end] call to your aid whomever you can, other than, God, if what you say is true!24
Foamy rendering of the particle am at the beginning of this sentence as "and", see surah 10, note 61.
The Quran: Impossible to Imitate11:13 If they say, "He fabricated (the Quran)," tell them, "Then produce ten suras like these, fabricated, and invite whomever you can, other than GOD, if you are truthful.",3
The Quran's mathematical miracle is inimitable (See Appendix 1).
11:14 Fa-illam yastajeeboo lakum faiAAlamooannama onzila biAAilmi Allahi waan la ilahailla huwa fahal antum muslimoona
11:14 If they do not respond to you, then know that it was sent down with God's knowledge, and that there is no god but He. Will you then peacefully surrender?
11:14 So, if they do not respond to you, then know that it has been sent down with the knowledge of God, and that there is no god except He. Will you then submit?
11:14 And if they [whom you have called to your aid] are not able to help you,25 then know that [this Qur'an] has been bestowed from on high out of God's wisdom alone,26 and that there is no deity save Him. Will you, then, surrender yourselves unto Him?"
Lit., "if they [i.e., your poets and wise men] do not respond to your call". Cf. 2:24, where a similar challenge is followed by the words, "And if you cannot do it-and most certainly you cannot do it - then . . .", etc.
Lit., "only by God's knowledge".
11:14 If they fail to meet your challenge, then know that this is revealed with GOD's knowledge, and that there is no god except He. Will you then submit?,
11:14 “And if they do not answer your call, then know that it has been revealed only with the knowledge of God, and that there is no god but He. Will you then submit to Him (be Muslims)?”
11:15 Man kana yureedu alhayataalddunya wazeenataha nuwaffi ilayhim aAAmalahumfeeha wahum feeha la yubkhasoona
11:15 Whoever wants the worldly life and its adornments, then We will grant them their works in it, and they will not be short changed in it.
11:15 Whoever wants the worldly life and its adornments, then We will grant them their works in it, and they will not be short changed in it.
11:15 AS FOR THOSE who care for [no more than] the life of this world and its bounties -We shall repay them in full for all that they did in this [life], and they, shall not be deprived of their just due therein:
11:15 Those who pursue this worldly life and its material vanities, we will pay them for their works in this life, without the least reduction.,
11:15 Whoever cares for (no more than) the short term gains and glitter of the worldly life, We shall repay for them their deeds herein without the least reduction. [17:18]
11:16 Ola-ika allatheena laysa lahumfee al-akhirati illa alnnaru wahabitama sanaAAoo feeha wabatilun makanoo yaAAmaloona
11:16 These will have nothing but fire in the Hereafter, and what they have done will be in vain, and evil is what they have worked.
11:16 These will have nothing but fire in the Hereafter, and what they have done will be in vain, and evil is what they have worked.
11:16 [yet] it is they who, in the life to come, shall have nothing but the fire -for in vain shall be all that they wrought in this [world], and worthless all that they ever did !27
I.e., although their good deeds will be taken fully into account on Judgment Day, they will be outweighed by their refusal to believe in resurrection and the life to come.
11:16 It is they who gave up their share in the Hereafter, and, consequently, Hell is their lot. All their works are in vain; everything they have done is nullified.,
11:16 But (since they did not invest in the life to come), for them is nothing but fire of regret in the Hereafter. All that they have contrived here is vain, and worthless is all that they did.5
Following one's own desires is the inevitable consequence of disregarding Permanent Values
11:17 Afaman kana AAala bayyinatinmin rabbihi wayatloohu shahidun minhu wamin qablihi kitabumoosa imaman warahmatan ola-ikayu/minoona bihi waman yakfur bihi mina al-ahzabi faalnnarumawAAiduhu fala taku fee miryatin minhu innahu alhaqqumin rabbika walakinna akthara alnnasi layu/minoona
Similar Proof in the Book Given to Moses11:17 As for those who are on a proof from their Lord, and are followed by a testimony from Him; and before it was the book of Moses as a guide and a mercy; they will acknowledge it. Whoever rejects it from amongst the parties, then the fire is his meeting place. So do not be in any doubt about it. It is the truth from your Lord, but most people do not acknowledge.6
Bayyina means "proof" and it is repeated in the Quran 19 times. The book given to Moses too was designed according to a mathematical structure based on the number 19 (46:10), which was discovered by a French Rabbi, Judah, in the eleventh century.
11:17 For those who are on a clarity from their Lord, and are followed by a testimony from Him; and before it was the Book of Moses, a beacon and a mercy; they will believe in it. And whoever rejects it from among the Confederates, then the Fire is his meeting place. So do not be in any doubt about it. It is the truth from your Lord, but most of the people do not believe.
11:17 Can, then, [he who cares for no more than the life of this world be compared with28 ] one who takes his stand on a clear evidence from his Sustainer, conveyed through [this] testimony from Him,29 as was the revelation vouchsafed to Moses aforetime-[a divine writ ordained by Him] to be a guidance and grace [unto man]? They [who understand this message-it is they alone who truly] believe in it;30 whereas for any of those who, leagued together [in common hostility],31 deny its truth - the fire shall be their appointed state [in the life to come]. And so,32 be not in doubt about this [revelation]: behold, it is the truth from thy Sustainer, even though33 most people will not believe in it.
This interpolation is based on the interpretation given by Baghawi, Zamakhshari and Razi.
Lit., "which a witness from Him recites", or "announces". According to Zamakhshari, Razi and other classical commentators, this phrase refers to the Qur'an; hence my rendering of shahid as "testimony". If, as some commentators believe, this term refers to the Prophet or, alternatively, to the Angel Gabriel who transmitted the revelation to him. shahid should be translated as "witness". Whichever interpretation one adopts, the meaning remains the same, for - as Ibn Kathir points out in his commentary on this verse - "the Qur'an was revealed through Gabriel to Muhammad, and was conveyed by the latter to the world".
Sc., "and shall, therefore, attain to happiness in the hereafter". The ijaz (elliptic mode of expression) employed in this passage is comparable in its subtlety to that in 10:103.
I.e., in hostile, a-priori opposition to the message of the Qur'an, without really understanding its purport. The "historical" identification, by some of the commentators, of the ahzab with the pagan Arabs who leagued together in their hostility to the Prophet is definitely too narrow in this context.
Razi suggests that the conjunction fa ("And so") preceding this sentence (which is obviously addressed to man in general) connects with verses 12-14 above: a suggestion which is most convincing in view of the sequence.
Lit., "but" or "nevertheless".
The Quran's Mathematical Code11:17 As for those who are given solid proof from their Lord, reported by a witness from Him, and before it, the book of Moses has set a precedent and a mercy, they will surely believe. As for those who disbelieve among the various groups, Hell is awaiting them. Do not harbor any doubt; this is the truth from your Lord, but most people disbelieve.,4
As it turns out, Moses' book was also mathematically composed, with "19" as the common denominator. See Footnote 46:10 and Appendix 1.
11:17 Can they (those who look for material gains alone) be like those who take their stand on clear evidence from their Lord and to whom a witness from Him recites and works on it? (They have the Prophet as a witness who correlates God’s signs in the Universe with His verses and establishes the System.) Also, they have the scripture of Moses since before it, a standard of guidance and grace. (It foretold the advent of the Final Messenger; Deuteronomy 18:15-18.) They choose to believe in it. As for those who league together (in opposition) rejecting the truth, the fire is their appointed place. And so, harbor no doubt; most certainly this is the truth from your Lord, even though most people do not believe it.6
‘Tilawat’ = Reciting and following the Qur’an.‘Imam’ = Standard of truth = Literally, the plumb-line = A trustworthy leader, human or book = Authority = Decisive means
11:18 Waman athlamu mimmani iftaraAAala Allahi kathiban ola-ika yuAAradoonaAAala rabbihim wayaqoolu al-ashhadu haola-iallatheena kathaboo AAala rabbihim alalaAAnatu Allahi AAala alththalimeena
The Most Wicked: Rabbis, Priests, Mullahs, Monks Who Attribute Lies to God11:18 Who is more wicked than one who invents lies about God? They will be brought before their Lord, and the witnesses will say, "These are the ones who lied about their Lord." Alas, God's curse will be upon the wicked.
11:18 And who is more wicked than he who invents lies about God? They will be displayed before their Lord, and the witnesses will say: "These are the ones who have lied about their Lord." Alas, the curse of God will be upon the wicked.
11:18 And who could be more wicked than they who attribute their own lying inventions to God?34 [On the Day of Judgment, such as] these shall be arraigned before their Sustainer, and those who are called upon to bear witness [against them]35 shall say, "It is they who uttered lies about their Sustainer!"36 Oh, verily, God's rejection is the due of all evildoers37
This is a refutation of the contention of the unbelievers that the Qur'an was composed by Muhammad himself (cf. verse 13 above as well as 10:17) and thereupon blasphemously attributed to God.
Lit., "the witnesses". Most of the earliest authorities take this to mean the recording angels, while others (e.g., Ibn 'Abbas, as quoted by Baghawi) relate it to the prophets, who, on the Day of Judgment, will be called upon to testify for or against the people to whom they were sent. The latter interpretation is supported by Ad-Dahhak (quoted by Tabari and Baghawi) on the basis of 16:84, where witnesses "out of every community" are mentioned-an expression which can obviously refer only to human beings.
Or: "against their Sustainer".
The term la'nah - which is usually, but inexactly, translated as "curse" - is in its primary meaning synonymous with ib'ad ("alienation", "estrangement" or "banishment") in the moral sense; hence it denotes "rejection from all that is good" (Lisan al-'Arab) and, with reference to God, the sinner's "exclusion from His grace" (Manar II, 50).
11:18 Who are more evil than those who fabricate lies about GOD? They will be presented before their Lord, and the witnesses will say, "These are the ones who lied about their Lord. GOD's condemnation has befallen the transgressors.",
11:18 Who can be a greater wrongdoer than the one who invents a lie about God? Such will be brought before their Lord, and the witnesses will say, “These are the ones who lied about their Lord.” God’s rejection is the due of all those who displace right with wrong.7
11:19 Allatheena yasuddoona AAansabeeli Allahi wayabghoonaha AAiwajan wahum bial-akhiratihum kafiroona
11:19 Those who repel others from the path of God and seek to twist it; and regarding the Hereafter they are in denial.
11:19 Those who repel others from the path of God and they seek to twist it; and regarding the Hereafter they are in denial.
11:19 who turn others away from the path of God and try to make it appear crooked -since it is they, they who refuse to acknowledge the truth of the life to come !38
Cf. 7:44, with which the above passage is almost identical, with only one difference: whereas in 7:45 the pronoun "they" occurs only once (and the phrase is, consequently, rendered as "and who refuse . . .", etc.), in the present verse this pronoun is repeated, to express both stress and causality ("since it is they, they who refuse ...", etc.)-thus implying that their refusal to believe in a life after death is the ultimate cause of their wrongdoing. In other words, belief in resurrection, God's judgment and life in the hereafter is here postulated as the only valid and lasting source of human morality.
11:19 They repel from the way of GOD and seek to make it crooked, and they are disbelievers in the Hereafter.,
11:19 They are the ones who hinder people from the path of God, and seek to make it crooked. Thus they practically disbelieve in the life Hereafter.
11:20 Ola-ika lam yakoonoo muAAjizeena feeal-ardi wama kana lahum min dooni Allahimin awliyaa yudaAAafu lahumu alAAathabu makanoo yastateeAAoona alssamAAa wama kanooyubsiroona
11:20 These are the ones who will not escape on earth, nor do they have besides God any allies. The retribution will be doubled for them. They were not able to hear, nor could they see.
11:20 These are the ones who will not escape on the earth, nor do they have besides God any allies. The retribution will be doubled for them. They were not able to hear, nor could they see.
11:20 Never can they elude [their final reckoning, even if they remain unscathed] on earth :39 never will they find anyone who could protect them from God. [In the life to come] double suffering will be imposed on them40 for having lost the ability to hear [the truth] and having failed to see [it].41
The above interpolation is, I believe, necessary in view of the highly elliptic character of this phrase. According to Tabari, Zamakhshari and Ibn Kathir, the meaning is that whereas God's punishment may befall the sinners referred to during their life on earth, it will certainly befall them in the hereafter. Cf. also 3:185-"only on the Day of Resurrection will you be requited in full for whatever you have done."
For an explanation of the "double suffering", see surah 7, note 29.
The Disbelievers11:20 These will never escape, nor will they find any lords or masters to help them against GOD. Retribution will be doubled for them. They have failed to hear, and they have failed to see.,
11:20 They will not escape on earth. And they will have no protectors against God. Double suffering will be imposed on them since they could not bear to hear (the truth) nor could see (it).
11:21 Ola-ika allatheena khasirooanfusahum wadalla AAanhum ma kanoo yaftaroona
11:21 They are the ones who lost their selves, and what they had invented has abandoned them.
11:21 They are the ones who have lost their souls, and what they had invented has abandoned them.
11:21 It is they who have squandered their own selves-for [on the Day of Resurrection] all their false imagery42 will have forsaken them:
Lit., "all that they were wont to invent": a phrase which implies not merely false imaginings regarding the existence of any real "power" apart from God (i.e., the existence of supposedly divine or semi-divine beings) but also deceptive ideas and "glittering half-truths meant to delude the mind" (see 6:112 and the corresponding note) - such as "luck", wealth, personal power, nationalism, deterministic materialism, etc. - all of which cause men to lose sight of spiritual values and thus to "squander their own selves".
11:21 These are the ones who lose their souls, and the idols they had fabricated will disown them.,
11:21 Such are the ones who have lost their own ‘self’, and all their false imagery. Their invented dogmas and the idols will fail them.
11:22 La jarama annahum fee al-akhiratihumu al-akhsaroona
11:22 There is no doubt, that in the Hereafter they are the greatest losers.
11:22 There is no doubt, that in the Hereafter they are the greatest losers.
11:22 truly it is they, they who in the life to come shall be the losers!
11:22 There is no doubt that, in the Hereafter, they will be the worst losers.,
11:22 Without any doubt, these fabricators will be the worst losers in the Hereafter.
11:23 Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alsalihati waakhbatoo ilarabbihim ola-ika as-habu aljannati hum feehakhalidoona
11:23 Those who acknowledge and promote reforms, and are humble towards their Lord; they are the dwellers of paradise, in it they will remain.
11:23 Those who believe and do good works, and are humble towards their Lord; they are the dwellers of the Paradise, in it they will remain.
11:23 Behold, [only] those who attain to faith and do righteous deeds and humble themselves before their Sustainer - [only] they are destined for paradise, and there shall they abide.
The Believers11:23 As for those who believe and lead a righteous life, and devote themselves to their Lord, they are the dwellers of Paradise; they abide therein forever.,
11:23 Those who attain belief and work for the betterment of people, and are humble before their Lord, are the rightful dwellers of the Garden; they will abide therein.
11:24 Mathalu alfareeqayni kaal-aAAmawaal-asammi waalbaseeri waalssameeAAihal yastawiyani mathalan afala tathakkaroona
11:24 The example of the two groups is like the blind and deaf, the seer and hearer. Are they equal when compared? Do you not take heed?
11:24 The example of the two groups is like the blind and deaf, and the seer and hearer. Are they the same when compared? Do you not take heed?
11:24 These two kinds of man43 may be likened to the blind and deaf and the seeing and hearing. Can these two be deemed alike in [their] nature?44 ` Will you not, then, keep this in mind?
Lit., "two groups" - i.e., the believers and those who reject the divine writ.
For my rendering, in this context, of mathal (lit., "likeness") as "nature", see the first part of note 47 on 3:59.
11:24 The example of these two groups is like the blind and deaf, compared to the seer and hearer. Are they equal? Would you not take heed?,
11:24 These two kinds of persons may be likened to the blind and the deaf, and he who can see and hear well. Are the two equal when compared? Will you not then keep this in mind? (13:16-19, 35:39)8
A brief historical resume of some communities and their Messengers illustrates this phenomenon - the efforts of the Messengers and the reaction of their respective people. Using Tasreef, here are some related verses about people and their Messengers described in Surah Hud.
Noah to the Valleys of Tigris and Euphrates: 7:69, 10:72, 14:9, 21:76, 23:23, 26:109, 29:14, 71:21.
Hud to ‘Aad: 7:65, 7:123. 11:50, 29:38, 41:13, 46:26, 51:41, 53:50, 54:17, 69:4.
Saleh to Thamud: 7:73, 11:89, 26:141, 27:45. LOT: 6:86, 15:61, 21:74, 27:56, 29:26, 37:131.
Abraham to Babylon and Ninevah: 21:24, 2:258, 3:33, 3:96, 4:35, 4:125, 14:36, 16:120, 19:50, 21:51, 22:26, 29:27, 37:83, 37:99, 53:27, 53:37, 60:1, 87:19.
Sho’aib to Midyan: 7:85, 9:70, 15:78, 22:44, 26:176, 38:13, 50:14.
Moses to the Israelites and Pharaoh’s people: 4:164, 6:84, 7:103, 7:144, 10:75, 17:101, 19:51, 20:9, 23:47, 26:10, 27-12, 28:22, 40:25, 79:15
11:25 Walaqad arsalna noohan ilaqawmihi innee lakum natheerun mubeenun
Noah and His Aristocrat Opponents11:25 We had sent Noah to his people: "I am to you a clear warner!"
11:25 And We had sent Noah to his people: "I am to you a clear warner!"
11:25 AND INDEED, [it was with the same message that] We sent forth Noah unto his people :45 "Behold, I come unto you with the plain warning
The conjunction "and" at the beginning of this sentence apparently connects with the opening verses of this surah, and stresses the fact that the fundamental message of the Qur'an is the same as that conveyed to man by the earlier prophets (Manar X11, 59 f.); hence my interpolation. See also surah 7, note 45.
11:25 We sent Noah to his people, saying, "I come to you as a clear warner.,
11:25 We sent Noah to his people and he declared, “Indeed, I come to you with a plain warning.”
11:26 An la taAAbudoo illa Allahainnee akhafu AAalaykum AAathaba yawmin aleemin
11:26 "Do not serve except God. I fear for you the retribution of a painful day."
11:26 "That you serve none except God. I fear for you the retribution of a painful day."
11:26 that you may worship none but God-for, verily, I fear lest suffering befall you on a grievous Day!"46
As in 7:59, this may refer either to the imminent deluge or the Day of Judgment.
Noah11:26 "You shall not worship except GOD. I fear for you the retribution of a painful day.",
11:26 “That you may serve none but God (and follow not the rampant traditions). I am afraid this trend is slowly taking you toward a day of awful disaster.”
11:27 Faqala almalao allatheenakafaroo min qawmihi ma naraka illa basharanmithlana wama naraka ittabaAAaka illaallatheena hum arathiluna badiya alrra/yiwama nara lakum AAalayna min fadlinbal nathunnukum kathibeena
11:27 The leaders who rejected from amongst his people said, "We do not see you except as a human like us, and we see that only the lowest amongst our people with shallow opinion have followed you. We do not see anything that makes you better than us; in fact, we think you are liars."
11:27 The leaders who rejected from among his people said: "We do not see you except as a human being like us, and we see that only the lowest among our people who have no opinion have followed you. And we do not see a thing that makes you better than us; in fact, we think you are liars."
11:27 But the great ones among his people, who refused to acknowledge the truth, answered: "We do not see in thee anything but a mortal man like ourselves; and we do not see that any follow thee save those who are quite obviously the most abject among us;47 and we do not see that you could be in any way superior to us:48 on the ,contrary, we think that you are liars!"
As is evidenced by the histories of all the prophets - and particularly that of Jesus and, after him, of Muhammad - most of their early followers belonged to the lowest classes of society - the slaves, the poor and the oppressed-to whom the divine message gave the promise of an equitable social order on earth and the hope of happiness in the hereafter: and it is precisely this revolutionary character of every prophet's mission that has always made it so distasteful to the upholders of the established order and the privileged classes of the society concerned.
Lit., "We do not see in you any superiority [or "merit"] over us."
11:27 The leaders who disbelieved among his people said, "We see that you are no more than a human being like us, and we see that the first people to follow you are the worst among us. We see that you do not possess any advantage over us. Indeed, we think you are liars.",
11:27 But the chiefs of his people, who were the foremost in rejection of the message said, “We see in you nothing but a man like ourselves. And we see that none has followed you except, quite obviously, the lowest among us. And we do not find in you all any merit over us. Nay, we think all of you are liars. [17:70]
11:28 Qala ya qawmi araaytum inkuntu AAala bayyinatin min rabbee waataneerahmatan min AAindihi faAAummiyat AAalaykum anulzimukumoohawaantum laha karihoona
11:28 He said, "My people, do you not see that I have proof from my Lord and He gave me mercy from Himself, but you are blinded to it? Shall we compel you to it while you are averse to it?"
11:28 He said: "O my people, do you see that should I be upon a clarity from my Lord, and He has given me a mercy from Himself, that you may be blinded to it? Shall we compel you to it while in-fact you hate it?"
11:28 Said [Noah]: "O my people! What do you think? If [it be true that I am taking my stand on a clear evidence from my~ Sustainer, who has vouchsafed unto me grace from Himself - [a revelation] to which you have remained blind-: [if this be true,] can we force it on you even though it be hateful to you?49
A reference to the cardinal Qur'anic doctrine that "there shall be no coercion in, matters of faith" (2:256), as well as to the oft-repeated statement that a prophet is no more than "a warner and a bearer of glad tidings", implying that his duty consists only in delivering the message entrusted to him. The plural "we" in this sentence relates to Noah and his followers.
11:28 He said, "O my people, what if I have a solid proof from my Lord? What if He has blessed me out of His mercy, though you cannot see it? Are we going to force you to believe therein?,
11:28 Noah said, “O My people, think! What if I am taking my stand on clear evidence from my Lord? What if He has blessed me out of His grace of guidance? It is obscure to you because you are not seeing it through the eyes of reason. In any case, can we compel you to accept what is detestable to you?”
11:29 Waya qawmi la as-alukumAAalayhi malan in ajriya illa AAala Allahiwama ana bitaridi allatheena amanooinnahum mulaqoo rabbihim walakinnee arakumqawman tajhaloona
11:29 "My people, I do not ask you for money, my reward is with God. Nor will I turn away those who acknowledge, for they will meet their Lord. But I see that you are a people who are ignorant."
11:29 "And my people, I do not ask you for money, my wage is from God. Nor will I turn away those who believe, for they will meet their Lord. But I see that you are a people who are ignorant."
11:29 "And, O my people, no benefit do I ask of you for this [message]: my reward rests with none but God. And I shall not repulse [any of] those who have attained to faith.50 Verily, they [know that they] are destined to meet their Sustainer, whereas in you I see people without any awareness [of right and wrong]!
This is an allusion to the contemptuous statement of the unbelievers (in verse 27 above) that the followers of Noah were to be found only among- the lowest classes of their society-thus indirectly implying that they might perhaps lend ear to Noah if he would but rid himself of those people (cf. 26:111). The Prophet Muhammad had, during the early years of his mission, a similar experience with the leaders of the pagan Quraysh; several Traditions to this effect are quoted by Ibn Kathir in his commentary on 6:52.
11:29 "O my people, I do not ask you for any money; my wage comes only from GOD. I am not dismissing those who believed; they will meet their Lord (and He alone will judge them). I see that you are ignorant people.,
11:29 "O My people! No wealth do I ask you for this. My reward rests with none but God. And I am not going to repulse any of the believers (39:40, 63:8). They know that they are destined to meet their Lord, whereas in you I see people who are wandering in the darkness of ignorance."
11:30 Waya qawmi man yansurunee minaAllahi in taradtuhum afala tathakkaroona
11:30 "My people, who will give me victory against God if I turn them away? Will you not reflect?"
11:30 "And my people, who will give me victory against God if I turn them away? Will you not remember!"
11:30 And, O my people, who would shield me from God were I to repulse them? Will you not, then, keep this in mind?
11:30 "O my people, who can support me against GOD, if I dismiss them? Would you not take heed?,
11:30 "O My people! Who will help me against God if I drove them away? Will you then not reflect?"
11:31 Wala aqoolu lakum AAindee khaza-inuAllahi wala aAAlamu alghayba wala aqooluinnee malakun wala aqoolu lillatheena tazdareeaAAyunukum lan yu/tiyahumu Allahu khayran AllahuaAAlamu bima fee anfusihim innee ithan lamina alththalimeena
11:31 "Nor do I say to you that I have the treasures of God, nor do I know the future, nor do I say that I am a controller, nor do I say to those whom your eyes look down upon that God will not grant them any good. God is more aware of what is in them; in such case I would be among the wicked."
11:31 "Nor do I say to you that I have the treasures of God, nor do I know the future, nor do I say that I am an angel, nor do I say to those whom your eyes look down upon that God will not grant them any good. God is more aware of what is in their souls; in such case I would be among the wicked."
11:31 "And I do not say unto you, `God's treasures are with me'; nor [do I say], `I know the reality which is beyond the reach of human perception'; nor do I say, 'Behold, I am an angel';51 nor do I say of those whom your eyes hold in contempt,52 `Never will God grant them any good'- for God is fully aware of what is in their hearts.53 [Were I to speak thus,] verily, I would indeed be among the evildoers."
I.e., the poor and "abject" followers of Noah spoken of in verse 27 (see also note 47 above).
Lit., "all that is within themselves".
All Power Belongs to God11:31 "I do not claim that I possess the treasures of GOD, nor do I know the future, nor do I claim to be an angel. Nor do I say to those despised by your eyes that GOD will not bestow any blessings upon them. GOD knows best what is in their innermost thoughts. (If I did this,) I would be a transgressor.",
11:31 “I never say to you that I have the treasures of God. Neither do I claim knowledge of what is beyond human perception, nor do I say that I am an angel. I disagree with you, that my followers are the people of the lesser status. You claim that God will never give them His bounties, but He knows their true merit. I cannot be unjust to them.”
11:32 Qaloo ya noohu qad jadaltanafaaktharta jidalana fa/tina bimataAAiduna in kunta mina alssadiqeena
11:32 They said, "O Noah, you have argued with us, and continued arguing with us, so bring us what you promise us if you are of the truthful ones."
11:32 They said: "O Noah, you have argued with us, and continued arguing with us, so bring us what you promise us if you are of the truthful ones."
11:32 [But the great ones] said: "O Noah! Thou hast contended with us in argument, and hast [needlessly] prolonged our controversy :54 bring upon us, therefore, that with which thou dost threaten us,55 if thou art a man of truth!"
Sc., "without convincing us" (as is brought out fully in 71:5). The mounting annoyance with Noah on the part of his unbelieving compatriots has already been alluded to in his saying, "If my presence [among you] and my announcement of God's messages are repugnant to you...", etc. (see 10:71).
See the end of verse 26 above.
11:32 They said, "O Noah, you have argued with us, and kept on arguing. We challenge you to bring the doom you threaten us with, if you are truthful.",
11:32 They said, “O Noah! You have disputed with us and disputed a great deal. Now bring upon us what you threaten us with, if you are a man of truth.”
11:33 Qala innama ya/teekum bihi Allahuin shaa wama antum bimuAAjizeena
11:33 He said, "It is God who will bring it to you if He wishes; you will not have any escape."
11:33 He said: "It is God who will bring it to you if He wishes; you will not have any escape."
11:33 He answered: "Only God can bring it upon you, if He so wills, and you shall not elude it:
11:33 He said, "GOD is the One who brings it to you, if He so wills, then you cannot escape.,
11:33 He answered, “God alone brings His requital according to His laws. Once it is upon you, then you can by no means escape.”
11:34 Wala yanfaAAukum nushee inaradtu an ansaha lakum in kana Allahuyureedu an yughwiyakum huwa rabbukum wa-ilayhi turjaAAoona
11:34 "My advice will not benefit you if I wanted to advise you and God wanted that you should stray. He is your Lord, and to Him you will return."
11:34 "And my advice will not benefit you if I wanted to advise you and God wanted that you should go astray. He is your Lord, and to Him you will return."
11:34 for, my advice will not benefit you -much as I desire to give you good advice - if it be God's will that you shall remain lost in grievous error.56 He is your Sustainer, and unto Him you must return."
According to some commentators, the expression an yughwiyakum -which literally means "that He shall cause you to err" - is to be understood as "that He shall punish you for your sins" (Al-Hasan al-Basri, as quoted by Razi), or "that He shall destroy you" (Tabari), or "that He shall deprive you of all good" (Al-Jubba`i, as quoted by Razi); this last interpretation is similar to the one adopted in my rendering of aghwaytani ("Thou hast thwarted me") in 7:16 and explained in the corresponding note 11. However, in the present context I prefer the rendering "if it be God's will that you shall remain lost in grievous error", inasmuch as it is in conformity with the Qur'anic doctrine of "God's way" with regard to those who persistently refuse to acknowledge the truth (see surah 2, note 7). This interpretation is, moreover, supported by Zamakhshari in his commentary on the above verse: "When God, knowing the persistence [in sinning] on the part of one who denies the truth (al-kafir), leaves him in this condition and does not compel him [to repent], this [act of God] is described [in the Qur'an] as `causing [one] to err' (ighwa') and `causing [one] to go astray' (idlal); similarly, when He, knowing that a person will repent, protects him and is kind to him, this [act of God] is described as `showing the right direction' (irshad) or '[offering] guidance' (hidayah)." (See also surah 14 note 4.)
11:34 "Even if I advised you, my advice cannot benefit you if it is GOD's will to send you astray. He is your Lord, and to Him you will be returned.",
11:34 Noah said, “My counseling and well-wishing will not help you however much I desire to counsel you if God’s law of guidance leaves you astray. He is your Lord, and to Him you must return.”9
God has appointed laws for guidance e.g. making good use of our senses and reflecting with an open mind. 4:88
11:35 Am yaqooloona iftarahu qul iniiftaraytuhu faAAalayya ijramee waana baree-on mimmatujrimoona
11:35 Or do they say, "He invented it?" Say, "If I invented it, then I am responsible for my crime, and I am innocent from your crimes"
11:35 Or do they say: "He has invented it?" Say: "If I have invented it, then I am responsible for my crime, and I am innocent from your crimes"
11:35 DO SOME, perchance, assert, "[Muhammad] has invented this [story]"?57 Say [O Prophet]: "If I have invented it, upon me be this sin; but far be it from me to commit the sin of which you are guilty."58
Some of the classical commentators assume that this verse forms part of the story of Noah and his people. This, however, is improbable in view of the sudden change from the past tense employed in the preceding and subsequent verses ("he said", "they said") to the present tense ("do they say"). The only plausible explanation is that given by Tabari and Ibn Kathir (and mentioned also by Baghawi on the authority of Muqatil): namely, that the whole of verse 35 is a parenthetic passage addressed to the Prophet Muhammad, relating in the first instance to the story of Noah as narrated in the Qur'an and, by implication, to the Qur'an as such -in other words, a reiteration of the argument mentioned in verse 13 of this surah and in other places as well. This eminently convincing interpretation has also been adopted by Rashid Rida' (Manar XII, 71).
Or: "I have nothing to do with the sin of which you are guilty" - i.e., the sin of giving the lie to God's messages (cf. 10:41) or of inventing lies about God.
11:35 If they say, "He made up this story," then say, "If I made it up, then I am responsible for my crime, and I am innocent of any crime you commit.",
11:35 (God said to Noah), “Do they say that he has invented this set of values?” Tell them, “If I made it up, I will suffer the consequences of my crime. And I am innocent of the crimes you commit.”
11:36 Waoohiya ila noohinannahu lan yu/mina min qawmika illa man qad amanafala tabta-is bima kanoo yafAAaloona
11:36 It was inspired to Noah: "No more of your people will acknowledge except those who have already acknowledged. So do not be saddened by what they have done."
11:36 And it was inspired to Noah: "No more of your people will believe except those who have already believed. So do not be saddened by what they have done."
11:36 AND THIS was revealed unto Noah: "Never will any of thy people believe except those who have already attained to faith. Be not, then, distressed by anything that they may do,
11:36 Noah was inspired: "No more of your people are going to believe, beyond those who already believe. Do not be saddened by their actions.,
11:36 And it was revealed to Noah, “No one of your people will attain faith except the ones who have already believed. Do not be saddened by their actions.”
11:37 WaisnaAAi alfulka bi-aAAyuninawawahyina wala tukhatibnee fee allatheenathalamoo innahum mughraqoona
11:37 "Construct the Ship under Our eyes and Our inspiration, and do not speak to Me regarding those who are wicked. They will be drowned."
11:37 "And construct the ship under Our eyes and Our inspiration, and do not speak to Me regarding those who are wicked. They will be drowned."
11:37 but build, under Our eyes59 and according to Our inspiration, the ark [that shall .save thee and those who follow thee];60 and do not appeal to Me in behalf of those who are bent on evildoing for, behold, they are destined to be drowned!"
I.e., "under Our protection".
This interpolation is necessitated by the definite article preceding the noun fulk (lit., "ship", but rendered by me as "ark" owing to its familiar connotation in European languages).
11:37 "Build the ark under our watchful eyes, and with our inspiration, and do not implore Me on behalf of those who have transgressed; they are destined to drown.",
11:37 (Noah was commanded) “Build an ark under Our watchful Eyes and according to Our Directions, and do not plead with Me on behalf of the oppressors. Indeed, they are destined to be drowned.”10
11:38 WayasnaAAu alfulka wakullamamarra AAalayhi malaon min qawmihi sakhiroo minhu qala intaskharoo minna fa-inna naskharu minkum kamataskharoona
11:38 As he was constructing the Ship, every time any cluster from his people passed by, they mocked him. He said, "If you mock us, then we also mock you as you mock."
11:38 And as he was constructing the ship, every time any cluster from his people passed by, they mocked him. He said: "If you mock us, then we also mock you as you mock."
11:38 And [so Noah] set himself to building the ark; and every time the great ones of his people passed by him, they scoffed at him. [Thereupon] he said: "If you are scoffing at us-behold, we are scoffing at you [and your ignorance], just as you are scoffing at us.61
Since it is obviously impossible to attribute to a prophet the levity of scoffing (Baghawi), the meaning of the above phrase seems to be this: "If you consider us ignorant because of what we believe and are doing, we consider you ignorant because of your refusal to acknowledge the truth and your readiness to expose yourselves to God's punishment" (Zamakhshari and, in a shorter form, Baghawi). Hence my interpolation of the words "and your ignorance".
He Who Laughs Last Laughs Best11:38 While he was building the ark, whenever some of his people passed by him they laughed at him. He said, "You may be laughing at us, but we are laughing at you, just as you are laughing.,
11:38 As he was building the ship, and every time the chiefs of his community passed by him, they ridiculed him. Thereupon he said, “If you are mocking us now, we might ridicule your ignorance likewise.
11:39 Fasawfa taAAlamoona man ya/teehi AAathabunyukhzeehi wayahillu AAalayhi AAathabun muqeemun
11:39 "You will know to whom the retribution will come to disgrace him, and upon him will be a lasting punishment."
11:39 "You will know to whom the retribution will come to disgrace him, and upon him will be a lasting punishment."
11:39 But in time you will come to know who it is that [in this world] shall be visited by suffering which will cover him with ignominy, and upon whom long lasting suffering shall alight [in the life to come]!"
11:39 "You will surely find out who will suffer a shameful retribution, and incur an everlasting punishment.",
11:39 And soon you will know upon whom a humiliating punishment befalls, and upon whom a lasting torment will come. “
11:40 Hatta itha jaaamruna wafara alttannooru qulna ihmilfeeha min kullin zawjayni ithnayni waahlaka illaman sabaqa AAalayhi alqawlu waman amana wama amanamaAAahu illa qaleelun
11:40 So, when Our command came and the volcano erupted. We said, "Carry in it two from every pair, and your family; except those against whom the word has been issued; and whoever acknowledged." But those who acknowledged with him were few.7
Noah's ark was a simple watercraft made of logs connected with ropes (54:12). The flood was limited to the Dead Sea region and Noah's people (7:59; 9:70; 11:25; 22:42; 25:35; 38:12; 40:5; 50:12; 51:46; 53:52; 54:9; 71:1). The animals taken to the watercraft were a few domesticated animals in Noah's farm. The holy storytellers mutated the story, and with time, it was exaggerated into a global event. Perhaps public interest encouraged the storytellers to exaggerate a bit more, until it became a mythology about a worldwide flood.
The mythology found its way to the Old Testament; three chapters of Genesis, chapters 6-8, are allocated to the story of a universal flood (See Genesis 7:21-23 ). The letters of the New Testament also refer to a worldwide flood (1 Peter 3:18-20 ; 2 Peter 2:5 ; 2 Peter 3:6 ). Also, see 2:93; 16:103; 26:101; 71:1.
11:40 So, when Our command came and the chamber erupted. We said: "Carry in it a pair from each kind, and your family; except those against whom the word has been issued; and whoever has believed." But those who believed with him were few.
11:40 [And so it went on] till, when Our judgment came to pass, and waters gushed forth in torrents over the face of the earth,62 We said [unto Noah]: "Place on board of this [ark] one pair of each [kind of animal] of either sex,63 as well as thy family -except those on whom [Our] sentence has already been passed64 -and all [others] who have attained to faith!"-for, only a few [of Noah's people] shared his faith.
Lit., "the face of the earth boiled over" (fara 't-tannur). This phrase has been subject to several conflicting interpretations, some of which are based on no more than Talmudic legends (Manar XII, 75 f.). The most convincing explanation is that given - among others - by Tabari, Baghawi and Ibn Kathir on the authority of Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah: "At-tannur [lit., "oven"] denotes the face of the earth." Razi, too, mentions that "the Arabs call the face of the earth tannur", while the Qamus gives as one of the meanings of tannur "any place from which water gushes forth". The verb fara-which literally means "it boiled over"-describes the raging torrents of water which "turned the earth into springs" (Ibn Kathir; see also 54:12). This "gushing forth of water over the face of the earth" seems to point to the inundation of the huge valley now covered by the Mediterranean Sea (see surah 7, note 47) - an inundation which, augmented by continuous, torrential rains (cf. 54:11), rapidly spread over the land-mass of present-day Syria and northern `Iraq and grew into the immense deluge described in the Bible and in the Qur'an, and also referred to in the myths of ancient Greece (e.g., in the story of Deukalion and Pyrrhea), as well as in Sumerian and Babylonian legends.
The term zawj signifies, primarily, each of the two parts of a pair, and is also used in the sense of "a pair". In the present context it obviously has the former meaning; consequently, the expression min kullin zawjayn ithnayn is best rendered as above. -As regards the animals which Noah was commanded to take with him in the ark, it is reasonable to assume that this referred to the domesticated animals already in his possession, and not to all animals, as the Biblical narrative would have it.
I.e., those who stand condemned in the sight of God because of their persistent refusal to acknowledge the truth. See also verses 42-43 and 45-47.
11:40 When our judgment came, and the atmosphere boiled over, we said, "Carry on it a pair of each kind, together with your family, except those who are condemned. Carry with you those who have believed," and only a few have believed with him.,5
& 44 This is God's proven truth: Noah's ark was made of logs, tied together with primitive ropes (54:13). Contrary to common belief, theflood was limited to the area around today's Dead Sea, and the animals wereonly Noah's livestock; not every animal that lived on earth.
11:40 Thus it was until Our command came to pass. Waters gushed forth in torrents over the face of the land. Torrential rain began and the rivers started overflowing. We commanded Noah to take with him livestock, a couple each, and to take his family and followers with him. The rejecters, of course, were not to embark. The community of believers with Noah was small.11
11:41 Waqala irkaboo feeha bismi Allahimajraha wamursaha inna rabbeelaghafoorun raheemun
11:41 He said, "Climb inside, in the name of God shall be its sailing and its anchorage. My Lord is Forgiving, Compassionate."
11:41 And he said: "Ride in it, in the name of God shall be its running and its anchorage. My Lord is Forgiving, Merciful."
11:41 So he said [unto his followers]: "Embark in this [ship]! In the name of God be its run and its riding at anchor! Behold, my. Sustainer is indeed much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!"
11:41 He said, "Come on board. In the name of GOD shall be its sailing, and its mooring. My Lord is Forgiver, Most Merciful.",
11:41 Noah put his trust in God and told his people to embark, "Come on board, with the name of God will be its course and its resting. My Lord is the Absolver of imperfections, Merciful."
11:42 Wahiya tajree bihim fee mawjin kaaljibaliwanada noohunu ibnahu wakana feemaAAzilin ya bunayya irkab maAAana walatakun maAAa alkafireena
11:42 While it was running with them in waves like mountains, Noah called to his son, who was in an isolated place: "My son, ride with us, and do not be with the ingrates!"
11:42 And while it was running with them in waves like mountains, Noah called to his son, who was in an isolated place: "My son, ride with us, and do not be with the rejecters!"
11:42 And it moved on with them into waves that were like mountains. At that [moment] Noah cried out to a son of his, who had kept himself aloof [from the others]: "O my dear son!65 Embark with us, and remain not with those who deny the truth!"
The diminutive in ya bunayya (lit., "O my little son") is an expression of endearment irrespective of a son's age: for instance, Noah's son appears in the above story as a grown man, while Joseph, similarly addressed by his father in 12:5, was a child orb at the most, an adolescent.
11:42 As it sailed with them in waves like hills, Noah called his son, who was isolated: "O my son, come ride with us; do not be with the disbelievers.",
11:42 The ship sailed with them amidst huge waves as Noah called his son, who was standing aloof, “O My dear son! Come ride with us; do not be with the disbelievers.”
11:43 Qala saawee ila jabalinyaAAsimunee mina alma-i qala la AAasimaalyawma min amri Allahi illa man rahima wahalabaynahuma almawju fakana mina almughraqeena
11:43 He said, "I will take refuge to the mountain which will save me from the water." He said, "There is no savior from God's decree except to whom He grants mercy." The wave came between them, so he was one of those who drowned.
11:43 He said: "I will take refuge to the mountain which will protect me from the water." He said: "There is no protection from the decree of God except for those He has granted mercy." And the wave came between them, so he was one of those who drowned.
11:43 [But the son] answered: "I shall betake myself to a mountain that will protect me from the waters." Said [Noah]: "Today there is no protection [for anyone] from God's judgment, save [for] those who have earned [His] mercy!" And a wave rose up between them, and [the son] was among those who were drowned.
11:43 He said, "I will take refuge on top of a hill, to protect me from the water." He said, "Nothing can protect anyone today from GOD's judgment; only those worthy of His mercy (will be saved)." The waves separated them, and he was among those who drowned.,
11:43 He said. "I will cling to a hill-top to protect me from the water.” Noah said, “Nothing can protect anyone today from God’s command except for those who have earned His grace.” A towering wave came between them and his son was among those who drowned.12
The only security that day in the valley was for those who had believed in Noah and followed his advice
11:44 Waqeela ya ardu iblaAAee maakiwaya samao aqliAAee wagheeda almaowaqudiya al-amru waistawat AAala aljoodiyyiwaqeela buAAdan lilqawmi alththalimeena
11:44 It was said, "O land, swallow your water, and O sky, cease." The water was diminished, and the matter concluded. It came to rest on the Judea, and it was said, "Away with the wicked people."
11:44 And it was said: "O land, swallow your water, and O sky, cease." And the water was diminished, and the matter concluded. And it came to rest on the Judi, and it was said: "Away with the wicked people."
11:44 And the word was spoken: "O earth, swallow up thy waters! And, O sky, cease [thy rain]!" And the waters sank into the earth, and the will [of God] was done, and the ark came to rest on Mount Judl66 And the word was spoken: "Away with these evildoing folk!"
This mountain, known in ancient Syriac as Qardu, is situated n the region of Lake Van, almost twenty-five miles north-east of the town Jazirat Ibn `Umar, capital of .the modern Syrian district of Al-Jazirah. It "owes its fame to the Mesopotamian tradition which identifies it, and not Mount Ararat, with the mountain on which Noah's ark rested.... T is localization of the ark's resting-place ... is certainly based on Babylonian tradition" (Encyclopaedia of Islam I, 1059). We should, however, remember that the designation Ararat (the Assyrian Urartu) at one time included the whole area to the south of Lake Van, in which Jabal Judi is situated: this might explain the Biblical statement that "the ark rested. .. upon the mountains of Ararat" (Genesis viii, 4).
Where Did the Ark Land11:44 It was proclaimed: "O earth, swallow your water," and "O sky, cease." The water then subsided; the judgment was fulfilled. The ark finally rested on the hills of Judea. It was then proclaimed: "The transgressors have perished.",
11:44 And it was said, “O Earth! Swallow your water and, O Sky! Cease!" And the command was fulfilled. The water sank into the earth. And the ark came to rest upon the Mount Al-Judi. And it was said, “Away with these oppressors of the weak.”13
“Noah’s Ark came to rest at Judea, in the hills of Ararat, east of the Tigris River. The Valley of Mount Ararat was also known as ‘The Valley of Figs’.” Monographs of William Wilson Hunter 1840-1900, the British author of “The Indian Musalmans”. See 95:1
11:45 Wanada noohun rabbahufaqala rabbi inna ibnee min ahlee wa-inna waAAdaka alhaqquwaanta ahkamu alhakimeena
No Nepotism, No Intercession11:45 Noah called on his Lord, and he said, "My Lord, my son is from my family, and your promise is the truth, and you are the Wisest of all Judges."
11:45 And Noah called on his Lord, and he said: "My Lord, my son is from my family, and your promise is the truth, and you are the Wisest of all Judges."
11:45 And Noah called out to his Sustainer, and said: "O my Sustainer! Verily, my son was of my family;67 and, verily, Thy promise always comes true, and Thou art the most just of all judges!"
A reference to the divine command, mentioned in verse 40 - "Place on board this [ark] ... thy family" - which Noah apparently understood as meaning that the whole of his family would be saved, thus overlooking the qualifying clause, "except those on whom sentence has already been passed". -Some of the commentators suppose that verses 45-47 connect with verse 43, and thus precede, in point of time, the events narrated in verse 44-a supposition which has caused the modern translators of the Qur'an to render Noah's prayer, erroneously, in the present tense (i.e., in the form of a prayer for his son's rescue from drowning). It is, however, much more plausible to assume - as is done by Tabari and Ibn Kathir - that Noah's words were spoken after the ark had come to rest on Mount Judi (i.e., long after his son's death) and that they represented "an endeavour on the part of Noah to find out what would be the condition of his drowned son [in the hereafter]" (Ibn Kathir). Consequently, the sentence relating to this son, both in Noah's prayer and in God's answer, must be rendered in the past tense.
11:45 Noah implored his Lord: "My Lord, my son is a member of my family, and Your promise is the truth. You are the wisest of the wise.",
11:45 Noah called upon his Lord, "My Lord! My son was of my family and Your promise is the True promise and You are the Most Just of judges."14
So, why he was not saved while God had promised to save his family. 11:46
11:46 Qala ya noohu innahulaysa min ahlika innahu AAamalun ghayru salihin falatas-alni ma laysa laka bihi AAilmun innee aAAithukaan takoona mina aljahileena
11:46 He said, "O Noah, he is not from your family, he committed sin, so do not ask what you have no knowledge of. I advise you not to be of the ignorant."8
11:46 He said: "O Noah, he is not from your family, he was of an unrighteous deed, so do not ask what you have no knowledge of. I advise you not to be of the ignorant."
11:46 [God] answered: "O Noah, behold, he was not of thy family, for, verily, he was unrighteous in his conduct.68 And thou shalt not ask of Me anything whereof thou canst not have any knowledge:69 thus, behold, do I admonish thee lest thou become one of those who are unaware [of what is right]."70
According to some commentators (e.g., Tabari and Razi), the phrase innahu `amal ghayr salih relates to Noah's prayer for his son, and constitutes a divine reproach-in which case it should be rendered as "verily, this [prayer] is unrighteous conduct [on thy part]". Others, however (e.g., Zamakhshari), reject this interpretation and relate the above phrase to the son, in the manner rendered by me. This, I believe, is more in tune with the statement, "he was not of thy family" - i.e., spiritually, inasmuch as he was of, or preferred to remain with, "those who deny the truth".
Le., knowledge of the innermost reasons of God's decrees and of the ultimate destiny of any human being in the hereafter: for, the answers to this "why" and this "how" lie in the realm of things which are beyond the reach of human perception (al-ghayb).
Le., "lest thou prove to be one of those ignorant who ask God that He change His decrees in response to their own desires" (Manar XII, 85 f.).
The Myth of Intercession11:46 He said, "O Noah, he is not of your family. It is unrighteous to ask Me for something you do not know. I enlighten you, lest you be like the ignorant."6 ,
11:46 He (God) said, "O Noah! Your son was not of your family. For, his conduct was unrighteous. So, do not expect from Me that of which you have no knowledge. I enlighten you so that you do not remain ignorant.”15
The Divine Criterion of relationships is based on Ideology and not on lineage 49:13
11:47 Qala rabbi innee aAAoothu bikaan as-alaka ma laysa lee bihi AAilmun wa-illataghfir lee watarhamnee akun mina alkhasireena
11:47 He said, "My Lord, I seek refuge with You that I would ask You what I did not have knowledge of. If You do not forgive me and have mercy on me, I will be of the losers!"
11:47 He said: "My Lord, I seek refuge with You from asking You what I do not have knowledge of. And if You do not forgive me and have mercy on me, I will be of the losers!"
11:47 Said [Noah]: "O my Sustainer! Verily, I seek refuge with Thee from [ever again] asking of Thee anything whereof I cannot have any knowledge! For unless Thou grant me forgiveness and bestow Thy mercy upon me, I shall be among the lost!"
11:47 He said, "My Lord, I seek refuge in You, lest I implore You again for something I do not know. Unless You forgive me, and have mercy on me, I will be with the losers.",
11:47 Noah said, “My Lord! I guard myself in Your shelter from asking favors which do not befit me, and for my lack of knowledge. Forgive me and shower me with Your grace, otherwise I will become a loser.”
11:48 Qeela ya noohu ihbitbisalamin minna wabarakatin AAalayka waAAalaomamin mimman maAAaka waomamun sanumattiAAuhum thumma yamassuhumminna AAathabun aleemun
11:48 It was said, "O Noah, descend with peace from Us, and with blessings upon you and upon nations to come from those with you. As for other nations whom We will first grant them pleasure, then they will receive a painful retribution from Us."
11:48 It was said: "O Noah, descend in peace from Us and blessings upon you and upon nations to come from those with you. And nations whom We will give enjoyment, then a painful retribution will reach them from Us."
11:48 [Thereupon] the word was spoken: "O Noah! Disembark in peace from Us,71 and with [Our] blessings upon thee as well as upon the people [who are with thee, and the righteous ones that will spring from thee and] from those who are with thee.72 But [as for the unrighteous] folk [that will spring from you] - We shall allow them to enjoy life [for a little while], and then there will befall them grievous suffering from Us."
The term salam - here translated as "peace" - comprises the notions of both external and internal security from all that is evil. For a fuller explanation of the term, see surah 5, note 29.
The above interpolation is based on the consensus of most of the classical commentators. The phrase "the people [or "generations"] from those who are with thee" points to generations as yet unborn; but since God's blessing extends to all believers, it eo ipso comprises the believers of Noah's generation as well; and since "those who deny the truth" (al-kafirun) are excluded from God's blessing, only the righteous from among the offspring of these early believers are promised a share in His grace (cf. a similar allusion, relating to Abraham's descendants, in 2:124): hence my interpolation of the words "as for the unrighteous that will spring from you" in the next sentence.
11:48 It was proclaimed: "O Noah, disembark, with peace and blessings upon you, and upon nations who will descend from your companions. As for the other nations descending from you, we will bless them for awhile, then commit them to painful retribution.",
11:48 He was told, “O Noah! Disembark and descend from the hills in peace from Us and blessings upon you, and some generations (that will spring forth) from your companions (11:41). There will be other peoples to whom We shall give enjoyment a long while, but in the end a painful chastisement will reach them from Us.”16
And other communities, all of them will be awarded according to their deeds. 11:15
11:49 Tilka min anba-i alghaybi nooheehailayka ma kunta taAAlamuha anta wala qawmukamin qabli hatha faisbir inna alAAaqibatalilmuttaqeena
11:49 This is from the news of the unseen that We inspire to you. Neither did you nor your people know this, so be patient. The ending is always in favor of the righteous.
11:49 This is from the news of the unseen that We inspire to you. Neither did you nor your people know this, so be patient; the ending will be for the righteous.
11:49 THESE ACCOUNTS of something that was beyond the reach of thy perception We [now] reveal unto thee, [O Muhammad: for] neither thou nor thy people knew them [fully] ere this.73 Be, then, [like Noah,] patient in adversity - for, behold, the future belongs to the God-conscious!
See verse 35 above. Although the story of Noah had been vaguely known to the Arabs even before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad, they - and the Prophet with them - were entirely unaware of the details as narrated in the preceding Qur'anic account (Razi). The use of the plural at the beginning of this parenthetic passage ("These accounts") - in contrast with the singular form employed in a similar phrase occurring in 3:44, 11:100 and 12:102 ("This account") -seems, in my opinion, to indicate that it refers not only to the preceding story of Noah but also to the subsequent stories of other prophets. In this connection it should be remembered-and it cannot be stressed too often-that "narrative" as such is never the purpose of the Qur'an. Whenever it relates the stories of earlier prophets, or alludes to ancient legends or to historical events that took place before the advent of Islam or during the lifetime of the Prophet, the aim is, invariably, a moral lesson; and since one and the same event, or even legend, has usually many facets revealing as many moral implications, the Qur'an reverts again and again to the same stories, but every time with a slight variation of stress on this or that aspect of the fundamental truths underlying the Qur'anic revelation as a whole.
11:49 This is news from the past that we reveal to you. You had no knowledge about them - neither you, nor your people - before this. Therefore, be patient. The ultimate victory belongs to the righteous.,
11:49 (O Prophet) these are the news We reveal to you that neither you, nor your people were aware of. Go ahead with your program with forbearance. The destination of bliss belongs to those who seek to live upright.
11:50 Wa-ila AAadin akhahumhoodan qala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu in antum illa muftaroona
Hood and the People of Aad11:50 To Aad was sent their brother Hud. He said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him; you are simply conjecturing."
11:50 And to 'Aad was sent their brother Hud. He said: "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him; you are simply conjecturing."
11:50 AND UNTO [the tribe of] `Ad [We sent] their brother Hud.74 He said: "O my people! Worship God [alone]: you have no deity other than Him. [As it is,] you are but inventors of falsehood!75
For particulars relating to the name Hud as well as the tribe of `Ad, see surah 7, note 48.
I.e., inventors of alleged deities that have no reality in themselves (cf. 7:71, which also relates to the story of Hud). Regarding the term muftarun, see surah 7, note 119.
Hood: One and the Same Message11:50 To `Aad we sent their brother Hood. He said, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god besides Him. You are inventing.,
11:50 We sent to ‘Aad their brother Hud. He said, “O My people! Serve God alone. You have no god but He. As it is, you are but inventors of falsehood.”
11:51 Ya qawmi la as-alukum AAalayhiajran in ajriya illa AAala allathee fataraneeafala taAAqiloona
11:51 "My people, I do not ask you for any wage, my wage is from the One who initiated me. Will you not reason?"
11:51 "My people, I do not ask you for any wage, my wage is from the One who has initiated me. Will you not comprehend?"
11:51 "O my people! No reward do I ask of you for this [message]: my reward rests with none but Him who brought me into being. Will you not, then, use your reason?
11:51 O my people, I do not ask you for any wage. My wage comes only from the One who initiated me. Do you not understand?,
11:51 He said, "O My people! I ask no reward from you. My reward is with Him Who brought me into being. If you use your sense, you will understand.”
11:52 Waya qawmi istaghfiroo rabbakumthumma tooboo ilayhi yursili alssamaa AAalaykummidraran wayazidkum quwwatan ila quwwatikum walatatawallaw mujrimeena
11:52 "My people, seek forgiveness from your Lord, then repent to Him; He will send the sky to you abundantly, and He will increase might to your might. So do not turn away as criminals."
11:52 "And my people, seek forgiveness from your Lord, then repent to Him; He will send the sky to you abundantly, and He will add might to your might. So do not turn away as criminals."
11:52 "Hence, O my people, ask your Sustainer to forgive you your sins, and then turn towards Him in repentance-[whereupon] He will shower upon you heavenly blessings abundant,76 and will add strength to your strength: only do not turn away [from me] as people lost in sin!"
Lit., "He will let loose the sky over you with abundance". The term sama'-lit., "sky"-is often used in classical Arabic as a metonym for "rain", and scarcity of rains is a characteristic of the desert country called Al-Ahqaf ("The Sand-Dunes"), the one-time habitat of the - since vanished-tribe of `Ad. As would appear from 46:24, the time to which the above passage alludes was a period of severe drought, and so it is possible that the "abundant blessings" here denote rains.
11:52 "O my people, seek forgiveness from your Lord, then repent to Him. He will then shower you with provisions from the sky, and augment your strength. Do not turn back into transgressors.",
11:52 “O My people! Come to the forgiveness of your Lord by turning to Him and mending your ways. He will shower on you abundant heavenly blessings, and will add strength to your strength. So do not turn away guilty.”
11:53 Qaloo ya hoodu maji/tana bibayyinatin wama nahnu bitarikeealihatina AAan qawlika wama nahnulaka bimu/mineena
11:53 They said, "O Hud, you have not come to us with any proof, nor will we leave our gods based on what you say. We will not acknowledge you."
11:53 They said: "O Hud, you have not come to us with any proof, nor will we leave our gods based on what you say. We will not believe in you."
11:53 Said they: "O Mud! Thou hast brought us no clear evidence [that thou art a prophet]; and we are not going to forsake our gods on thy mere word, the more so as we do not believe thee.
11:53 They said, "O Hood, you did not show us any proof, and we are not abandoning our gods on account of what you say. We will never be believers with you.,
11:53 They said, "O Hud! You have not shown us any miracle. We will not forsake our idols just because you say so. We are not going to believe you.”
11:54 In naqoolu illa iAAtaraka baAAdualihatina bisoo-in qala innee oshhidu Allahawaishhadoo annee baree-on mimma tushrikoona
11:54 "All we can say is that perhaps some of our gods have possessed you with evil." He said, "I make God my witness, and all of you witness that I disown what you have set up as partners--
11:54 "All we can say is that perhaps some of our gods have seized you with evil." He said: "I make God my witness, and all of you witness, that I am innocent of what you have set up."
11:54 We can say no more than that one of our gods may have smitten thee with something evil!"77 Answered [Hud]: "Behold, I call God to witness - and you, too, be [my] witnesses - that, verily, it is not in me to ascribe divinity, as you do,78 to aught
I.e., with madness.
Or: "that, verily, I am guiltless of your ascribing a share in [God's] divinity (mimma tushrikun)...... etc.-thus rejecting the sardonic suggestion of his compatriots that one of their imaginary deities might have stricken him with madness.
11:54 "We believe that some of our gods have afflicted you with a curse." He said, "I bear witness before GOD, and you bear witness as well, that I disown the idols you have set up -,
11:54 “We think that one of our gods has possessed you like a demon and you have gone crazy." Hud said, "I call God to witness, and you too bear witness that I am absolutely free of your idolatry.”
11:55 Min doonihi fakeedoonee jameeAAan thumma latunthirooni
11:55 "-- besides Him, so scheme against me all of you, then do not give me respite."
11:55 "Besides Him, so plan against me all of you, then do not give me respite."
11:55 beside Him! Contrive, then, [anything that you may wish] against me, all of you, and give me no respite!79
Cf. a very similar challenge in the last sentence of 7:195.
11:55 "beside Him. So, give me your collective decision, without delay.,
11:55 “Get together, all of you and your gods besides Him. Make a firm decision against me and give me no respite.”
11:56 Innee tawakkaltu AAala Allahirabbee warabbikum ma min dabbatin illa huwa akhithunbinasiyatiha inna rabbee AAala siratinmustaqeemin
11:56 "I have put my trust in God, my Lord and your Lord. There is not a creature except He will seize it by its frontal lobe. My Lord is on a Straight Path."
11:56 "I have placed my trust in God, my Lord and your Lord. There is not a creature except He will seize it by its forelock. My Lord is on a straight path."
11:56 Behold, I have placed my trust in God, [who is] my Sustainer as well as your Sustainer: for there is no living creature which He does not hold by its forelock.80 Verily, straight is my Sustainer's way!81
I.e., there is no living being over which He has not complete control and which is not entirely dependent on Him (cf. verse 6 of this surah). When describing a person's humility and subjection to another person, the ancient Arabs used to say, "The forelock of so-and-so is in the hand of so-and-so". See in this connection 96:15, where this idiomatic expression occurs for the first time in the chronological order of Qur'anic revelation.
Lit., "my Sustainer is on a straight way" - implying that He governs all that exists in accordance with a system of truth and justice in the ultimate, absolute sense of these terms, never 322 allowing the conscious evildoer to escape the consequence of his deeds, and never letting righteousness go unrewarded, either in this world or in the hereafter (since it is only in the combination of these two phases that human life can be considered in its entirety).
11:56 "I have put my trust in GOD, my Lord and your Lord. There is not a creature that He does not control. My Lord is on the right path.,
11:56 “I have put my trust in God, my Lord and your Lord. There is not a creature in the Universe beyond His firm Control. Indeed, my Lord is on the Straight, Balanced Path.”17
God has designed the Universe so that all things go through evolution. It is an ascending, linear journey that makes progress possible. In the Cyclical hypothesis of the Greek philosophers, things will keep revolving in a circle like oxen endlessly going around water wells without covering any distance. Christian monasticism, Judaic mysticism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sufism etc define the ultimate objective of humans as freeing themselves of the endless cycle of life i.e. salvation. Therefore, salvation is a negative notion, whereas the Qur’an motivates us to attain eternal success. The dogma of Original Sin in Christianity also involves restoration to a sinless state, once again a negative connotation
11:57 Fa-in tawallaw faqad ablaghtukum maorsiltu bihi ilaykum wayastakhlifu rabbee qawman ghayrakum walatadurroonahu shay-an inna rabbee AAala kullishay-in hafeethun
11:57 "If you turn away, then I have delivered what I was sent to you with. My Lord will bring after you a people who are not like you, and you will not harm Him in the least. My Lord is Guardian over all things."
11:57 "So, if you turn away, then I have delivered what I have been sent to you with, and my Lord will bring after you a people who are not like you; and you cannot harm Him the least. My Lord is Guardian over all things."
11:57 "But if you choose to turn away, then [know that] I have delivered to you the message with which I was sent unto you, and [that] my Sustainer may cause another people to take your place,82 whereas you will in no wise harm Him. Verily, my Sustainer watches over all things!"
Lit., "to succeed you".
11:57 "If you turn away, I have delivered to you what I was sent with. My Lord will substitute other people in your place; you cannot harm Him in the least. My Lord is in control of all things.",
11:57 “You may accept or reject the message that I have clearly conveyed to you. If you turn away, you will decline and fall. Then, My Lord will bring another people in your place. You cannot harm Him at all. My Lord is the Guardian of all things.”
11:58 Walamma jaa amrunanajjayna hoodan waallatheena amanoomaAAahu birahmatin minna wanajjaynahum minAAathabin ghaleethin
11:58 When Our command came, We saved Hood and those who acknowledged with him by a mercy from Us, and We saved them from a harsh retribution.
11:58 And when Our command came, We saved Hud and those who had believed with him by a mercy from Us, and We saved them from a mighty retribution.
11:58 And so, when Our judgment came to pass,83 by Our grace We saved Hud and those who shared his faith; and We saved them [too] from suffering severe [in the life to come].84
For the story of the destruction of the tribe of `ad through violent storm-winds, see 54:19 and, more particularly, 69:6.
I.e., the suffering which was yet to befall the rest of the tribe of `Ad. My addition, between brackets, of the words "in the life to come" is based on the interpretation advanced by Tabari, Zamakhshari and Razi, according to whom the first mention of the saving of Hud and his followers refers to the destruction of the people of `Ad in this world, and the second, to the latters' chastisement in the hereafter.
11:58 When our judgment came, we saved Hood and those who believed with him, by mercy from us. We saved them from a terrible retribution.,
11:58 And so, when Our command came to pass, We saved Hud and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us. We saved them from a harsh retribution that inflicted the rejecters.
11:59 Watilka AAadun jahadoo bi-ayatirabbihim waAAasaw rusulahu waittabaAAoo amra kullijabbarin AAaneedin
11:59 Such was the case of Aad. They disregarded the signs of their Lord, and they disobeyed His messengers, and they followed the lead of everyone powerful and stubborn.
11:59 Such was the case of 'Aad. They disregarded the revelations of their Lord, and they disobeyed His messengers, and they followed the command of every stubborn tyrant.
11:59 And that was [the end of the tribe of] `Ad, [who] had rejected their Sustainer's messages, and rebelled against His apostles, and followed the bidding of every arrogant enemy of the truth.85
11:59 Such was `Aad - they disregarded the revelations of their Lord, disobeyed His messengers, and followed the ways of every stubborn tyrant.,
11:59 Such were ‘Aad. They denied the clear messages of their Lord, rebelled against His Messengers and followed the command of every stubborn tyrant.
11:60 WaotbiAAoo fee hathihi alddunyalaAAnatan wayawma alqiyamati ala inna AAadankafaroo rabbahum ala buAAdan liAAadin qawmi hoodin
11:60 They were followed by a curse in this world and on the day of judgment, for Aad rejected their Lord. There is no more Aad, the people of Hud.
11:60 And they were followed by a curse in this world and on the Day of Resurrection, for 'Aad rejected their Lord. So away with 'Aad, the people of Hud.
11:60 And they were pursued in this world by [God's] rejection, and [shall finally be overtaken by it] on the Day of Resurrection.86 Oh, verily, [the tribe of] `Ad denied their Sustainer! Oh, away with the `Ad, the people of Hud!
For my rendering of the term la'nah as "[God's] rejection", see note 37 above.
11:60 Consequently, they incurred condemnation in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed, `Aad rejected their Lord. Indeed, `Aad, the people of Hood, have perished.,
11:60 And they were pursued in this world by Divine rejection, and will be overtaken by it on the Resurrection Day. ‘Aad denied their Lord! Oh, away with the ‘Aad, the people of Hud!
11:61 Wa-ila thamooda akhahum salihanqala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu huwa anshaakum mina al-ardiwaistaAAmarakum feeha faistaghfiroohu thummatooboo ilayhi inna rabbee qareebun mujeebun
Saleh to Thamud11:61 To Thamud was sent their brother Saleh. He said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. He established you in the land and gave you control over it, so seek His forgiveness, then repent to Him. My Lord is Near, Responsive."
11:61 And to Thamud was their brother Saleh. He said: "O my people, serve God, you have no god besides Him. He has established you from the earth, and has made you settle in it; so seek His forgiveness, then repent to Him. My Lord is Near, Responsive."
11:61 AND UNTO [the tribe of] Thamud [We sent] their brother Salih.87 He said: "O my people! Worship God [alone]: you have no deity other than Him. He brought you into being out of the earth,88 and made you thrive thereon.89 Ask Him, therefore, to forgive you your sins, and then turn towards Him in repentance-for, verily, my Sustainer is ever-near, responding [to the call of whoever calls unto Him]!"90
A short account of the tribe of Thamud (the "Second `Ad" of pre-Islamic poetry) is found in surah 7, note 56. Salih is believed to have been the second prophet, after Hud, sent to the Arabs.
I.e., out of organic substances which derive their nourishment-and hence their capability of development, proliferation and evolution-either directly or indirectly from the earth (Razi). This is evidently also the meaning of the Qur'anic references to man as "created out of dust" (cf. 3:59, 18:37, 22:5 and 30:20).
See 7:74 and the corresponding notes.
Saaleh: One and the Same Message11:61 To Thamoud we sent their brother Saaleh. He said, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god beside Him. He initiated you from the earth, then settled you in it. You shall seek His forgiveness, then repent to Him. My Lord is always near, responsive.",
11:61 And to the tribe of Thamud, We sent their brother Saleh. He said, "O My people! Serve God. You have no one worthy of obedience but He. He initiated you from the earth and made you thrive thereon. Come to His forgiveness, then turn to Him in repentance mending your ways. My Lord is ever-Near, Responsive."
11:62 Qaloo ya salihuqad kunta feena marjuwwan qabla hatha atanhanaan naAAbuda ma yaAAbudu abaonawa-innana lafee shakkin mimma tadAAoonailayhi mureebun
11:62 They said, "O Saleh, you were well liked amongst us before this. Do you deter us from serving what our fathers served? We are in serious doubt as to what you are inviting us."
11:62 They said: "O Saleh, you were well liked among us before this. Do you prohibit us from serving what our fathers served? We are in serious doubt as to what you are inviting us."
11:62 They answered: "O Salih! Great hopes did we place in thee ere this!91 Wouldst thou forbid us to worship what our forefathers were wont to worship? Because [of this], behold, we are in grave doubt, amounting to suspicion, about [the meaning of] thy call to us!"92
Lit., "Thou wert among us one in whom hope was placed ere this": an allusion to Hud's outstanding intellect and strength of character, which had probably caused his tribe to see in him their future leader -until he startled them by his passionate demand that they should abandon their traditional beliefs and devote themselves to the worship of the One God.
Lit., "we are indeed in disquieting doubt as to that to which thou invitest us". It is to be borne in mind that the pre-Islamic Arabs regarded their gods, as well as the angels (whom they believed to be "God's daughters"), as legitimate mediators between man and God, whose existence as such they did not deny; consequently, they were greatly disturbed by their prophet's demand that they should abandon the worship of those allegedly divine or semi-divine beings. The above answer of the Thamud seems to imply that they might consider Salih's claim to be a prophet more favourably if he would but refrain from insisting that "you have no deity other than Him": a suggestion that fully explains Salih's retort in the next verse.
11:62 They said, "O Saaleh, you used to be popular among us before this. Are you enjoining us from worshipping what our parents are worshipping? We are full of doubt concerning everything you have told us.",
11:62 They said, "O Saleh! We had placed great hopes in you before this! But now you are telling us to move away from worshiping what our forefathers worshiped. Now we are in grave doubt, amounting to suspicion about the meaning of your call to us.”
11:63 Qala ya qawmi araaytum inkuntu AAala bayyinatin min rabbee waataneeminhu rahmatan faman yansurunee mina Allahiin AAasaytuhu fama tazeedoonanee ghayra takhseerin
11:63 He said, "My people, what do you think if I was on clear evidence from my Lord, and He gave me from Him a mercy. Who would then support me against God if I disobey Him? You would only increase me in loss!"
11:63 He said: "O my people, do you see that should I be upon a clarity from my Lord, and He has given me a mercy from Himself. Who would then support me against God if I disobey Him? You would only increase me in loss!"
11:63 He retorted: "O my people! What do you think? If [it be true that] I am taking my stand on a cleat evidence from my Sustainer, who has vouchsafed unto me grace from Himself -[if this be true,] who would shield me from God were I to rebel against Him?93 Hence, what you are offering me is no more than perdition!"94
I.e., "if I were to suppress - in spite of all the evidence obtained through divine revelation - the fundamental truth that there is no deity save God, and that the ascribing of divinity or divine powers to anyone or anything beside Him is an unforgivable sin" (cf. 4:48 and the corresponding note 65).
Lit., "you do not add [anything] to me but perdition". Although this dialogue is related in the context of the story of Salih and the leaders of the Thamud, its implications have -as is always the case with Qur'anic stories and parables -a universal, timeless import. The stress here is on the intrinsic impossibility of reconciling belief in the One God, whose omniscience and omnipotence, embraces all that exists, with an attribution of divine or semi-divine qualities and functions to anyone or anything else. The subtly-veiled suggestion of the Thamud (see note 92) and its rejection by Salih has a bearing on all religious attitudes based on a desire to "bring God closer to man" through the interposition of alleged "mediators" between Him and man. In primitive religions, this interposition led to the deification of various forces of nature and, subsequently, to the invention of imaginary deities which were thought to act against the background of an undefined, dimly-perceived Supreme Power (for instance. the Moira of the ancient Greeks). In higher religious concepts, this need for mediation assumes the form of personified manifestations of God through subordinate deities (as is the case, in Hinduism, with the personifications of the Absolute Brahma of the Upanishads and the Vedanta in the forms of Vishnu or Shiva), or in His supposed incarnation in human form (as represented in the Christian idea of Jesus as "God's son" and the Second Person of the Trinity). And, lastly, God is supposedly "brought closer to man" by the interposition of a hierarchy of saints, living or dead, whose intercession is sought even by people who consider themselves to be "monotheists" -and this includes many misguided Muslims who do not realize that their belief in saints as "mediators" between men and God conflicts with the very essence of Islam. The ever-recurring Qur'anic stress on the oneness and uniqueness of God, and the categorical denial of the idea that anyone or anything - whether it be a concrete being or an abstract force - could have the least share in God's qualities or the least influence on the manner in which He governs the universe aims at freeing man from the self-imposed servitude to an imaginary hierarchy of "mediating powers", and at making him realize that "wherever you turn, there is God's countenance" (2:115), and that God is "[always] near, responding [to the call of whoever calls unto Him]" (2:186; also, in a condensed form. in verse 61 of this surah ).
The Disbelievers Always Losers11:63 He said, "O my people, what if I have solid proof from my Lord, and mercy from Him? Who would support me against GOD, if I disobeyed Him? You can only augment my loss.,
11:63 He said, "O My people! Do you really see and think? What if I have clear evidence of the truth from my Lord, and mercy from Him? Then, who can help me against God if I disobey Him? You can only push me into ruin.
11:64 Waya qawmi hathihi naqatuAllahi lakum ayatan fatharooha ta/kulfee ardi Allahi wala tamassoohabisoo-in faya/khuthakum AAathabun qareebun
11:64 "My people, this is God's camel, in her you have a sign. So leave her to eat from God's land freely, and do not harm her, or else a close retribution will take you."
11:64 "And O my people, this is the camel of God, in her you have a sign. So leave her to eat from God's earth freely, and do not harm her, or else a close retribution will take you."
11:64 And [then he said]: "O my people! This she-camel belonging to God shall be a token for you: so leave her alone to pasture on God's earth, and do her no harm, lest speedy chastisement befall you!"95
For an explanation of this passage, see surah 7, note 57.
11:64 "O my people, this is GOD's camel to serve as a proof for you. You shall let her eat from GOD's earth, and do not touch her with any harm, lest you incur an immediate retribution.",
11:64 (The feudal lords had been depriving the poor of using the land and its natural resources of water and vegetation). Saleh said, “O My people! This she-camel belonging to God shall be a token for you. So leave her alone to graze in God’s earth. Do her no harm, lest speedy punishment befall you.” (91:13)18
This verse along with 55:10 pronounces one of the most revolutionary concepts of the Qur’an. The land is owned by none but God and must be open for all His creation as a means of sustenance. So, all landlord-ship is contrary to the Divine Ordinance. In the Divine System, the Central Authority will see to it that any piece of land will be for those who toil in it and give God His Right, the poor-due. 6:141. “Baatin-e Al-Ardhu Lillah Zaahir Ast - Har Keh Ou Zaahir Na Beenad Kafir Ast” The meaning of “Land belongs to God” is obvious. Anyone who does not see it obvious, is an infidel – Sir Iqbal
11:65 FaAAaqarooha faqalatamattaAAoo fee darikum thalathata ayyamin thalikawaAAdun ghayru makthoobin
11:65 But they slaughtered her. So he said, "You will only have three days of enjoyment in your homes. This is a promise that will not be denied."
11:65 But they slaughtered her. So he said: "Take enjoyment in your dwellings for three days. This is a promise not to be denied."
11:65 But they cruelly slaughtered her.96 And thereupon [Salih] said: "[Only] for three days [more] shall you enjoy life in your homes: this is a judgment97 which will not be belied!"
See surah 7, note 61.
11:65 They slaughtered her. He then said, "You have only three days to live. This is a prophecy that is inevitable.",
11:65 But they hamstrung her. Thereupon he said to his people, “Only for three more days shall you enjoy life in your homes. This is a promise that cannot be false.”19
‘Aqarooha = They hamstrung her. Severing the hamstrings of a camel leads to a quick demise, therefore, ‘they hamstrung her’ = ‘They killed her’
11:66 Falamma jaa amrunanajjayna salihan waallatheena amanoomaAAahu birahmatin minna wamin khizyi yawmi-ithininna rabbaka huwa alqawiyyu alAAazeezu
11:66 So, when Our command came, We saved Saleh and those who acknowledged with him by a mercy from Us against the disgrace of that day. Your Lord is the Powerful, the Noble.
11:66 So, when Our command came, We saved Saleh and those who had believed with him by a mercy from Us and against the disgrace of that day. Your Lord is the Powerful, the Noble.
11:66 And so, when Our judgment came to pass, by Our grace We saved Salih and those who shared his faith; and [We saved them, too,] from the ignominy of [Our rejection on] that Day [of Resurrection]. Verily, thy Sustainer alone is powerful, almighty!
11:66 When our judgment came, we saved Saaleh and those who believed with him by mercy from us, from the humiliation of that day. Your Lord is the Most Powerful, the Almighty.,
11:66 And so, when Our command came to pass, by Our grace We saved Saleh and the believers with him from the humiliating annihilation of the day. Surely, your Lord, He alone is Strong, Almighty.
11:67 Waakhatha allatheena thalamooalssayhatu faasbahoo fee diyarihimjathimeena
11:67 Those who wronged were taken by the scream, thus they lay motionless in their homes.
11:67 And those who had wronged were taken by the scream, thus they became lifeless in their homes.
11:67 And the blast [of God's punishment] overtook those who had been bent on evildoing: and then they lay lifeless, in their very homes, on the ground,98
Lit., "they became, in their homes, prostrate on the ground". Ibn `Abbas - as quoted by Razi-explains the term sayhah (lit., "vehement cry" or "sound") occurring in this verse as a synonym of ;sa'iqah, a "thunderbolt" or the "sound of thunder". Since the same event is described in 7:78 as "violent trembling" (rajfah), which in that context apparently denotes an earthquake, it is possible that the "vehement sound" mentioned here and in several other places describes the subterranean rumbling which often precedes and accompanies an earthquake and/or the thunder like noise of a volcanic eruption (see surah 7, note 62). However, in view of the repeated use of this expression in varying contexts, we may assume that it has the more general meaning of "blast of punishment" or - as in 50:42, where it indicates the Last Hour - of "final blast".
11:67 Those who transgressed were annihilated by the disaster, leaving them in their homes, dead.,
11:67 (Saleh and His followers moved out of the town while the disbelievers stayed back with their mockery). And a tremendous blast overtook the oppressors, and then they lay lifeless, in their very homes, on the ground.
11:68 Kaan lam yaghnaw feeha alainna thamooda kafaroo rabbahum ala buAAdan lithamooda
11:68 It is as if they never lived there. For Thamud rejected their Lord. There is no more Thamud.
11:68 It is as if they had never lived there. For Thamud rejected their Lord. So away with Thamud.
11:68 as though they had never lived there. Oh, verily, [the tribe of] Thamud denied their Sustainer! Oh, away with the Thamud!
11:68 It was as if they never lived there. Indeed, Thamoud have rejected their Lord. Absolutely, Thamoud have incurred their annihilation.,
11:68 As if they had never lived there. Thamud had denied their Lord. Oh, away with the Thamud!
11:69 Walaqad jaat rusuluna ibraheemabialbushra qaloo salaman qalasalamun fama labitha an jaa biAAijlin haneethin
Abraham and Lut11:69 Our messengers came to Abraham with good news, they said, "Peace" He said, "Peace," and it was not long before he came back with a roasted calf.
11:69 And Our messengers came to Abraham with good news, they said: "Peace" He said: "Peace," and he made no delay in bringing a roasted calf.
11:69 AND, INDEED, there came unto Abraham Our [heavenly] messengers, bearing a glad tiding.99 They bade him peace; [and] he answered, "[And upon you be] peace!"-and made haste to place before them100 a roasted calf.
The Qur'an does not state in so many words that these guests of Abraham were angels; but since the term rusuluna ("Our messengers") is often used in the sense of heavenly messengers, all the classical commentators interpret it thus in the above context. For the contents of the "glad tiding" referred to here, see verse 71 below.-The reason for prefacing the story of Lot with an episode from Abraham's life lies in the-latter's subsequent pleading in behalf of the sinful people of Sodom (verses 74-76) and also, possibly, in God's earlier promise to him, "Behold, I shall make thee a leader of men" (see 2:124), which must have imbued him with an enhanced sense of moral responsibility not only for his own family but also for the people with whom he was indirectly connected through his nephew Lot (Lut in Arabic).
Lit., "and did not delay in bringing". Regarding the deeper implications of the word "peace" (salam) as used in this passage, see surah 5, note 29.
Abraham and Lot11:69 When our messengers went to Abraham with good news, they said, "Peace." He said, "Peace," and soon brought a roasted calf.,
11:69 (Similar was the end of the people of Lot.) Our Messengers came to Abraham bearing a glad tiding. They greeted Abraham with “Peace!” And he greeted them back with "Peace!" and made haste to place before them a roasted calf.
11:70 Falamma raa aydiyahum latasilu ilayhi nakirahum waawjasa minhum kheefatan qaloola takhaf inna orsilna ila qawmi lootin
11:70 But when he saw that their hands did not go towards it, he mistrusted them, and felt a fear of them. They said, "Have no fear, we have been sent to the people of Lot."
11:70 But when he saw that their hands did not go towards it, he mistrusted them, and he began to have fear of them. They said: "Have no fear, we have been sent to the people of Lot."
11:70 But when he saw that their hands did not reach out towards it, he deemed their conduct strange and became apprehensive of them.101 [But] they said: "Fear not! Behold, we are sent to the people of Lot.102
Lit., "he did not know [what to make of] them and conceived fear of them". Since they were angels, they did not eat (contrary to the Biblical statement in Genesis xviii, 8); and since, in the Arabian tradition of hospitality, a stranger's refusal to partake of the food offered him is an indication of unfriendly intent, Abraham - who until then had not realized that his guests were angels-became apprehensive of possible hostility on their part.
According to the Biblical account (not contradicted by the Qur'an), Lot, a son of Abraham's brother, lived to the east of the Jordan, in the vicinity of what is today the Dead Sea (called in Arabic Bahr Lut, "Lot's Sea"). The "people of Lot" were not actually the latter's community, for he-like Abraham-was a native of Ur in southern Babylonia, and had migrated thence with his uncle: hence, throughout the Qur'an, the expression "Lot's people" designates the inhabitants of the town (or country) of Sodom, among whom he had chosen to live, and with regard to whom he was entrusted with a prophetic mission.
11:70 When he saw that their hands did not touch it, he became suspicious and fearful of them. They said, "Do not be afraid, we are being dispatched to the people of Lot.",
11:70 But when he saw their hands not reaching out towards it, he mistrusted and became a bit apprehensive of them. They said, “Fear not! We are being sent to the people of Lot.”20
Abraham was apprehensive of the visitors’ refusal of hospitality as a sign of serious intentions, but in fact they were hurrying to Lot
11:71 Waimraatuhu qa-imatun fadahikatfabashsharnaha bi-ishaqa wamin wara-iishaqa yaAAqooba
11:71 His wife was standing, so she laughed when We gave her good news of Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob.
11:71 And his wife was standing, so she laughed when We gave her the good news of Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob.
11:71 And his wife, standing [nearby], laughed [with happiness]103 ; whereupon We gave her the glad tiding of [the birth of] Isaac and, after Isaac, of [his son] Jacob.
I.e., on realizing that the strangers were God's messengers, and that she and Abraham had nothing to fear from them (Zamakhshari): hence the interpolation of the words "with happiness". This differs from the Biblical statement (Genesis xviii, 12-15), according to which Sarah "laughed within herself" at the announcement that she, an old woman, would give birth to a son: for in the above Qur'anic passage this announcement comes after the statement that she laughed, and is introduced by the conjunctive particle fa, which in this context denotes "and thereupon" or "whereupon".
11:71 His wife was standing, and she laughed when we gave her the good news about Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob.,
11:71 And his wife (Sarah), standing nearby, laughed when We gave her good tiding of Isaac, and after Isaac, (his son) Jacob.
11:72 Qalat ya waylata aaliduwaana AAajoozun wahatha baAAlee shaykhan inna hathalashay-on AAajeebun
11:72 She said, "O my! how can I give birth while I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man? This is indeed a strange thing!"
11:72 She said: "O my! Shall I give birth when I am an old woman, and here is my husband an old man? This is indeed a strange thing!"
11:72 Said she: "Oh, woe is me!104 Shall I bear a child, now that I am an old woman and this husband of mine is an old man? Verily, that would be a strange thing indeed!"
This expression of grief obviously relates to her past barrenness as well as to her fear that this astonishing announcement might prove illusory.
11:72 She said, "Woe to me, how could I bear a child at my age, and here is my husband, an old man? This is really strange!",
11:72 She exclaimed, "Oh, woe unto me! Shall I bear a child now that I am an old woman and this husband of mine is an old man? This is really strange!"
11:73 Qaloo ataAAjabeena min amri Allahirahmatu Allahi wabarakatuhu AAalaykum ahlaalbayti innahu hameedun majeedun
11:73 They said, "Do you wonder at the decree of God? God's Compassion and Blessings are upon you O people of the sanctuary. He is Praiseworthy, Glorious."
11:73 They said: "Do you wonder at the decree of God? The mercy of God and blessings are upon you O people of the Sanctuary. He is Praiseworthy, Glorious."
11:73 Answered [the messengers]: "Dost thou deem it strange that God should decree what He wills?105 The grace of God and His blessings be upon you, O people of this house! Verily, ever to be praised, sublime is He!"
Lit., "Art thou astonished at God's decree''" -or: "post thou find God's decree strange?" However, the real meaning of this rhetorical question can only be brought out by paraphrasing it in the manner attempted by me: namely, as an echo of the statement, repeated several times in the Qur'an: "When God wills a thing to be, He but says unto it, 'Be'-and it is."
11:73 They said, "Do you find it strange for GOD? GOD has bestowed His mercy and blessings upon you, O inhabitants of the shrine. He is Praiseworthy, Glorious.",
11:73 Answered the Messengers, "Do you marvel about God’s command? May God’s grace and blessings be upon you, O Dwellers of the house! The Owner of all praise, Sublime He is.”
11:74 Falamma thahaba AAan ibraheemaalrrawAAu wajaat-hu albushra yujadilunafee qawmi lootin
11:74 So when the shock left Abraham, and the good news was delivered to him, he began to argue with Us for the people of Lot.
11:74 So when the shock left Abraham, and the good news was delivered to him, he began to argue with Us for the people of Lot.
11:74 And when the fear had left Abraham, and the glad tiding had been conveyed to him, he began to plead with Us for Lot's people:106
According to all commentators, this means "he pleaded [lit., "argued"] with Our messengers" (who, as is evident from 29:31, had announced to him the impending doom of Sodom and Gomorrah), and not with God Himself.
11:74 When Abraham's fear subsided, and the good news was delivered to him, he proceeded to argue with us on behalf of Lot's people.,
11:74 When fear had left Abraham, and the good news was conveyed to him, he began to plead with Us for Lot’s people.
11:75 Inna ibraheema lahaleemun awwahunmuneebun
11:75 Abraham was compassionate, kind.
11:75 Abraham was compassionate, kind, obedient.
11:75 for, behold, Abraham was most clement, most tender-hearted, intent upon turning to God again and again.
11:75 Indeed, Abraham was clement, extremely kind, and obedient.,
11:75 For, Abraham was clement, kind-hearted, ever turning to His Lord.
11:76 Ya ibraheemu aAAridAAan hatha innahu qad jaa amru rabbika wa-innahum ateehimAAathabun ghayru mardoodin
11:76 O Abraham, turn away from this. Your Lord's command has come, and a retribution that will not be turned back is coming for them.
11:76 "O Abraham, turn away from this. The command of your Lord has been passed, and a retribution that will not be turned back is coming for them."
11:76 [But God's messengers replied:] "O Abraham! Desist from this [pleading]! Behold, thy Sustainer's judgment has already gone forth: and, verily, there shall fall upon them a chastisement which none can avert!"
11:76 "O Abraham, refrain from this. Your Lord's judgment has been issued; they have incurred unavoidable retribution.",
11:76 (They said) O Abraham! Turn away from this pleading. Your Lord's command has gone forth, and the retribution is now inevitable.
11:77 Walamma jaat rusulunalootan see-a bihim wadaqa bihim tharAAan waqalahatha yawmun AAaseebun
Homosexual Aggression is Condemned11:77 When Our messengers came to Lot, he was grieved on their account and he felt discomfort for them and said, "This is a distressful day."
11:77 And when Our messengers came to Lot, he was grieved by them and he felt discomfort for them and he said: "This is a distressful day."
11:77 AND WHEN Our messengers came unto Lot, he was sorely grieved on their account, seeing that it was beyond his power to shield them;107 and he exclaimed: "This is a woeful day!"
Lit., "he was straitened as regards the reach of his arm in their behalf" -an idiomatic phrase often used in classical Arabic, denoting here Lot's utter inability to afford his guests protection from the people of Sodom, whose homosexual propensities have ever since been commemorated in the term "sodomy". Since Lot thought that the strangers were no more than handsome young men, he felt certain that they would be sexually assaulted by his sinful countrymen.
Homosexuality Condemned11:77 When our messengers went to Lot, they were mistreated, and he was embarrassed by their presence. He said, "This is a difficult day.",
11:77 When Our Messengers came to Lot he was distressed, and did not know how to save his people. He exclaimed, "This is a difficult day!”
11:78 Wajaahu qawmuhu yuhraAAoona ilayhiwamin qablu kanoo yaAAmaloona alssayyi-ati qalaya qawmi haola-i banatee hunna atharulakum faittaqoo Allaha wala tukhzooni fee dayfeealaysa minkum rajulun rasheedun
11:78 His people came rushing towards him, and were accustomed to committing sin. He said, "My people, these are my daughters, they are purer for you, so be aware of God and do not disgrace me regarding my guests. Is there no reasonable man among you?"
11:78 And his people came rushing towards him, and before it they were committing sin, he said: "My people, these are my daughters, they are purer for you, so be aware of God and do not disgrace me regarding my guests. Is there no wise man among you?"
11:78 And his people came running to him, impelled towards his house [by their desire]:108 for they had ever been wont to commit [such], abominations. Said [Lot]: "O my people! [Take instead] these daughters of mine: they are purer for you [than men]!109 Be, then, conscious of God, and disgrace me not by [assaulting] my guests. Is there not among you even one right-minded man?"
Lit., "towards him" -but since their desire was obviously directed at Lot's guests, and not at himself, my rendering would seem appropriate. It is to be noted that in its passive form, as used here, the verb yuhra'un does not merely mean "they came running" but, rather, "running as if driven onward by some force" (Zamakhshari)-in this case, the force of their perverse desire.
Most of the commentators are of the opinion that the phrase "these daughters of mine" signifies here "the daughters of my community" (since a prophet is the spiritual father of his people). But whether this is the case, or whether - as is more probable - Lot's words refer to his actual daughters, there is no doubt that in their wider implication they point to the natural relationship between man and woman as contrasted with the perverse desires of the men of Sodom.
11:78 His people came rushing; they had grown accustomed to their sinful acts. He said, "O my people, it would be purer for you, if you take my daughters instead. You shall reverence GOD; do not embarrass me with my guests. Have you not one reasonable man among you?",
11:78 And the most iniquitous among his people came rushing to Lot. (They wanted the visiting Messengers to approve their behavior.) Lot said, "O My people! Your wives, who are like my daughters, are permitted for you. Be mindful of God, and do not humiliate me in the presence of my guests. Is there not a single upright man among you?”
11:79 Qaloo laqad AAalimta ma lanafee banatika min haqqin wa-innaka lataAAlamu manureedu
11:79 They said, "You know we have no interest in your daughters, and you are aware of what we want!"9
Note that these are not people who are committing sin in their private lives; they are aggressive homosexuals who are proud of their behavior and show the audacity to harass men around them.
11:79 They said: "You know we have no interest in your daughters, and you are aware of what we want!"
11:79 They answered: "Thou hast always known that we have no use whatever for thy daughters;110 and, verily, well dost thou know what we want!"
Lit., "no claim whatever to thy daughters".
11:79 They said, "You know well that we have no need for your daughters; you know exactly what we want.",
11:79 They said, "You know, we have little interest in our wives whom you call your daughters. You know well what we want.”21
Our intention is to get our behavior made permissible
11:80 Qala law anna lee bikum quwwatan aw aweeila ruknin shadeedin
11:80 He said, "If only I had strength against you, or I could find for myself some powerful support."
11:80 He said: "If only I had strength against you, or I could find for myself some powerful support."
11:80 Exclaimed .[Lot]: "Would that I had the strength to defeat you, or that I could lean upon some mightier support!"111
Lit., "or that I could betake myself to some mighty support". Although some of the commentators are of the opinion that this expression denotes "tribal support" (which was, however, unavailable to Lot inasmuch as he was a stranger in Sodom), we have a number of authentic Traditions (extensively quoted by Tabari) to the effect that what Lot meant was God's support: for the Prophet Muhammad, referring to this Qur'anic passage, is reported to have said, "God bestowed His grace upon Lot, for he betook himself indeed unto a mighty support!"
11:80 He said, "I wish I were strong enough, or had a powerful ally!",
11:80 Lot exclaimed, “I wish I had the strength to resist you or had some strong support.”
11:81 Qaloo ya lootu innarusulu rabbika lan yasiloo ilayka faasri bi-ahlika biqitAAinmina allayli wala yaltafit minkum ahadun illaimraataka innahu museebuha ma asabahuminna mawAAidahumu alssubhu alaysa alssubhubiqareebin
11:81 They said, "O Lot, we are your Lord's messengers; they will not be able to harm you. So travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife; she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their appointed time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?"
11:81 They said: "O Lot, we are messengers of your Lord; they will not be able to harm you, so travel with your family during the cover of the night and let not any of you look back except for your wife, she will be afflicted with what they will be afflicted. Their scheduled time will be the morning. Is the morning not near?"
11:81 [Whereupon the angels] said: "O Lot! Behold, we are messengers from thy Sustainer! Never shall [thy enemies] attain to thee! Depart, then, with thy household while it is yet night, and let none of you look back;112 [and take with thee all thy family] with the exception of thy wife: for, behold, that which is to befall these [people of Sodom] shall befall her [as well].113 Verily, their appointed time is the morning [and] is not the morning nigh?"
I.e., in an abstract sense, "to what you are leaving behind" (Razi)-evidently meaning the severing of all associations with the sinful city, and not a physical looking-back.
Cf. 7:83 and the corresponding note, as well as 66:10, where it is mentioned that Lot's wife, who was apparently a native of Sodom, had acted faithlessly towards her husband, i.e., had refused to believe in his prophetic mission; and her story was thereupon "propounded as a parable of those who are bent on denying the truth".
11:81 (The angels) said, "O Lot, we are your Lord's messengers, and these people cannot touch you. You shall leave with your family during the night, and let not anyone of you look back, except your wife; she is condemned along with those who are condemned. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning soon enough?",
11:81 They (the visiting Messengers) said, "O Lot! We are Messengers of your Lord. They will not catch up to you. Now take your family while it is yet night. And let none of you look back, except your wife (who will stay behind). What is to befall these (people) shall befall her. Their appointed time is the morning. Is not the morning near?22
She stays behind because she has chosen to silently accept the trends of the times
11:82 Falamma jaa amrunajaAAalna AAaliyaha safilahawaamtarna AAalayha hijaratanmin sijjeelin mandoodin
11:82 So when Our command came, We turned it upside down, and We rained on it with hardened fiery projectiles.
11:82 So when Our command came, We made its highest part become its lowest, and We rained on it with hardened fiery projectiles.
11:82 And so, when Our judgment came to pass, We turned those [sinful towns] upside down, and rained down upon them stone-hard blows of chastisement pre-ordained.114 one upon another,
Lit., "stones of sijjil", which latter noun is regarded by some philologists as the Arabicized form of the Persian sang-i-gil ("clay-stone" or "petrified clay"): cf. Qamus and Taj al-'Arus. If this supposition is correct, the "stones of petrified clay" would be more or less synonymous with "brimstones", which in its turn would point to a volcanic eruption, probably in conjunction with a severe earthquake (alluded to in the preceding phrase, "We turned those [sinful towns] upside down"). But there is also a strong probability, pointed out by Zamakhshari and Razi, that the term sijjil is of purely Arabic origin - namely, a synonym of sijjll, which primarily signifies "a writing", and secondarily, "something that has been decreed": in which case the expression hijarah min sijjil can be understood in a metaphorical sense, namely, as "stones of all the chastisement laid down in God's decree" (Zamakhshari and Razi, both in conjunction with the above verse and in their commentaries on 105:4). It is, I believe, this metaphorical meaning of "stone-hard blows of chastisement pre-ordained", i.e., of God-willed doom, that the concluding sentence of the next verse alludes to.
Sodom & Gomorrah Destroyed11:82 When our judgment came, we turned it upside down, and we showered it with hard, devastating rocks.,
11:82 And so, when Our command came to pass, We brought low the highly arrogant towns (Sodom and Gomorrah), and rained down upon them hard devastating rocks (from the volcano).
11:83 Musawwamatan AAinda rabbika wama hiyamina alththalimeena bibaAAeedin
11:83 Marked from your Lord, and they are never far from the wicked.
11:83 Marked from your Lord, and they are never far from the wicked.
11:83 marked out in thy Sustainer's sight [for the punishment of such as are lost in sin]. And these [blows of God-willed doom] are never far from evildoers115
According to some of the earliest Qur'an-commentators (e.g., Qatadah and `Ikrimah, as quoted by Tabari), this threat of ultimate doom applies to evildoers of all times-which further supports the assumption that the expression hijarah min sijjil has a metaphorical connotation.
11:83 Such rocks were designated by your Lord to strike the transgressors.,
11:83 The stones were marked arrows from your Lord. His requital is never far from those who choose to do wrong.
11:84 Wa-ila madyana akhahumshuAAayban qala ya qawmi oAAbudoo Allaha malakum min ilahin ghayruhu wala tanqusooalmikyala waalmeezana innee arakumbikhayrin wa-innee akhafu AAalaykum AAathaba yawminmuheetin
Shuayb to Midian11:84 To Midian was their brother Shuayb, he said, "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him, and do not give short in the measure and weight. I see you in prosperity, and I fear for you the retribution of a day that is surrounding."
11:84 And to Midyan was their brother Shu'ayb, he said: "My people, serve God, you have no god besides Him, and do not give short in the measure and the weight. I see you in prosperity, and I fear for you the retribution of a day that is surrounding."
11:84 AND UNTO [the people of] Madyan [We sent] their brother Shu'ayb.116 He said: "O my people! Worship God [alone]: you have no deity other than Him; and do not give short measure and weight [in any of your dealings with men].117 Behold, I see you [now] in a happy state; but, verily, I dread lest suffering befall you on a Day that will encompass [you with doom]!
See surah 7, note 67.
Thus, belief in the One God and justice in all dealings between man and man (see surah 6, note 150) are here placed together as the twin postulates of all righteousness. Some commentators assume that the people of Madyan were of a particularly commercial bent of mind, and given to fraudulent dealings. It is obvious, however, that the purport of this passage and of its sequence goes far beyond anything that might be construed by a purely "historical" interpretation. What this version of Shu'ayb's story aims at is-as always in the Qur'an-the enunciation of a generally applicable principle of ethics: namely, the impossibility of one's being righteous with regard to God unless one is righteous - in both the moral and social senses of this word - in the realm of human relationships as well. This explains the insistence with which the above prohibition is re-stated in a positive form, as an injunction, in the next verse.
Shu`aib: One and the Same Message11:84 To Midyan we sent their brother Shu`aib. He said, "O my people, worship GOD; you have no other god beside Him. Do not cheat when you measure or weigh. I see that you are prosperous, and I fear for you the retribution of an overwhelming day.,
11:84 And to Midyan, We sent their brother Sho’aib. He said, "O My people! Serve God alone. There is no god for you but He. And do not give short measure and weight. I see that you are prosperous. But I fear for you a day that will surround you with chastisement."23
Any system based on injustice cannot endure
11:85 Waya qawmi awfoo almikyala waalmeezanabialqisti wala tabkhasoo alnnasaashyaahum wala taAAthaw fee al-ardimufsideena
11:85 "My people, give full measure and weight with justice, do not hold back from the people what is theirs, and do not roam the land corrupting."
11:85 "And my people, give full in the measure and the weight equitably, and do not hold back from the people what is theirs, and do not roam the land corrupting."
11:85 Hence, O my people, [always] give full measure and weight, with equity, and do not deprive people of what is rightfully theirs,118 and do not act wickedly on earth by spreading corruption.
See surah 7, note 68.
11:85 "O my people, you shall give full measure and full weight, equitably. Do not cheat the people out of their rights, and do not roam the earth corruptingly.,
11:85 "So, O My people! Always give full measure and weight with equity and do not deprive people of what is rightfully theirs. Do not spread corruption and disorder in the land.”
11:86 Baqiyyatu Allahi khayrun lakum inkuntum mu/mineena wama ana AAalaykum bihafeethin
11:86 "What will remain for you with God is far better if you are those who acknowledge. I am not a guardian over you."
11:86 "What will remain for you with God is far better if you are believers. And I am not a guardian over you."
11:86 That which rests with God119 is best for you, if you but believe [in Him]! However, I am not your keeper."
11:86 "Whatever GOD provides for you, no matter how small, is far better for you, if you are really believers. I am not a guardian over you.",
11:86 “That which God gives you as just profit is better for you if you believe. But I am not a guardian over you."
11:87 Qaloo ya shuAAaybu asalatukata/muruka an natruka ma yaAAbudu abaonaaw an nafAAala fee amwalina ma nashaoinnaka laanta alhaleemu alrrasheedu
11:87 They said, "O Shuayb, does your contact prayer order you that we leave what our fathers served, or that we do not do with our money as we please? You are the compassionate, the sane!"10
Sala prayer observed properly keeps away from immorality and crimes (29:45).
11:87 They said: "O Shu'ayb, does your contact prayer order you that we leave what our fathers served, or that we do not do with our money as we please? It seems only you are the compassionate, the wise!"
11:87 Said they: "O Shu'ayb! Does thy [habit of] praying compel thee to demand of us120 that we give up all that our forefathers were wont to worship, or that we refrain from doing whatever we please with our possessions ?121 Behold, [thou wouldst have us believe that] thou art indeed the only clement, the only right-minded man!"
Lit., "Do thy prayers command thee. . .", etc.
I.e., without regard to the rights and needs of others, especially the poor: hence their sarcastic reference, in the next sentence, to Shu'ayb's clemency and right-mindedness.
11:87 They said, "O Shu`aib, does your religion dictate upon you that we must abandon our parents' religion, or running our businesses in any manner we choose? Surely, you are known for being clement, wise.",
11:87 They said, "O Sho’aib! (We had thought that your religion was only a matter between you and your Lord.) Does your Salaat command you that we forsake what our fathers used to worship? Or, that we should give up doing what we like to do with our wealth and possessions? You, only you, are the clement, the rightly guided!"
11:88 Qala ya qawmi araaytum inkuntu AAala bayyinatin min rabbee warazaqanee minhu rizqanhasanan wama oreedu an okhalifakum ilama anhakum AAanhu in oreedu illa al-islahama istataAAtu wama tawfeeqee illa biAllahiAAalayhi tawakkaltu wa-ilayhi oneebu
11:88 He said, "O my people, do you see that if I am on clear evidence from my Lord, and He has provided me with good provision from Him, then I would not want to contradict by doing what I forbid you from. I only want to fix what I can, and my guidance is only with God. To Him I place my trust, and to Him I repent."
11:88 He said: "O my people, do you see that if I am on clear evidence from my Lord, and He has provided me with good provision from Him, then I would not want to contradict by doing what I am prohibiting you from. I only want to make right what I can, and my guidance is only with God. To Him I place my trust, and to Him I repent."
11:88 He answered: "O my people! What do you think? If [it be true that] I am taking my stand on a clear evidence from my Sustainer, who has vouchsafed me goodly sustenance [as a gift] from Himself - [how could I speak to you otherwise than I do]?122 And yet, I have no desire to do, out of opposition to you, what I am asking you not to do:123 I desire no more than to set things to rights in so far as it lies within my power; but the achievement of my aim depends on God alone. In Him have I placed my trust, and unto Him do I always turn!
According to Zamakhshari, Razi and several other commentators, the clause interpolated here between brackets is elliptically implied in Shu'ayb's answer. His stress on the fact that God has graced him amply with worldly goods is meant to remind his countrymen that it is not self-interest that causes him to ask them to be fair in their dealings with their fellow-men.
I.e., "I do not aim at depriving you of what is rightfully yours" - a reference to verse 85 above.
11:88 He said, "O my people, what if I have solid proof from my Lord; what if He has provided me with a great blessing? It is not my wish to commit what I enjoin you from. I only wish to correct as many wrongs as I can. My guidance depends totally on GOD; I have put my trust in Him. To Him I have totally submitted.,
11:88 He said, "O My people, think again! What if I am acting on a clear evidence from my Lord, and He has provided me with a decent sustenance? I deal in all fairness and I shall never preach what I do not practice behind your sight. I desire nothing but reform to the best of my power. All my resources, abilities, and success depend on God alone. In Him I trust and to Him I turn with hope.”
11:89 Waya qawmi la yajrimannakumshiqaqee an yuseebakum mithlu ma asabaqawma noohin aw qawma hoodin aw qawma salihinwama qawmu lootin minkum bibaAAeedin
11:89 "My people, let not your hatred towards me incriminate you that you suffer the fate of what afflicted the people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of Saleh; and the people of Lot were not far off from you."
11:89 "And my people, let not your hatred towards me incriminate you that you suffer the fate of what afflicted the people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of Saleh; and the people of Lot were not far off from you."
11:89 "And, O my people, let not [your] dissent from me drive you into sin, lest there befall you the like of what befell the people of Noah, or the people of Hud. or the people of Salih: and [remember that] the people of Lot lived not very far from you!"124
As pointed out in surah 7, note 67, the region inhabited by Shu'ayb's people extended from what is known today as the Gulf of `Aqabah to the mountains of Moab, east of the Dead Sea, in the vicinity of which Sodom and Gomorrah were situated.
11:89 "And, O my people, do not be provoked by your opposition to me into incurring the same disasters as the people of Noah, or the people of Hood, or the people of Saaleh; and the people of Lot are not too far from you.,
11:89 "O My people! Let not my disagreement with you be taken personally to cause you to persist in your guilt so that the same (retribution) befall you that befell the people of Noah, and the people of Hud, and the people of Saleh. And remember that the people of Lot did not live very far from you.”
11:90 Waistaghfiroo rabbakum thumma toobooilayhi inna rabbee raheemun wadoodun
11:90 "Seek forgiveness from your Lord then repent to Him. My Lord is Compassionate, Loving."
11:90 "And seek forgiveness from your Lord then repent to Him. My Lord is Merciful, Loving."
11:90 Hence, ask your Sustainer to forgive you your sins, and then turn towards Him in repentance - for, verily, my Sustainer is a dispenser of grace, a fount of love!"
11:90 "You shall implore your Lord for forgiveness, then repent to Him. My Lord is Most Merciful, Kind.",
11:90 (None of the communities was destroyed for a deficiency in their worship. They met destruction for violating human rights.) “Seek forgiveness of your Lord, then repent by journeying on the right path. You will experience that my Lord is Merciful, Loving." [14:8]
11:91 Qaloo ya shuAAaybu manafqahu katheeran mimma taqoolu wa-inna lanarakafeena daAAeefan walawla rahtukalarajamnaka wama anta AAalayna biAAazeezin
11:91 They said, "O Shuayb, we do not understand most of what you say, and we see you as weak amongst us. If it were not for who your family is, we would have stoned/rejected you, and you would not be proud against us."
11:91 They said: "O Shu'ayb, we do not understand most of what you say, and we see you as weak among us; and if it were not for who your family is, we would have stoned you, and you would not be proud against us."
11:91 [But his people] said: "O Shu'ayb! We cannot grasp the purport of much of what thou sayest;125 on the other hand, behold, we do see clearly how- weak thou art in our midst:"126 and were it not for thy family, we would have most certainly stoned thee to death, considering that thou hast no power over us!"
Cf. 6:25. In the present instance. however, the self-confessed lack of understanding on the part of the people of Madyan may have a more subjective meaning, similar to the half-indignant, half-embarrassed retort. "I don't know what you are talking about."
Lit., "we regard thee indeed as a weak one among us" -i.e., without any appreciable tribal support.
11:91 They said, "O Shu`aib, we do not comprehend many of the things you are telling us, and we see that you are powerless among us. If it were not for your tribe, we would have stoned you. You have no value for us.",
11:91 They said, "O Sho’aib! Much of what you tell us is beyond our comprehension. We see that you are not a man of power in our midst. If we were not concerned about your family and your tribe, we would have stoned you. You are of no value to us."
11:92 Qala ya qawmi arahteeaAAazzu AAalaykum mina Allahi waittakhathtumoohuwaraakum thihriyyan inna rabbee bimataAAmaloona muheetun
11:92 He said, "My people, is my family more important to you than God, while you have cast Him away behind your backs? My Lord is Encompassing over what you do."
11:92 He said: "My people, is who my family is more important to you than God, while you have cast Him away behind your backs? My Lord is encompassing what you do."
11:92 Said he: "O my people! Do you hold my family in greater esteem than God? -for, Him you regard as something that may be cast behind you and be forgotten!127 Verily, my Sustainer encompasses [with His might] all that you do!
In classical Arabic usage, as well as in the speech of certain bedouin tribes to this day, the phrase ittakhadhahu (or ja'lahu) zihriyyan (lit., "he put him behind his back") has the meaning of "he held him in contempt", or "he forgot him", or "regarded him as something that may be forgotten". This last rendering seems to be the most appropriate in the above context.
11:92 He said, "O my people, does my tribe command a greater respect than GOD? Is this why you have been heedless of Him? My Lord is fully aware of everything you do.,
11:92 He said, "O My people! Do my family and tribe command a greater respect than God? And you put Him behind you, neglected. Remember, my Lord surrounds all you do."
11:93 Waya qawmi iAAmaloo AAala makanatikuminnee AAamilun sawfa taAAlamoona man ya/teehi AAathabunyukhzeehi waman huwa kathibun wairtaqiboo innemaAAakum raqeebun
11:93 "My people, continue to act as you do, and I will act. You will then come to know to whom the humiliating retribution will come and who is the liar. Watch then, and I will watch with you."
11:93 "And my people, continue to act as you do, and I will act. You will then come to know to whom the retribution will come to humiliate him and who is the liar. Watch then, and I will watch with you."
11:93 Hence, O my people, do [to me] anything that may be within your power, [while] I, behold, shall labour [in God's way]; in time you will come to know which [of us] shall be visited by suffering that will cover him with ignominy, and which [of us] is a liar. Watch, then, [for what is coming:] behold, I shall watch with you!"
11:93 "O my people, go on doing what you wish, and so will I. You will certainly find out which of us will incur shameful retribution; you will find out who the liar is. Just wait in anticipation, and I will wait in anticipation along with you.",
11:93 "O My people! Do your utmost and so will I. Soon you will find out which of us will incur the chastisement of humiliation, and who is a liar. Just watch and I will be watching along with you.”
11:94 Walamma jaa amrunanajjayna shuAAayban waallatheena amanoomaAAahu birahmatin minna waakhathati allatheenathalamoo alssayhatu faasbahoofee diyarihim jathimeena
11:94 When Our command came, We saved Shuayb and those who acknowledged with him by a mercy from Us; and the scream took those who had wronged, so they lay motionless in their homes.
11:94 And when Our command came, We saved Shu'ayb and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us; and the scream took those who had wronged, thus they became lifeless in their homes.
11:94 And so, when Our judgment came to pass, by Our grace We saved Shu'ayb and those who shared his faith, whereas the blast [of Our punishment] overtook those who had been bent on evildoing: and then they lay lifeless, in their very homes, on the ground,128
See verse 67 of this surah and the corresponding note 98; also surah 7, note 73.
11:94 When our judgment came, we saved Shu`aib and those who believed with him, by mercy from us. As for the evil ones, they were struck by a disaster that left them dead in their homes.,
11:94 When Our command came to pass, We saved Sho’aib, and those who believed with him, by a mercy from Us. An awful blast seized the wrongdoers. The morning found them dead in their very homes, on the ground.24
Sho’aib and his companions had moved to safety as forewarned
11:95 Kaan lam yaghnaw feeha alabuAAdan limadyana kama baAAidat thamoodu
11:95 It is as if they never lived there. Away with Midian as it was away with Thamud.
11:95 It is as if they had never lived there. Away with Midyan as it was away with Thamud.
11:95 as though they had never lived there. Oh, away with [the people of] Madyan, even as the Thamud have been done away with!
11:95 It was as though they never existed. Thus, Midyan perished, just like Thamoud had perished before that.,
11:95 As if they had never lived there. Oh, away with Midyan, just as the Thamud have been done away with!
11:96 Walaqad arsalna moosa bi-ayatinawasultanin mubeenin
Moses to Egypt11:96 We sent Moses with Our signs and a clear authority.
11:96 And We sent Moses with Our signs and a clear authority.
11:96 AND, INDEED, We sent Moses with Our messages and a manifest authority [from Us]
Moses11:96 We sent Moses with our signs and a profound authority.,
11:96 We sent Moses with Our revelations and a manifest authority (of self-evident truth).
11:97 Ila firAAawna wamala-ihi faittabaAAooamra firAAawna wama amru firAAawna birasheedin
11:97 To Pharaoh and his entourage; but they followed the command of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh's command was not wise.
11:97 To Pharaoh and his commanders; but they followed the order of Pharaoh; and the order of Pharaoh was not wise.
11:97 unto Pharaoh and his great ones: but these followed [only] Pharaoh's bidding - and Pharaoh's bidding led by no means to what is right.129
Lit., "was not right-guided (rashid)". The short passage dealing with Pharaoh and his followers. (verses 96-99) connects with, and amplifies, the reference to the tribe of `Ad, who "followed the bidding of every arrogant enemy of the truth" (verse 59 of this surah). Thus, the main point of this passage is the problem of immoral leadership and, arising from it, the problem of man's individual, moral responsibility for wrongs committed in obedience to a "higher authority". The Qur'an answers this question emphatically in the affirmative: the leader and the led are equally guilty, and none can be absolved of responsibility on the plea that he was but blindly following orders given by those above him. This indirect allusion to man's relative free will - i.e., his freedom of choice between right and wrong-fittingly concludes the stories of the earlier prophets and their wrongdoing communities as narrated in this surah.
11:97 To Pharaoh and his elders. But they followed the command of Pharaoh, and Pharaoh's command was not wise.,
11:97 To Pharaoh and his chiefs. They followed only the command of Pharaoh, and his command did not lead to right.
11:98 Yaqdumu qawmahu yawma alqiyamatifaawradahumu alnnara wabi/sa alwirdu almawroodu
11:98 He will be at the head of his people on the day of Resurrection, and he will lead them to the fire. What a miserable place they are lead in!
11:98 He will be at the head of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and he will lead them to the Fire. What a miserable place they will be brought in!
11:98 [And so] he shall go before his people on the Day of Resurrection, having led them [in this world] towards the fire [of the life to come]; and vile was the destination towards which they were led -
11:98 He will lead his people on the Day of Resurrection, all the way to Hell; what a miserable abode to live in!,
11:98 Pharaoh will go before his people on the Day of Resurrection, and lead them into the fire. What a miserable place to land! [14:28]
11:99 WaotbiAAoo fee hathihi laAAnatanwayawma alqiyamati bi/sa alrrifdu almarfoodu
11:99 They were followed by a curse in this, and on the day of Resurrection. What a miserable path to follow!
11:99 And they were followed by a curse in this one, and on the Day of Resurrection. What a miserable path to follow!
11:99 seeing that they were pursued by [God's] rejection in this [world], and [shall be finally overtaken by it] on the Day of Resurrection;130 [and] vile was the gift which they were given!
See note 37 on the last clause of verse 18 of this surah, as well as verse 60, which refers in identical terms to the destiny of the tribe of 'Ad.
11:99 They have incurred condemnation in this life, as well as on the Day of Resurrection; what a miserable path to follow!,
11:99 Divine rejection was made to follow them in this world and will overcome them on the Day of Resurrection. Contemptible is the gift that will be given to them.
11:100 Thalika min anba-i alquranaqussuhu AAalayka minha qa-imun wahaseedun
11:100 That is from the news of the towns which We relate to you; some are still standing and some have been wiped-out.
11:100 That is from the news of the towns which We tell to you; some are still standing and some have been wiped out.
11:100 THIS ACCOUNT131 of the [fate of those ancient] communities - some of them still remaining, and some [extinct like] a field mown-down - We convey unto thee [as a lesson for mankind]:132
Lit., "This of the accounts" (a construction identical with that employed in 3:44, 11:49 and 12:102), alluding to the fact that only certain aspects of the relevant stories, and not the complete stories as such, are presented here (cf. verse 120 below): the purpose being, as always in the Qur'an, the illustration of an ethical principle or principles, and of men's varying reactions to the guidance which God offers them directly through His prophets and indirectly through the observable phenomena of His creation. (See in this connection the second part of note 73 on verse '`> of this surah.)
See preceding note.
Lessons to be Learned11:100 This is news from the past communities that we narrate to you. Some are still standing, and some have vanished.,
11:100 (O Messenger), this is news from only a few of the past communities that We narrate to you. Some of them are merely surviving and some have vanished.
11:101 Wama thalamnahumwalakin thalamoo anfusahum famaaghnat AAanhum alihatuhumu allatee yadAAoona min dooni Allahimin shay-in lamma jaa amru rabbika wama zadoohumghayra tatbeebin
11:101 We did not wrong them, but they wronged themselves. Their gods that they called on besides God did not rescue them at all when your Lord's command came, and they only added to their destruction.
11:101 And We had not wronged them, but they had wronged themselves; their gods that they called on besides God did not rescue them at all when the command of your Lord came, and they only added to their destruction.
11:101 for, no wrong did We do to them, but it was they who wronged themselves. And when thy Sustainer's judgment came to pass, those deities of theirs which they had been wont to invoke instead of God proved of no avail whatever to them, and brought them no more than utter perdition.
11:101 We never wronged them; they wronged their own souls. Their gods, whom they invoked beside GOD, could not help them in the least when the judgment of your Lord came. In fact, they only ensured their doom.,
11:101 We did no injustice to them, but they wronged themselves. And when the command of your Lord came to pass, their gods whom they called besides God availed them not. They only added to their ruin.
11:102 Wakathalika akhthu rabbika ithaakhatha alqura wahiya thalimatuninna akhthahu aleemun shadeedun
11:102 Such is the taking of your Lord when He takes the towns while they are wicked. His taking is painful, severe.
11:102 And such is the seizing of your Lord when He seizes the towns while they are wicked. His taking is painful, severe.
11:102 And such is thy Sustainer's punishing grasp whenever He takes to task any community that is given to evildoing: verily, His punishing grasp is grievous, severe!
11:102 Such was the retribution enforced by your Lord when the communities transgressed. Indeed, His retribution is painful, devastating.,
11:102 Such is the grasp of your Lord's Law of Requital on townships when they run oppressive systems. His grasp is painful, strong.
11:103 Inna fee thalika laayatanliman khafa AAathaba al-akhirati thalikayawmun majmooAAun lahu alnnasu wathalikayawmun mashhoodun
11:103 In this is a sign for he who fears the retribution of the Hereafter. That is a day to which all the people will be gathered, and that is a day which shall be witnessed.
11:103 In this is a sign for he who fears the retribution of the Hereafter. That is a Day towards which all the people will be gathered, and that is a Day which will be witnessed.
11:103 Herein, behold, lies a message indeed for all who fear the suffering [which may befall them] in the life to come, (and are conscious of the coming of] that Day on which all mankind shall be gathered together-that Day [of Judgment] which shall be witnessed [by all that ever lived],
11:103 This should be a lesson for those who fear the retribution of the Hereafter. That is a day when all the people will be summoned - a day to be witnessed.,
11:103 Herein, certainly is a lesson for those who fear the suffering of the life to come. That is a Day when all mankind will be gathered, and that is a Day that will be witnessed by all that ever lived. And the results of all actions will become manifest.
11:104 Wama nu-akhkhiruhu illali-ajalin maAAdoodin
11:104 We do not delay it except to a term already prepared for.
11:104 And We do not delay it except to a term already prepared for.
11:104 and which We shall not delay beyond a term set [by Us].133
Lit., "except till a term computed [by Us]".
11:104 We have appointed a specific time for it to take place.,
11:104 And We defer that Day only to a specified time.
11:105 Yawma ya/ti la takallamu nafsun illabi-ithnihi faminhum shaqiyyun wasaAAeedin
11:105 On the day it comes, no person will speak to another except by His leave. Some of them will be distraught, some will be happy.
11:105 On the Day it comes, no person will speak except with His permission. Some of them will be distraught, some will be happy.
11:105 When that Day comes, not a soul will speak. unless it be by His leave; and of those [that are gathered together], some will be wretched and some, happy.
11:105 The day it comes to pass, no soul will utter a single word, except in accordance with His will. Some will be miserable, and some will be happy.,
11:105 On that Day, when it comes, no one will speak except by His Leave. Some of them will be sad, others glad.25
The sad ones will be devoid of blessings, and the glad ones will enjoy all bounties of the eternal life. 36:59
11:106 Faamma allatheena shaqoofafee alnnari lahum feeha zafeerun washaheequn
11:106 As for those who are distraught, they will be in the fire; in it for them is a sighing and a wailing.
11:106 As for those who are distraught, they will be in the Fire; in it for them is a sighing and a wailing.
11:106 Now as for those who [by their deeds] will have brought wretchedness upon them-selves, [they shall live] in the fire, where they will have [nothing but] moans and sobs [to relieve their pain],
11:106 As for the miserable ones, they will be in Hell, wherein they sigh and wail.,
11:106 Those who, by their deeds, brought misery on themselves will be in the fire, sighing and wailing will be their portion. [21:100]
11:107 Khalideena feeha ma damatialssamawatu waal-ardu illama shaa rabbuka inna rabbaka faAAAAalun limayureedu
11:107 They will abide in it as long as the heavens and earth exist, except for what your Lord wishes. Your Lord does as He pleases.
11:107 Abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth exist, except for what your Lord wishes. Your Lord does as He pleases.
11:107 therein to abide as long as the heavens and the earth endure-unless thy Sustainer wills it otherwise:134 for, verily, thy Sustainer is a sovereign doer of whatever He wills.
I.e., unless God wills to reprieve them (cf. the last paragraph of 6:128 and the corresponding note 114, as well as note 10 on 40:12). The phrase "as long as the heavens and the earth endure" has caused some perplexity to most of the classical commentators in view of the many Qur'anic statements to the effect that the world as we know it will come to an end on the Last Day, which is synonymous with the Day of Resurrection. This difficulty, however, can be resolved if we remember - as Tabari points out in his commentary on the above verse - that in ancient Arabic usage the expressions "as long as the heavens and the earth endure", or "as long as night and day alternate", etc., were used metonymically in the sense of "time beyond count" (abad). See also 20:105 and the corresponding note 90, as well as note 63 on 14:48.
11:107 Eternally they abide therein, for as long as the heavens and the earth endure, in accordance with the will of your Lord. Your Lord is doer of whatever He wills.,
11:107 Therein to abide, as long as the (New) Universe endures; that is time beyond count, unless your Lord decrees otherwise. Your Lord is Doer of what He wills in the World of Command.26
11:108 Waamma allatheena suAAidoofafee aljannati khalideena feeha ma damatialssamawatu waal-ardu illama shaa rabbuka AAataan ghayra majthoothin
11:108 As for those who are fortunate, they will be in paradise; in it they will abide as long as the heavens and earth exist, except for what your Lord wishes, a giving without end.11
After the end of the world, the earth together with the universe will be recreated anew (14:48).
11:108 As for those who are happy, they will be in the Paradise; abiding therein as long as the heavens and the earth exist, except for what your Lord wishes, a giving without end.
11:108 But as for those who [by virtue of their past deeds] will have been blest with happiness, [they shall live] in paradise, therein to abide as long as the heavens and the earth endure -unless thy Sustainer wills it otherwise135 -as a gift unceasing.
Le., unless God wills to bestow on them a yet greater reward (Razi; also Manar XII, 161); or - which to my mind is more probable - unless He opens up to man a new, yet higher stage of evolution.
11:108 As for the fortunate ones, they will be in Paradise. Eternally they abide therein, for as long as the heavens and the earth endure, in accordance with the will of your Lord - an everlasting reward.,
11:108 The happy ones on that Day will enter the Garden and live there as long as the (New) Universe endures, that is time beyond count; until your Lord opens for them the way to further evolution, a gift unfailing.
11:109 Fala taku fee miryatin mimmayaAAbudu haola-i ma yaAAbudoona illakama yaAAbudu abaohum min qablu wa-innalamuwaffoohum naseebahum ghayra manqoosin
11:109 So do not be in doubt as to what these men serve. They serve nothing but what their fathers before them served. We will give them their recompense in full.
11:109 So do not be in doubt as to what these people serve. They serve nothing except what their fathers before them served. We will give them their recompense in full.
11:109 AND SO, [O Prophet,] be not in doubt about anything that those [misguided people] worship:136 they but [thoughtlessly] worship as their forefathers worshipped aforetime; and, behold, We shall most certainly give them their full due [for whatever good or evil they have earned], without diminishing aught thereof.137
I.e., "do not think that their beliefs are based on reason": a reference, primarily, to the pagan Arabs who - like the wrongdoers spoken of in the preceding passages - rejected God's message on the plea that it conflicted with their ancestral beliefs; and, more generally, to all people who are accustomed to worship.(in the widest sense of this word) false values handed down from their ancestors and who, consequently, observe false standards of morality: an attitude which must unavoidably - as the last sentence of this verse shows - result in future suffering, be it in this world or in the hereafter, or in both.
Lit., "We shall repay them their portion in full, undiminished". For an explanation of this sentence, see note 27 on verses 15-16 of this surah.
Following Our Parents Blindly A Great Human Tragedy11:109 Do not have any doubt regarding what these people worship; they worship exactly as they found their parents worshipping. We will requite them their due share fully, without reduction.,
11:109 Be not in doubt about the end of those who worship idols in any form. They only blindly follow their forefathers. They and their forefathers will get their due portion according to Our law.
11:110 Walaqad atayna moosaalkitaba faikhtulifa feehi walawla kalimatunsabaqat min rabbika laqudiya baynahum wa-innahum lafeeshakkin minhu mureebun
11:110 We have given Moses the book, yet they disputed in it; and had it not been for a word which was already given by your Lord, their case would have been judged immediately. They are in grave doubt concerning it.
11:110 And We gave Moses the Book, yet they disputed in it; and had it not been for a word which was already given by your Lord, their case would have been judged immediately. They are in grave doubt concerning it.
11:110 And, indeed, [similar was the case when] We vouchsafed the divine writ unto Moses, and some of his people set their own views against it;138 and had it not been for a decree that had already gone forth from thy Sustainer, judgment would indeed have been passed on them [then and there]:139 for, behold, they were in grave doubt, amounting to suspicion, about him [who called them unto God].140
Lit., "and it was disagreed upon", or "discordant views came to be held about it": meaning that, like Muhammad's early contemporaries, some of Moses' people accepted the divine writ, whereas others refused to submit to its guidance.
Lit., "it would indeed have been decided between them" - i.e., they would have been punished, like those communities of old, by utter destruction, had it not been for God's decree (kalimah, lit., "word") that their punishment should be deferred until the Day of Resurrection (cf. the last sentence of 10:93 and the corresponding note 114).
Cf. 2:55 - "O Moses, indeed we shall not believe thee until we see God face to face!"
11:110 We have given Moses the scripture, but it was disputed, and if it were not for a predetermined word decreed by your Lord, they would have been judged immediately. They are full of doubt about this, suspicious.,
11:110 People differed even when Moses was given the scripture. Had it not been for a Word that had already gone forth from your Lord, the matter would have been judged between them then and there. They are still in doubt, amounting to suspicion, concerning it.27
The Word that the Final revelation Al-Qur’an, will come forth with perfected message
11:111 Wa-inna kullan lammalayuwaffiyannahum rabbuka aAAmalahum innahu bimayaAAmaloona khabeerun
11:111 To each your Lord will recompense their works. He is Ever-Aware of what they do.
11:111 And to each your Lord will recompense their works. He is expert in what they do.
11:111 And, verily, unto each and all will thy Sustainer give their full due for whatever [good or evil] they may have done: behold, He is aware of all that they do!
11:111 Your Lord will surely recompense everyone for their works. He is fully Cognizant of everything they do.,
11:111 Unto each your Lord will certainly repay his works. He is fully Aware of what they do.
11:112 Faistaqim kama omirta waman tabamaAAaka wala tatghaw innahu bima taAAmaloonabaseerun
11:112 So stand straight as you were commanded together with those who repented with you and do not transgress. He is watcher over what you do.
11:112 So stand straight as you were commanded, and those who have repented with you, and do not transgress. He is Seer over what you do.
11:112 Pursue, then, the right course, as thou hast been bidden [by God], together with all who, with thee, have turned unto Him; and let none of you behave in an overweening manner:141 for, verily, He sees all that you do.
Explaining this injunction, expressed in the second person plural, Ibn Kathir points out that it is addressed to all believers, and that it refers to their behaviour towards everyone, be he believer or unbeliever; in this he obviously relies on the interpretation advanced by Ibn 'Abbas (and quoted by Razi): "It means, `Be humble before God and do not behave with false pride towards anyone'." According to some later commentators (e.g., Tabari, Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Razi), the meaning is wider, namely, "do not overstep the bounds of what God has ordained", or "do not exceed the limits of equity".
11:112 Therefore, continue on the path you have been enjoined to follow, together with those who repented with you, and do not transgress. He is Seer of everything you do.,
11:112 Therefore, (O Prophet) stand firm as you are commanded, along with those who turn to God with you. Remember to be moderate in all your actions. He is watching all that you do.
11:113 Wala tarkanoo ila allatheenathalamoo fatamassakumu alnnaru wamalakum min dooni Allahi min awliyaa thumma latunsaroona
11:113 You shall not lean towards those who have wronged, else you will incur the fire; and you will not have besides God any allies, and you will not be victorious.
11:113 And do not lean towards those who have wronged else you will incur the Fire; and you will not have besides God any allies, and you will not be victorious.
11:113 And do not incline towards, nor rely upon, those who are bent on evildoing142 lest the fire [of the hereafter] touch you: for [then] you would have none to protect you from God, nor would you ever be succoured [by Him].143
The verb rakana comprises the concepts of inclining (in one's feelings or opinions) towards, as well as of relying on, someone or something, and cannot be translated by a single word; hence my composite rendering of the phrase la tarkanu. The use of the past tense in alladhina zalamu indicates-as is often the case in the Qur'an-deliberate and persistent evildoing; this term is, therefore, suitably rendered as "those who are bent on evildoing".
According to Zamakhshari, the particle thumma at the beginning of this last clause does not signify a sequence in time ("and then" or "afterwards") but, rather, a stress on the impossibility (istib'ad) of their ever being succoured by God.
11:113 Do not lean towards those who have transgressed, lest you incur Hell, and find no allies to help you against GOD, then end up losers.,
11:113 Do not be intimidated by the oppressors and guard yourself against even a touch of the fire. Remember, there are no protectors to help you against the laws of God. And then you will not be helped in any way.
11:114 Waaqimi alssalata tarafayialnnahari wazulafan mina allayli inna alhasanatiyuthhibna alssayyi-ati thalika thikralilththakireena
Times of the Contact Prayers11:114 You shall hold the contact prayer at both ends of the day, that is, section of the night. The good deeds take away the bad. This is a reminder for those who remember.12
In the Quranic Arabic, the word layl denotes the period from sunset to sunrise (2:187). The times of the evening and dawn prayers extend from the proximate edges of night to both ends of the day. The Quran provides detailed information about sala prayer. This verse, according to the popular reading, refers to three sala prayers. Some students of the Quran understand five times rather than three times for contact prayers. There are some who have inferred two prayers a day. However, as the detected and undetected influence of sectarian teachings and practices wanes with time, the disagreement on this issue may lead to a better understanding. We should respect the differences in our understanding, as long as they are based on the Quran under the light of reason. See the Appendix Sala Prayer According to the Quran.
11:114 And hold the contact prayer at two parts of the day, and the near part of the night. The good deeds take away the bad. This is a reminder to those who remember.
11:114 And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end144 of the day, as well as during the early watches of the night:145 for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear [God] in mind.
Lit., "at the two ends".
This injunction circumscribes all the obligatory prayers without specifying either their form or the exact times of their performance, both of which are clearly laid down in the sunnah (i.e., the authenticated sayings and the practice) of the Prophet: namely, at dawn (fajr), shortly after mid-day (zuhr), in the afternoon (`asr), immediately after sunset (maghrib), and in the first part of the night (`isha'). Inasmuch as the above verse stresses the paramount importance of prayer in general, it is safe to assume that it refers not merely to the five obligatory prayers but to a remembrance of God at all times of one's wakeful life.
Three of the Five Prayers11:114 You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) at both ends of the day, and during the night. The righteous works wipe out the evil works. This is a reminder for those who would take heed.,
11:114 Strive to establish and consolidate the Divine System, day and night. Actions that create balance in the society remove the ill effects of inequities. Good deeds remove bad deeds. This is a reminder for those who will remember.
11:115 Waisbir fa-inna Allahala yudeeAAu ajra almuhsineena
11:115 Be patient, for God does not waste the reward of the good doers.
11:115 And be patient, for God does not waste the reward of the good doers.
11:115 And be patient in adversity: for, verily,. God does not fail to requite the doers of good!
11:115 You shall steadfastly persevere, for GOD never fails to recompense the righteous.,
11:115 Resort to patience and steadfastness, for, God never fails to reward the doers of good.28
Patience and steadfastness never go unrewarded
11:116 Falawla kana mina alquroonimin qablikum oloo baqiyyatin yanhawna AAani alfasadi feeal-ardi illa qaleelan mimman anjayna minhumwaittabaAAa allatheena thalamoo maotrifoo feehi wakanoo mujrimeena
11:116 If only there was from the previous generations a people with wisdom who deterred from the corruption on earth, except the few that We saved of them. Those who were wicked followed the enjoyment they were in, and they were criminal.
11:116 If only there was from the previous generations a people with wisdom who prohibited corruption on the earth, except the few that We saved of them. And those who were wicked followed the enjoyment they were in, and they were criminal.
11:116 BUT, ALAS, among those generations [whom We destroyed] before your time there were no people endowed with any virtue146 - [people] who would speak out against the [spread of] corruption on earth -except the few of them whom We saved [because of their righteousness], whereas those who were bent on evildoing only pursued pleasures which corrupted their whole being,147 and so lost themselves in sinning.
For my rendering of the particle law-la, at the beginning of this sentence, as "alas", see surah 10, note 119. The present passage connects with the statement in the preceding verse, "God does not fail to requite the doers of good", as well as with verse 111 above, "unto each and all will thy Sustainer give their due for whatever [good or evil] they may have done". - For the wider implications of the term garn ("generation"), see surah 6, note 5.
The verb tarifa means "he enjoyed a life of ease and plenty", while the participle mutraf denotes "one who enjoys a life of ease and plenty" or "indulges in the pleasures of life", i.e., to the exclusion of moral considerations. The form mutarraf has an additional significance, namely, "one whom a life of softness and ease has caused to behave insolently", or "one whom the [exclusive] pursuit of the pleasures of life has corrupted" (Mughni ). Hence my above rendering of the phrase ma utrifu fihi.
11:116 If only some of those among the previous generations possessed enough intelligence to forbid evil! Only a few of them deserved to be saved by us. As for the transgressors, they were preoccupied with their material luxuries; they were guilty.,
11:116 But, sadly for them! Among the generations before your time, only a few were virtuous enough to discourage disorder in the land. We saved those few, whereas those who continued to violate human rights only pursued material riches. And they were guilty of stealing the fruit of others’ labor (and they were requited).29
Zulm = Displacing something from its rightful place = Wrongdoing = Violation of human rights. Mujrimeen = Criminals = Guilty = Those who thrive on the fruit of others’ toil
11:117 Wama kana rabbuka liyuhlikaalqura bithulmin waahluha muslihoona
11:117 Your Lord would not destroy the towns wrongfully, while its people were good doers.
11:117 And your Lord will not destroy the towns unjustly, while its people are good doers.
11:117 For, never would thy Sustainer destroy a community148 for wrong [beliefs alone] so long as its people behave righteously [towards one another].149
See surah 6, note 116.
This passage connects with the concluding clause of the preceding verse, "and lost themselves in sinning". According to most of the classical commentators, the term zulm (lit., "wrong" or "evildoing") is in this context synonymous with "wrong beliefs" amounting to a denial of the truths revealed by God through His prophets, a refusal to acknowledge His existence, or the ascribing of divine powers or qualities to anyone or anything beside Him. Explaining the above verse in this sense, Razi says: "God's chastisement does not afflict any people merely on -account of their holding beliefs amounting to shirk and kufr, but afflicts them only if they persistently commit evil in their mutual dealings, and deliberately hurt (other human beings] and act tyranically [towards them]. Hence, those who are learned in Islamic Law (al-fugaha') hold that men's obligations towards God rest on the principle of [His] forgiveness and liberality, whereas the rights of man are of a stringent nature and must always be strictly observed" - the obvious reason being that God is almighty and needs no defender, whereas man is weak and needs protection. (Cf. the last sentence of 28:59 and the corresponding note 61.)
11:117 Your Lord never annihilates any community unjustly, while its people are righteous.,
11:117 Your Lord never destroys a community unjustly (for their wrong beliefs alone) as long as its people are setting things right.30
The Qur’an is consistent in its theme that people will be rewarded for what they do Ya’maloon, and not for what they know Ya’lamoon. The Book stresses on the right belief system only because people are strongly influenced in their behavior by what they think and believe. Muslihoon = Reformers = Those who help their own and fellow humans’ condition = Those who set things right in their environment. This is one of the most important verses in the Qur’an. It throws out all dogmatic assertions that are the hallmark of a ‘religion’. As we have seen, Islam is not a ‘religion’ consisting merely of a set of some dogmas, rites and rituals. It is Ad-Deen, the Divinely Prescribed System of Life
11:118 Walaw shaa rabbuka lajaAAala alnnasaommatan wahidatan wala yazaloonamukhtalifeena
11:118 Had your Lord wished, He could have made all the people one nation, but they still would continue to disagree;
11:118 And if your Lord had wished, He could have made all the people one nation, but they still would have continued to disagree.
11:118 And had thy Sustainer so willed, He could surely have made all mankind one single community: but [He willed it otherwise, and so] they continue to hold divergent views'150
Le., about everything, even about the truths revealed to them by God. - For a discussion of the term ummah wahidah ("one single community") and its wider implications, see surah 2, notes 197 and 198; the second part of 2:253 and the corresponding note 245; and the second part of 5:48 and the corresponding notes 66 and 67. Thus, the Qur'an stresses once again that the unceasing differentiation in men's views and ideas is not incidental but represents a God-willed, basic factor of human existence. If God had willed that all human beings should be of one persuasion, all intellectual progress would have been ruled out, and "they would have been similar in their social life to the bees and the ants, while in their spiritual life they would have been like the angels, constrained by their nature always to believe in what is true and always to obey God" (Manar XII, 193) - that is to say, devoid of that relative free will which enables man to choose between right and wrong and thus endows his life - in distinction from all other sentient beings - with a moral meaning and a unique spiritual potential.
Why Were We Created11:118 Had your Lord willed, all the people would have been one congregation (of believers). But they will always dispute (the truth).,
11:118 Had your Lord so willed, He could have made all mankind one single community, (but He has granted them free will as against other creatures who are driven by instinct). Therefore, they will continue to hold divergent views. [5:48]
11:119 Illa man rahima rabbuka walithalikakhalaqahum watammat kalimatu rabbika laamlaanna jahannama minaaljinnati waalnnasi ajmaAAeena
11:119 Except whom your Lord has mercy upon; and for that He has created them. The word of your Lord came true: "I will fill hell with the Jinn and the humans together!"13
God has given us a second chance to redeem ourselves in this world. Those who enter the hell are those who choose it on their own will.
11:119 Except whom your Lord has mercy upon; and for that He has created them. And the word of your Lord came true: "I will fill Hell with the Jinn and the people together!"
11:119 [all of them,] save those upon whom thy Sustainer has bestowed His grace.151 And to this end has He created them [all.152 But [as for those who refuse to avail themselves of divine guidance,] that word of thy Sustainer shall be fulfilled: "Most certainly will I fill hell with invisible beings as well as with humans, all together!"153
Le., those who avail themselves of His grace, consisting of the God-given ability to realize His existence (cf. 7:172 and the corresponding note 139) and the guidance which He offers to mankind through His prophets (Razi).
Some of the earliest commentators (e.g., Mujahid and `Ikrimah) are of the opinion that the expression li-dhalika (rendered by me as "to this end") refers to God's bestowal of His grace upon man, while others (e.g., Al-Hasan and 'Ata) relate it to men's ability to differ intellectually from one another. According to Zamakhshari, it refers to the freedom of moral choice which characterizes man and is spoken of in the preceding passages: and since it is this freedom which constitutes God's special gift to man and raises him above all other created beings (cf. the parable of Adam and the angels in 2:30), Zamakhshari's interpretation is, in my opinion, the most comprehensive of all.
The "word of God" reiterated here as well as in 32:13 has originally been pronounced in 7:18 with reference to the "followers of Satan", i.e., those who reject the guidance offered them by God; hence my interpolation at the beginning of the paragraph. As regards the meaning of jinn (rendered by me in this and similar instances as "invisible beings"), see Appendix III.
11:119 Only those blessed with mercy from your Lord (will not dispute the truth). This is why He created them. The judgment of your Lord has already been issued: "I will fill Hell with jinns and humans, all together.",7
God does not put a single person in Hell; they choose and insist upon going to Hell.
11:119 Except those on whom your Lord will bestow His grace (for working toward the noble objective of unity). And for this He created them. Those who defy (this command) will fulfill the Word of your Lord, “Surely, I shall fill Hell with the nomad and urban mankind all together.”
11:120 Wakullan naqussu AAalayka min anba-ialrrusuli ma nuthabbitu bihi fu-adaka wajaakafee hathihi alhaqqu wamawAAithatun wathikralilmu/mineena
11:120 All the news of the messengers that we relate to you is to strengthen your heart. In this has come to you the truth and a lesson and a reminder for those who acknowledge.
11:120 And We tell to you from the news of the messengers with which We strengthen your heart. In this has come to you the truth and a lesson and a reminder for the believers.
11:120 AND [remember:] out of all the accounts relating to the [earlier] apostles We convey unto thee [only] that wherewith We [aim to] make firm thy heart:154 for through these [accounts] comes the truth unto thee, as well as an admonition and a reminder unto all believers.
Le., the Qur'an does not intend to present those stories as such, but uses them (or, rather, relevant parts of them) as illustrations of moral truths and as a means to strengthen the faith of the believer (see the second part of note 73 as well as note 131 above).
11:120 We narrate to you enough history of the messengers to strengthen your heart. The truth has come to you herein, as well as enlightenments and reminders for the believers.,
11:120 (O Messenger) all that We relate to you of the history of some Messengers, is in order to strengthen your heart. Although through these accounts the truth comes to you, but it is also meant to be an enlightenment and reminder for all believers in this Divine Writ.
11:121 Waqul lillatheena layu/minoona iAAmaloo AAala makanatikum innaAAamiloona
11:121 Say to those who do not acknowledge: "Continue to do what you will, we will also do.”
11:121 And say to those who do not believe: "Continue to do what you will, we will also do."
11:121 And say unto those who will not believe: "Do anything that may be within your power, [while] we, behold, shall labour [in God's way];
11:121 Say to those who disbelieve, "Do whatever you can, and so will we.,
11:121 And tell those who adamantly disbelieve, “Do anything that may be in your power, while we shall labor (in God’s way.)”
11:122 Waintathiroo innamuntathiroona
11:122 "Wait, for we are also waiting."
11:122 "And wait, for we are also waiting."
11:122 and wait [for what is coming]: behold, we too are waiting!"
11:122 "Then wait; we too will wait.",
11:122 And tell them, “And wait for what is coming. Indeed, we are also waiting.”
11:123 Walillahi ghaybu alssamawatiwaal-ardi wa-ilayhi yurjaAAu al-amru kulluhu faoAAbudhuwatawakkal AAalayhi wama rabbuka bighafilin AAammataAAmaloona
11:123 To God is the unseen of heavens and earth, and to Him all matters return. So serve Him and put your trust in Him. Your Lord is not unaware of what you all do.
11:123 And to God is the unseen of the heavens and the earth, and to Him all matters return. So serve Him and put your trust in Him. Your Lord is not unaware of what you all do.
11:123 And God alone comprehends the hidden reality of the heavens and the earth:155 for, all that exists goes back to Him [as its source]. Worship Him, then, and place thy trust in Him alone: for thy Sustainer is not unaware of what you do.
Lit., "God's is [the knowledge of] the hidden reality of...", etc. For this meaning of the term al-ghayb, see note 3 on 2:3.
11:123 To GOD belongs the future of the heavens and the earth, and all matters are controlled by Him. You shall worship Him and trust in Him. Your Lord is never unaware of anything you do.,
11:123 And God alone comprehends the hidden reality of the heavens and earth. For, all that exists goes back to Him as its Source. Serve Him, then, and place your trust in Him alone. Your Lord is not unaware of what you do.