بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
14:1 Alif-lam-ra kitabunanzalnahu ilayka litukhrija alnnasa mina alththulumatiila alnnoori bi-ithni rabbihim ila siratialAAazeezi alhameedi
14:1 A1L30R200. A book which We have sent down to you so that you may take the people out of the darkness and into the light, by their Lord's leave, to the path of the Noble, the Praiseworthy.1
14:1 ALR, a Book which We have sent down to you so that you may bring the people out of the darkness and into the light with the permission of their Lord, to the path of the Noble, the Praiseworthy.
14:1 Alif. Lam. Ra.1 A DIVINE WRIT [is this -a revelation] which We have bestowed upon thee from on high in order that thou might bring forth all mankind, by their Sustainer's leave, out of the depths of darkness into the light: onto the way that leads to the Almighty, the One to whom all praise is due -
See Appendix II; also surah 11, note 1.
14:1 A.L.R. A1 scripture that we revealed to you, in order to lead the people out of darkness into the light - in accordance with the will of their Lord - to the path of the Almighty, the Praiseworthy.,
These initials remained a divinely guarded secret until the Quran's mathematical code was discovered in 1974 A.D. See Appendix 1 for the significanceof these initials.
14:1 A.L.R. Alif–Laam–Ra (Allah, Lateef the Unfathomable, Raaziq the Provider, states that), A Divine Writ this is that We have revealed to you (O Prophet) so that you may bring forth all mankind, by their Lord’s leave, out of darkness into light. On to the way that leads to the Almighty, the Owner of all praise. [14:5, 33:43]1
This is the 14th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 52 verses. Prophet Abraham lived around 2000 BC in Ur, Babylon (Mesopotamia, now Iraq), Can’aan (Palestine), and later in Makkah. He is the ancestor of Jews, and Arabs, and ideologically, of all Christians and Muslims. Isaac was his son from Sarah, and Ishmael was his son from Hagar (Haajirah) From his son Isaac descended Jacob (Israel) and the Children of Israel. Through his other son, Ishmael descended the Arabs and God’s last Messenger, Muhammad, the exalted.
Abraham's father Azar, as the Chief Priest, was the most powerful man in Babylon, next only to the King. As the progeny of Azar, Abraham and Ishmael were entitled to the luxurious and powerful office of the Chief Priesthood in the court of King Nimrod. But they sacrificed all temptation in order to follow the commands of God and strove to establish True Monotheism wherever they lived.
Midyan was another of Prophet Abraham's son from his third wife, Qatoora. His progeny had settled in the Arabian Peninsula as well, and Prophet Sho’aib (Jethro) was sent to the Midyanites during the times of Moses]
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
14:2 Allahi allathee lahu mafee alssamawati wama fee al-ardiwawaylun lilkafireena min AAathabin shadeedin
14:2 God, to whom belongs all that is in the heavens, and all that is in the earth. Woe to the ingrates from a painful retribution.
14:2 God, to whom belong all that is in the heavens and the earth. And woe to the rejecters from a severe retribution.
14:2 to God, unto whom all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth belongs. But woe unto those who deny the truth: for suffering severe
14:2 (The path of) GOD; the One who possesses everything in the heavens and everything on earth. Woe to the disbelievers; they have incurred a terrible retribution.,
14:2 God to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth. Therefore, those who reject His guidance, incur an awful retribution.2
His commands must govern human social order as they govern the Universe
14:3 Allatheena yastahibboona alhayataalddunya AAala al-akhirati wayasuddoonaAAan sabeeli Allahi wayabghoonaha AAiwajan ola-ikafee dalalin baAAeedin
14:3 The ones who have preferred the worldly life over the Hereafter, and they repel away from the path of God, and they seek its distortion. Those are the ones who are in misguidance.
14:3 The ones who have preferred the worldly life over the Hereafter, and they repel from the path of God, and they seek to make it crooked. Those are the ones who are in misguidance.
14:3 awaits those who choose the life of this world as the sole object of their love,2 preferring it to [all thought of] the life to come, and who turn others away from the path of God and try to make it appear crooked. Such as these have indeed gone far astray!
According to Zamakhshari and Razi, this is the real meaning of the verbal form yastahibbun in the above context-implying that such an all-absorbing, exclusive love of the life of this world leads inevitably to a denial of moral truths.
What is Your Priority?14:3 They are the ones who give priority to this life over the Hereafter, repel from the way of GOD, and seek to make it crooked; they have gone far astray.,
14:3 They choose the life of this world as the sole object of their love, preferring it to the life to come, and bar people from the path of God. They try to make the straight path crooked. They have strayed far away.3
They oppose reform in order to protect their selfish interests
14:4 Wama arsalna min rasoolin illabilisani qawmihi liyubayyina lahum fayudillu Allahuman yashao wayahdee man yashao wahuwa alAAazeezu alhakeemu
The Language of the Messenger14:4 We did not send any messenger except in the language of his people, so he may proclaim to them. But God misguides whom He wills, and He guides whom He wills. He is the Noble, the Wise.2
This verse rejects the Arab nationalists who glorify Arabic and claim its superiority over other languages. God can communicate His message to any nation in their language. After all, God communicates with all his creatures through the language they understand.
The frequently used phrases yudillu man yasha can be understood in two ways: "He misleads whomever He wills," OR "He misleads whomever wills to be mislead." The same is also true for yahdi man yasha: "He guides whomever He wills," OR "He guides whomever wills to be guided." See 57:22; 6:88.
14:4 And We have not sent any messenger except in the language of his people, so he may clarify for them. But God misguides whom He wills, and He guides whom He wills. And He is the Noble, the Wise.
14:4 AND NEVER have We sent forth any apostle otherwise than [with a message] in his own people's tongue, so that he might make [the truth] clear unto them;3 but God lets go astray him that wills [to go astray], and guides him that wills [to be guided] -for He alone is almighty, truly wise.4
Since every divine writ was meant to be understood by man, it is obvious that each had to be formulated in the language of the people whom the particular prophet was addressing in the first instance; and the Qur'an - notwithstanding its universal import (cf. note 126 on 7:158) - is no exception in this respect.
Or: "God lets go astray whomever He wills, and guides whomever He wills". All Qur'anic references to God's "letting man go astray" must be understood against the background of 2:26 - "none does He cause to go astray save the iniquitous, who break their bond with God" (regarding which latter expression, see surah 2, note 19): that is to say, man's "going astray" is a consequence of his own attitudes and inclinations and not a result of an arbitrary "predestination" in the popular sense of this word (cf. surah 2, note 7). In his commentary on the above verse, Zamakhshari stresses this aspect of free choice on the part of man and points out that "God does not cause anyone to go astray except one who, as He knows, will never attain to faith; and He does not guide anyone aright except one who, as He knows, will attain to faith. Hence, the [expression] 'causing to go astray' denotes [God's] leaving [one] alone (takhliyah) and depriving [him] of all favour, whereas [the expression] 'guidance' denotes [His] grant of fulfilment (tawfiq) and favour .... Thus, He does not forsake anyone except those who deserve to be forsaken, and does not bestow His favour upon anyone except those who deserve to be favoured." Commenting on the identical phrase occurring in 16: 93, Zamakhshari states: "[God] forsakes him who, as He knows, will [consciously] choose to deny the truth and will persevere in this [denial]; and ... He bestows His favour upon him who, as He knows, will choose faith: which means that He makes the issue dependent on [man's] free choice (al-ikhtiyar), and thus on his deserving either [God's] favour or the withdrawal of [His] aid ... and does not make it dependent on compulsion [i.e., predestination], which would rule out [man's] deserving anything of the above."
The Messenger's Language14:4 We did not send any messenger except (to preach) in the tongue of his people, in order to clarify things for them. GOD then sends astray whomever He wills, and guides whomever He wills. He is the Almighty, the Most Wise.,
14:4 We never sent a Messenger who did not speak the language of his people, so that he might make the message clear to them. People go astray or attain guidance according to God’s laws (4:88). He is Almighty, Wise.
14:5 Walaqad arsalna moosa bi-ayatinaan akhrij qawmaka mina alththulumatiila alnnoori wathakkirhum bi-ayyamiAllahi inna fee thalika laayatinlikulli sabbarin shakoorin
Moses14:5 We sent Moses with Our signs that you should bring your people out from the darkness and into the light, and remind them with God's days. In this are signs for any who are patient and thankful.
14:5 And We sent Moses with Our signs: "You shall bring your people out of the darkness and into the light, and remind them of the days of God." In this are signs for everyone patient and thankful.
14:5 And [thus], indeed, have We sent forth Moses with Our messages [and this Our command]: "Lead thy people out of the depths of darkness into the light, and remind them of the Days of God!"5 Verily, in this [reminder] there are messages indeed for all who are wholly patient in adversity and deeply grateful [to God].
In ancient Arabian tradition, the terms "day" or "days" were often used to describe momentous historical events (e.g., ayyam al-'arab as a metonym for the inter-tribal wars of pre-Islamic Arabia). However, in view of the frequent Qur'anic application of the word "day" to eschatological concepts -e.g., the "Last Day", the "Day of Resurrection", the "Day of Reckoning", and so forth-and, particularly, in view of 45:14, where the expression "the Days of God" unmistakably points to His judgment at the end of time - it is only logical to assume that in the present context this expression bears the same significance: namely, God's final judgment of man on the Day of Resurrection. The use of the plural form ("the Days of God") is perhaps meant to bring out the idea that the "Day" of which the Qur'an so often speaks has nothing to do with human time-definitions but, rather, alludes to an ultimate reality in which the concept of "time" has neither place nor meaning.
Moses14:5 Thus, we sent Moses with our miracles, saying, "Lead your people out of darkness into the light, and remind them of the days of GOD." These are lessons for every steadfast, appreciative person.,
14:5 (Moses spoke the language of his people.) We sent him with Our messages, saying, "Bring your people from darkness to light and remind them of the Days of God. There are lessons in the history of nations for those who are steadfast in their resolve to rise and wish that their efforts be fruitful.”4
The Days of God = When people follow His guidance. Shukr or gratefulness is not just the verbal proclamation of 'Thank God!' It pertains to sharing the God-given bounties with others. It also means ‘efforts bearing fruit’
14:6 Wa-ith qala moosaliqawmihi othkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykum ithanjakum min ali firAAawna yasoomoonakum soo-a alAAathabiwayuthabbihoona abnaakum wayastahyoonanisaakum wafee thalikum balaon min rabbikumAAatheemun
14:6 Moses said to his people: "Remember God's blessings upon you that He saved you from the people of Pharaoh. They used to inflict the worst punishment upon you, and they used to murder your children, and shame your women. In that was a great trial from your Lord."
14:6 And Moses said to his people: "Remember the blessings of God upon you that He saved you from the people of Pharaoh; they were afflicting you with the worst punishment, and they used to slaughter your children, and rape your women. And in that was a great test from your Lord."
14:6 And, lo6 Moses spoke [thus] unto his people: "Remember the blessings which God bestowed upon you when He saved you from Pharaoh's people who afflicted you with cruel suffering, and slaughtered your sons, and spared [only] your women7 -which was an awesome trial from your Sustainer.
For this rendering of the particle idh, see surah 2, note 21.
Cf. 2:49; also Exodus i, 15-16 and 22.
The Importance of Being Appreciative14:6 Recall that Moses said to his people, "Remember GOD's blessings upon you. He saved you from Pharaoh's people who inflicted the worst persecution upon you, slaughtering your sons and sparing your daughters. That was an exacting trial from your Lord.",
14:6 Moses spoke thus to his people, “Remember God's blessing upon you when He saved you from Pharaoh’s people. They used to persecute you in the worst manner, killed your sons and spared your women. Therein was a tremendous trial from your Lord.”
14:7 Wa-ith taaththana rabbukumla-in shakartum laazeedannakum wala-in kafartum inna AAathabeelashadeedun
14:7 When your Lord proclaimed: "If you give thanks, then I will increase for you, but if you turn unappreciative, then My retribution is severe."
14:7 And your Lord proclaimed: "If you give thanks, I will increase for you, but if you are rejecting, then My retribution is severe."
14:7 And [remember the time] when your Sustainer made [this promise] known: 'If you are grateful [to Me], I shall most certainly give you more and more;8 but if you are ungrateful, verily, My chastisement will be severe indeed!"'
Le., "even more than you deserve".
Appreciative vs Unappreciative14:7 Your Lord has decreed: "The more you thank Me, the more I give you." But if you turn unappreciative, then My retribution is severe.,
14:7 And recall! Your Lord proclaimed, “If you are grateful (establishing a system where everyone equitably receives the provision), I will give you more. But if you show ingratitude, then My retribution is certainly dire.”
14:8 Waqala moosa in takfuroo antumwaman fee al-ardi jameeAAan fa-inna Allahalaghaniyyun hameedun
14:8 Moses said, "If you reject, you and all who are on earth together, yet God is Rich, Praiseworthy."
14:8 And Moses said: "If you reject, you and all who are on the earth together, then know that God is Rich, Praiseworthy."
14:8 And Moses added: "If you should [ever] deny the truth-you and whoever else lives on earth, all of you-[know that,] verily, God is indeed self-sufficient, ever to be praised!"
14:8 Moses said, "If you disbelieve, along with all the people on earth, GOD is in no need, Praiseworthy.",
14:8 And Moses said, “If you deny the truth and show ingratitude, you and all on earth together, know that God is absolutely Free of want, Worthy of all praise.”5
He is in no need of your worship
14:9 Alam ya/tikum nabao allatheena minqablikum qawmi noohin waAAadin wathamooda waallatheenamin baAAdihim la yaAAlamuhum illa Allahu jaat-humrusuluhum bialbayyinati faraddoo aydiyahum fee afwahihimwaqaloo inna kafarna bima orsiltumbihi wa-inna lafee shakkin mimma tadAAoonanailayhi mureebun
14:9 Did not news come to you of those before you: the people of Noah, and Aad, and Thamud. Those after them, whom none know but God? Their messengers came to them with proof, but they placed their hands to their mouths and said, "We are rejecting what you have been sent with, and we are in grave doubt as to what you are inviting us to."
14:9 Did not news come to you of those before you: the people of Noah, and 'Aad, and Thamud, and those after them whom none know except God? Their messengers came to them with clarity, but they placed their hands onto their mouths and said: "We are rejecting what you have been sent with, and we are in doubt as to what you are inviting us to."
14:9 HAVE THE STORIES of those [deniers of the truth] who lived before you never yet come within your ken - [the stories of] the people of Noah, and of [the tribes of] `Ad and Thamud, and of those who came after them? None knows them [now] save God.9 There came unto them their apostles with all evidence of the truth -but they covered their mouths with their hands10 and answered: "Behold, we refuse to regard as true the message with which you [claim to] have been entrusted; and, behold, we are .in grave doubt, amounting to suspicion, about [the meaning of] your call to us!"11
Le., they have disappeared from the face of the earth, and none save God knows today how many they were and how they lived. See verse 14 and note 18 below.
Lit., "they put their hands into their mouths" - an idiomatic phrase indicating one's inability to refute a reasonable proposition by cogent, logical counter-arguments: for the out-of-hand rejection of the apostles' message by their recalcitrant compatriots cannot by any means be regarded as an "argument".
See surah 11, note 92. It is to be noted that whereas in 11:62 this reply is placed in the mouth of people of one particular community -the Thamud -and is phrased in the singular ("thy call to us"), it appears here in the plural ("your call to us") and represents the gist of the answers given by various communities to various prophets. This generalization, underlying the entire subsequent account and containing echos of several Qur'anic narratives relating to the experiences of individual apostles of earlier times, is obviously meant to bring out the symptomatic character of the attitude referred to: the stubborn attitude of people who either deny God altogether, or - while not consciously denying His existence - yet fee[ compelled to interpose all manner of imaginary "mediators" (thought to be divine or semi-divine) between themselves and Him, thus denying, by implication, His omniscience and omnipotence.
Egotistic Defiance: A Human Trait14:9 Have you not heard about those before you - the people of Noah, `Aad, Thamoud, and others who came after them and known only to GOD? Their messengers went to them with clear proofs, but they treated them with contempt and said, "We disbelieve in what you are sent with. We are skeptical about your message; full of doubt." Following Our Parents Blindly: A Great Human Tragedy,
14:9 “Has not the history of the previous communities reached you? The history of the people of Noah and ‘Aad and Thamud? And of those who came after them? None knows them but God. To them came their Messengers with clear evidence of the truth. But they put their hands on their mouths and said, “Look! We reject what you are sent with. We are in great doubt concerning what you invite us.”
14:10 Qalat rusuluhum afee Allahishakkun fatiri alssamawati waal-ardiyadAAookum liyaghfira lakum min thunoobikumwayu-akhkhirakum ila ajalin musamman qaloo in antumilla basharun mithluna tureedoona an tasuddoonaAAamma kana yaAAbudu abaonafa/toona bisultanin mubeenin
Blind Inheritors of Faith14:10 Their messengers said, "Is there doubt regarding God, the initiator of the heavens and the earth? He invites you so that He may forgive some of your sins, and grant you until a predetermined time." They said, "You are but humans like us, you wish to turn us away from what our fathers used to serve. So come to us with clear authority."
14:10 Their messengers said: "Is there doubt regarding God, the initiator of the heavens and the earth? He invites you so that He may forgive some of your sins, and delay you to an appointed term." They said: "You are merely human beings like us; you wish to turn us away from what our fathers used to serve. So come to us with a clear proof."
14:10 Said the apostles sent unto them:12 "Can there be any doubt about [the existence and oneness of] God, the Originator of the heavens and the earth? It is He who calls unto you, so that He may forgive you [whatever is past] of your sins and grant you respite until a term [set by Him is fulfilled]."13 [But] they replied: "You are nothing but mortal men like ourselves! You want to turn us away from what our forefathers were wont to worship: well, then, bring us a clear proof [of your being God's message-bearers]!"
Lit., "their apostles".
Le., "until the end of your life in this world". This is, I believe, an indirect allusion to the calamities which are bound to befall, even in this world, "those who are bent on denying the truth" (see the last paragraph of 13:31 and the corresponding note 57) -implying that they who consciously respond to the call of God, conveyed through His prophets, would be immune to this kind of suffering and would be graced with abiding spiritual happiness (cf. 13:29).
14:10 Their messengers said, "Do you have doubts about GOD; the Initiator of the heavens and the earth? He invites you only to forgive your sins, and to give you another chance to redeem yourselves." They said, "You are no more than humans like us, who want to repel us from the way our parents used to worship. Show us some profound authority.",
14:10 Their Messengers said, "Can there be any doubt about God, the Initiator of the heavens and earth? He only calls you that He may grant you the protection of His forgiveness for your trailing behind in humanity and to postpone your end until an appointed time." They said, "Ah, you are but mortals like us! You want to bar us from what our ancestors used to worship. Then bring us a clear authority."6
God is far too Glorious from feeling offended by idol worship in any form. But submitting to false deities and 'authorities' is the root cause of inequities in any society, such as superstition, exploitation, ritualism and division of humanity into castes and sects, and the resulting violation of human rights. That is why all Messengers of God began their mission by calling people to the service, and obedience of the One True God
14:11 Qalat lahum rusuluhum in nahnuilla basharun mithlukum walakinna Allahayamunnu AAala man yashao min AAibadihi wamakana lana an na/tiyakum bisultanin illabi-ithni Allahi waAAala Allahifalyatawakkali almu/minoona
14:11 Their messengers said, "We are but humans like you, but God will bestow His grace upon whom He pleases from His servants. It is not up to us to bring you an authorization except by God's leave. In God those who acknowledge should place their trust"
14:11 Their messengers said: "We are indeed human beings like you, but God will bestow His grace upon whom He pleases from His servants. And it is not up to us to bring you proof except with the permission of God. And in God the believers should place their trust"
14:11 Their apostles answered them: "True, we are nothing but mortal men like yourselves: but God bestows His favour upon whomever He wills of His servants. Withal, it is not within our power to bring you a proof [of our mission], unless it be by God's leave-and [so] it is in God that all believers must place their trust.14
I.e., it is to the contents of the divine message propounded to them that all seekers after truth must turn for illumination (see 7:75 and 13:43, as well as the corresponding notes). The Qur'an dwells in many places (e.g., in 6:109 or 13: 31) on the futility - moral as well as intellectual-of the demand that the divine origin of a prophetic message should be proved by tangible, extraneous means: for, a morally valid and intellectually justifiable conviction of the intrinsic truth of such a message can be gained only through "conscious insight accessible to reason" (12:108).
14:11 Their messengers said to them, "We are no more than humans like you, but GOD blesses whomever He chooses from among His servants. We could not possibly show you any kind of authorization, except in accordance with GOD's will. In GOD the believers shall trust.,
14:11 (Without exception) their Messengers said to them, "Yes, we are human beings like yourselves. But God gives His grace (of revelation) to whom He chooses among His servants. It is not for us to bring you an authority except as God permits. And all believers put their trust in God.
14:12 Wama lana allanatawakkala AAala Allahi waqad hadanasubulana walanasbiranna AAala ma athaytumoonawaAAala Allahi falyatawakkali almutawakkiloona
14:12 "Why should we not place our trust in God, when He has guided us to our paths. We will be resolute against the harm you inflict upon us. In God those who trust should put their trust."
14:12 "And why should we not place our trust in God, when He has guided us in our paths. And we will be patient to the harm you inflict upon us. And in God those who trust should place their trust."
14:12 And how could we not place our trust in God, seeing that it is He who has shown us the path which we are to follow?15 "Hence, we shall certainly bear with patience whatever hurt you may do us: for, all who have trust [in His existence] must place their trust in God [alone]!"
14:12 "Why should we not trust in GOD, when He has guided us in our paths? We will steadfastly persevere in the face of your persecution. In GOD all the trusters shall trust.",
14:12 “Why should we not put our trust in God? He has shown us the ways we follow. We shall certainly endure with uncompromising resolve whatever torment you inflict upon us. Let those who trust put their trust in God."7
Trusting in God is trusting the permanence of His laws
14:13 Waqala allatheena kafaroolirusulihim lanukhrijannakum min ardina awlataAAoodunna fee millatina faawha ilayhim rabbuhumlanuhlikanna alththalimeena
14:13 Those who rejected said to their messengers: "We will drive you out of our land, or you will return to our creed." It was then that their Lord inspired to them: "We will destroy the wicked."
14:13 Andthose who rejected said to their messengers: "We will expel you from our land, or you will return to our creed." It was then that their Lord inspired to them: "We will destroy the wicked."
14:13 But they who denied the truth spoke [thus] unto their apostles: "We shall most certainly expel you from our land, unless you return forthwith to our ways.16 Whereupon their Sustainer revealed this to His apostles:17 "Most certainly shall We destroy these evildoers,
Cf. 7:88, where this alternative is placed before Shu'ayb.
Lit., "to them".
14:13 Those who disbelieved said to their messengers, "We will banish you from our land, unless you revert to our religion." Their Lord inspired them: "We will inevitably annihilate the transgressors.,
14:13 The rejecters resorted to threatening the Messengers, “Be sure, We will banish you from our land unless you return to our religion.” But their Lord revealed to them, “We will subdue those who try to relegate the truth and insist on running oppressive systems.”8
‘Zaalimeen’ expansively translated in the last line
14:14 Walanuskinannakumu al-arda minbaAAdihim thalika liman khafa maqamee wakhafawaAAeedi
14:14 "We will let you reside in the land after them. That is for those who fear My majesty and fear My threat."
14:14 "And We will let you reside in the land after them. That is for those who fear My station and fear My warning."
14:14 and most certainly shall We cause you to dwell on earth [long] after they have passed away:18 this is [My promise] unto all who stand in awe of My presence, and stand in awe of My warning!"19
Lit., "after them": implying a divine promise that the truth preached by the apostles would outlive its detractors (cf. verse 9 above, "None knows them [now] save God"), and would triumph in the end.
As Zamakhshari points out, the divine promise expressed in the above verse is equivalent to the statement in 7:128 that "the future (al- aqibah) belongs to the God-conscious".
14:14 "And we will let you dwell in their land after them. This is (the reward) for those who reverence My majesty, and reverence My promise.",
14:14 “And certainly We will establish you in the land after them. This reward is for those who are awed by My Majesty and My warning.”
14:15 Waistaftahoo wakhabakullu jabbarin AAaneedin
14:15 They sought victory, and every arrogant tyrant was then failed.
14:15 Andthey sought victory, and every arrogant tyrant was then made to lose.
14:15 And they prayed [to God] that the truth be made to triumph.20 And [thus it is:] every arrogant enemy of the truth shall be undone [in the life to come],
Or: "they [i.e., the apostles] prayed for victory" or "for [God's] aid" -both these meanings being contained in the noun fath, with which the verbal form istaftahu, used here, is connected. It should be borne in mind that the primary significance of fataha is "he opened", and of istaftaha, "he sought to open [something]" or "he desired that it be opened". Thus, the above passage echoes, in a generalized form, Shu'ayb's prayer in 7:89, "Lay Thou open (iftah) the truth between us and our people".
14:15 They issued a challenge, and consequently, every stubborn tyrant ended up doomed.,
14:15 They earnestly prayed for triumph and then every stubborn tyrant was undone.
14:16 Min wara-ihi jahannamu wayusqamin ma-in sadeedin
14:16 From behind him is hell, and he will be served repulsive water.
14:16 From behind him is Hell, and he will be poured from a putrid water.
14:16 with hell awaiting him;21 and he shall be made to drink of the water of most bitter distress,22
Lit., "[with] hell beyond him", i.e., as his destiny. For my rendering of jabbar, in this context, as "enemy of the truth", see the first part of note 58 on 26:130.
The word sadid is an infinitive noun of sadda. which in its primary meaning denotes "he turned away" or "was averse [from something]"; also - as noted in the Qamus and the Asas - "he cried out loudly" (i.e., by reason of his aversion to something). Since sadid signifies anything that is repulsive, it is also used tropically to describe the pus that flows from wounds or the viscous liquid that oozes from corpses. In his commentary on this verse, Razi suggests that the expression ma' sadid is here purely metaphorical, and should be understood as "water like [what is described as] sadid". It is in pursuance of this interpretation that I have rendered the above expression as "waters of most bitter distress" - a metaphor of the boundless suffering and bitter frustration which, in the life to come, awaits those who during their life in this world were bent on denying all spiritual truths. (Cf. the expression sharab min hamim -rendered by me as "a draught of burning despair"-occurring in several places and elucidated in note 62 on 6:70.)
14:16 Awaiting him is Hell, wherein he will drink putrid water.,
14:16 Hell of his own making is behind every stubborn tyrant, and before him is the cup of distress that he is made to drink.9
Such people hinder their own development and forfeit inner peace in this life as well. 47:15
14:17 YatajarraAAuhu wala yakaduyuseeghuhu waya/teehi almawtu min kulli makanin wamahuwa bimayyitin wamin wara-ihi AAathabun ghaleethun
14:17 He tries to drink it, but cannot swallow it, and death comes to him from everywhere, but he will not die; and after this is a powerful retribution.
14:17 He tries to drink it, but it cannot be swallowed, and death comes to him from everywhere, but he will not die; and from behind him is a powerful retribution.
14:17 gulping it [unceasingly,] little by little, and yet hardly able to swallow it.23 And death will beset him from every quarter - but he shall not die: for [yet more] severe suffering lies ahead of him.
I.e., to reconcile himself to this suffering.
14:17 He will gulp it down, though he cannot stand it, as death comes to him from every direction, but he will never die. Awaiting him is a terrible retribution.,2
When we rebelled against God, and agreed with Satan during the great feud (38:69), the angels suggested that we should be banished to Hell(Appendix 7). But the Most Merciful decided to give us another chance toredeem ourselves. He said to the angels, "I know what you do not know" (2:30).God knew that many humans would have protested that they had no idea howbad Hell was. The awesome description of Hell in 14:17 and in 22:19, nullifiessuch a protest. Now we have a pretty good idea how terrible Hell is.
14:17 Which he sips but can hardly swallow. How difficult it is to swallow the bitterness of self-imposed failure! A life unlived, a mere survival as if death comes to him from all sides, yet he neither lives nor dies. To follow him still is a heavy doom! [20:74, 87:13]
14:18 Mathalu allatheena kafaroo birabbihimaAAmaluhum karamadin ishtaddat bihi alrreehufee yawmin AAasifin la yaqdiroona mimmakasaboo AAala shay-in thalika huwa alddalalualbaAAeedu
14:18 The example of those who reject their Lord is that their works are like ashes, on which the wind blows strongly on a stormy day; they cannot get anything of what they earned. Such is the farthest straying.
14:18 Theexample of those who reject their Lord is that their works are like ashes, upon which the wind blows strongly on a stormy day, they cannot get anything of what they earned. Such is the farthest misguidance.
14:18 [This, then, is] the parable of those who are bent on denying their Sustainer: all their works24 are as ashes which the wind blows about fiercely on a stormy day: [in the life to come,] they cannot achieve any benefit whatever from all [the good] that they may have wrought: for this [denial of God] is indeed the farthest one can go astray.25
I.e., even the good ones (Razi).
Lit., "this, this is the straying far-away". The definite article in the expression ad-dalal al-ba'id, preceded by the pronouns dhalika huwa, is meant to stress the extreme degree of this "straying far-away" or "going astray": a construction that can be rendered in English only by a paraphrase, as above. It is to be noted that this phrase occurs in the Qur'an only twice- namely, in the above passage and in 22: 12 -and refers in both cases to a denial, conscious or implied, of God's oneness and uniqueness.
14:18 The allegory of those who disbelieve in their Lord: their works are like ashes in a violent wind, on a stormy day. They gain nothing from whatever they earn; such is the farthest straying.,
14:18 Here is a similitude of those who deny their Lord. Their works are like ashes that the wind blows hard on a stormy day. They have no power whatsoever over what they earned. Such is the farthest wandering. [13:17, 14:24-26]
14:19 Alam tara anna Allaha khalaqa alssamawatiwaal-arda bialhaqqi in yasha/ yuthhibkumwaya/ti bikhalqin jadeedin
14:19 Did you not see that God created the heavens and the earth with truth? If He wished, He would do away with you and bring a new creation.
14:19 Didyou not see that God created the heavens and the earth with the truth? If He wished, He would remove you and bring a new creation.
14:19 ART THOU NOT aware that God has created the heavens and the earth in accordance with [an inner] truth?26 He can, if He so wills, do away with you and bring forth a new mankind [in your stead] :27
See note 11 on 10:5.
Lit., "bring forth a new creation" or "new people", for it should be remembered that the term khalq denotes not merely "creation" or "act of creation" but also "people" or "mankind", which seems to be its meaning here (Ibn `Abbas, as quoted by Razi).
Worship Only the Omnipotent One14:19 Do you not realize that GOD has created the heavens and the earth for a specific purpose? If He wills, He can remove you, and substitute a new creation in your place.,
14:19 Have you not realized that God has created the heavens and earth with a sublime purpose? If He wills, He can do away with you and bring a new creation. [4:133, 7:146, 9:39, 47:38]
14:20 Wama thalika AAala AllahibiAAazeezin
14:20 That for God is not difficult to do.
14:20 Andthat for God is not difficult to do.
14:20 nor is this difficult for God.
14:20 This is not too difficult for GOD.,
14:20 And this is not difficult for God.
14:21 Wabarazoo lillahi jameeAAan faqalaaldduAAafao lillatheena istakbarooinna kunna lakum tabaAAan fahal antum mughnoonaAAanna min AAathabi Allahi min shay-in qaloolaw hadana Allahu lahadaynakum sawaonAAalayna ajaziAAna am sabarna malana min maheesin
14:21 They all appeared before God. The weak ones said to those who were arrogant: "We were following you, so will you avail us anything from God's retribution?" They said, "If God had guided us, then we would have guided you. It makes no difference if we rage or endure, for we have no refuge."
14:21 Andthey appeared before God, all of them. And the weak ones said to those who were arrogant: "We were following you, so will you avail us anything from the retribution of God?" They said: "If God had guided us, then we would have guided you. It makes no difference if we cry out or are patient, for we have no refuge."
14:21 And all [mankind] will appear before God [on the Day of Judgment]; and then the weak28 will say unto those who had gloried in their arrogance: "Behold, We were but your followers: can you, then, relieve us of something of God's chastisement?" [And the others] will answer: "If God would but show us the way [to salvation], we would indeed guide you [towards it].29 It is [now] all one, as far as we are concerned, whether we grieve impatiently or endure [our lot] with patience: there is no escape for us!"
I.e., those who had sinned out of moral weakness and self-indulgence, relying on the supposedly superior wisdom of the so-called "leaders of thought", who are described in the sequence as having "gloried in their arrogance" (astakbaru) inasmuch as they refused to pay heed to God's messages (Tabari, on the authority of Ibn `Abbas).
Sc., "but now it is too late for repentance". According to Tabari and Razi, this is the meaning of the above passage. Zamakhshari, however, prefers another interpretation, implying a reference not to the present but to the past, thus: "`If God had guided us aright, we would have guided you [too] aright": in other words, he understands the phrase as an attempt on the part of the doomed to divest themselves of all responsibility, and to attribute their past sinning to God's "not having willed" to guide them aright. To my mind, the interpretation offered by Tabari and Razi is preferable because-all other considerations apart-it provides a logical connection between the request of "the weak" (see preceding note) and the reply of those who in their earthly life had "gloried in their arrogance", as well as with the latters' subsequent, despairing utterance, which can be summed up in the words, "too late!"
On the Day of Resurrection14:21 When they all stand before GOD 3 , the followers will say to the leaders, "We used to follow you. Can you spare us even a little bit of GOD's retribution?" They will say, "Had GOD guided us, we would have guided you. Now it is too late, whether we grieve or resort to patience, there is no exit for us.",
Frequently, the Quran talks about the Hereafter in the past tense. This is because those are future events already witnessed by God, and willsurely come to pass.
14:21 They will be, all of them, marshaled before God. Then the ones who had disabled their minds with blind following will say to their self-glorified leaders, "We used to follow you. Can you divert from us some of God’s doom?" The leaders will respond, "If God had guided us, we would have guided you. Now it makes no difference whether we panic in grief or try to bear it in patience, there is no escape for us."10
It is noteworthy here that Satan had brought the same argument that his Lord had sent him astray. 7:16
14:22 وقال الشيطان لما قضى الامر ان الله وعدكم وعد الحق ووعدتكم فاخلفتكم وما كان لى عليكم من سلطان الا ان دعوتكم فاستجبتم لى فلا تلومونى ولوموا انفسكم ما انا بمصرخكم وما انتم بمصرخى انى كفرت بما اشركتمون من قبل ان الظالمين لهم عذاب اليم
14:22 Waqala alshshaytanulamma qudiya al-amru inna Allaha waAAadakumwaAAda alhaqqi wawaAAadtukum faakhlaftukum wama kanaliya AAalaykum min sultanin illa an daAAawtukum faistajabtumlee fala taloomoonee waloomoo anfusakum ma anabimusrikhikum wama antum bimusrikhiyya inneekafartu bima ashraktumooni min qablu inna alththalimeenalahum AAathabun aleemun
14:22 The devil said when the matter was complete: "God had promised you the promise of truth, and I promised you and broke my promise. I had no power over you except that I invited you and you responded to me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves; I cannot help you nor can you help me. I reject that you have set me as a partner before this; the wicked will have a painful retribution."
14:22 Andthe devil said when the matter was complete: "God had promised you the promise of truth, and I promised you and broke my promise. And I had no power over you except that I invited you and you responded to me. So do not blame me, but blame yourselves; I cannot help you nor can you help me. I reject that you have set me up as a partner before this; the wicked will have a painful retribution."
14:22 And when everything will have been decided, Satan will say: "Behold, God promised you something that was bound to come true!30 I, too, held out [all manner of] promises to you -but I deceived you. Yet I had no power at all over you: I but called you-and you responded unto me. Hence, blame not me, but blame yourselves.31 It is not for me to respond to your cries, nor for you to respond to mine:32 for, behold, I have [always] refused to admit that there was any truth in your erstwhile belief that I had a share in God's divinity."33 Verily, for all evildoers34 there is grievous suffering in store.
Lit., "God promised you a promise of truth" - i.e., the promise of resurrection and last judgment.
In his commentary on this passage, Razi remarks: "This verse shows that the real Satan (ash-shaytan al-asli) is [man's own] complex of desires (an-nafs): for, Satan makes it clear [in the above] that it was only by means of insinuations '(waswasah) that he was able to reach [the sinner's soul]; and had it not been for an already-existing [evil] disposition due to lusts, anger, superstition or fanciful ideas, these [satanic] insinuations would have had no effect whatsoever."
Le., "I cannot respond to your call for help, just as you should not have, in your lifetime, responded to my call." The above sentence is often interpreted in another sense, namely, "I cannot succour you, just as you cannot succour me". However, in view of Satan's allegorical reference-in the preceding passages as well as in the next sentence-to the sinners' earthly past, the rendering adopted by me seems to be more suitable; moreover, it is closer to the primary meaning of the verb sarakha ("he cried out"), from which the form musrikh ("one who responds to a cry") is derived (Jawhari).
This is, to my mind, the meaning of the highly elliptical phrase kafartu bi-ma ashraktumuni min qabl, which could be literally-but most inadequately-translated thus: "I have refused to admit the truth of that whereby you associated me aforetime [with God]." The implication is that Satan, while endeavouring to lead men astray, never claims to be God's "equal" (cf. 7:20, where he speaks of God, to Adam and Eve, as "your Sustainer", or 15:36 and 39, where he addresses Him as "my Sustainer", or 8:48 and 59:16, where he says, "behold, 1 fear God") but, rather, tries to make men's sinful doings "seem goodly to them" (cf. 6:43, 8:48, 16:63, 27:24, 29:38), i.e., persuades them that it is morally justifiable to follow one's fancies and selfish desires without any restraint. But while Satan himself does not make any claim to equality with God, the sinner who submits to Satan's blandishments attributes to him thereby, as it were, "a share in God's divinity". -It must be stressed, in this connection, that the Qur'anic expression shaytan is often used as a metaphor for every human impulse that is intrinsically immoral and, therefore, contrary to man's best - i.e., spiritual - interests.
I.e., all those who had consciously either from intellectual arrogance or from moral weakness -responded to "Satan's call".
Satan Disowns His Followers14:22 And the devil will say, after the judgment had been issued, "GOD has promised you the truthful promise, and I promised you, but I broke my promise. I had no power over you; I simply invited you, and you accepted my invitation. Therefore, do not blame me, and blame only yourselves. My complaining cannot help you, nor can your complaining help me. I have disbelieved in your idolizing me. The transgressors have incurred a painful retribution.",
14:22 And Satan (their selfish desires) will disown them after the Judgment has been issued, "God promised you a true promise. And I promised you, then failed you. But I had no power over you except that I called upon you and you obeyed me. So do not blame me, blame yourselves. Neither can I help you, nor can you help me. Now I condemn your act of associating me with God. There must be a painful doom for all those who relegate the truth and choose to do wrong.”
14:23 Waodkhila allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo alssalihati jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideenafeeha bi-ithni rabbihim tahiyyatuhum feehasalamun
14:23 Admission was given to those who acknowledged and promoted reforms to gardens with rivers flowing beneath them. In them they will abide by the leave of their Lord. Their greeting therein is "Peace."
14:23 Andthose who believed and did good works were admitted to estates with rivers flowing beneath them. In them they will abide with the permission of their Lord. Their greeting therein is "Peace."
14:23 But those who shall have attained to faith and done righteous deeds will be brought into gardens through which running waters flow, therein to abide by their Sustainer's leave, and will be welcomed with the greeting, "Peace!"35
As in 10:10, this phrase reads literally, "their greeting therein [will be],'Peace!' (salam)"-a term which has been explained in surah 5, note 29.
14:23 As for those who believe and lead a righteous life, they will be admitted into gardens with flowing streams. They abide therein forever, in accordance with the will of their Lord. Their greeting therein is: "Peace.",
14:23 And those who attained belief and increased human potential, will be admitted to the Gardens underneath which rivers flow, therein to abide by their Lord’s leave. Their greeting therein is, “Peace!”
14:24 Alam tara kayfa daraba Allahumathalan kalimatan tayyibatan kashajaratin tayyibatinasluha thabitun wafarAAuha fee alssama/-i
The Fruits of Truth14:24 Have you not seen how God cites the example of a good word is like a good tree, whose root is firm and its branches in the sky?
14:24 Have you not seen how God puts forth the example that a good word is like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in the sky.
14:24 ART THOU NOT aware how God sets forth the parable of a good word?36 [It is] like a good tree, firmly rooted, [reaching out] with its branches towards the sky,
In its wider meaning, the term kalimah ("word") denotes any conceptual statement or proposition. Thus, a "good word" circumscribes any proposition (or idea) that is intrinsically true and - because it implies a call to what is good in the moral sense - is ultimately beneficent and enduring; and since a call to moral righteousness is the innermost purport of every one of God's messages, the term "good word" applies to them as well. Similarly, the "corrupt word" mentioned in verse 26 applies to the opposite of what a divine message aims at: namely, to every idea that is intrinsically false or morally evil and, therefore, spiritually harmful.
Truth vs Falsehood14:24 Do you not see that GOD has cited the example of the good word as a good tree whose root is firmly fixed, and its branches are high in the sky?,
14:24 Do you not reflect how God cites an example of a Noble Ideology as a goodly tree, firmly rooted with its branches swinging high in the heaven?11
This Ideology ensures blessings in both lives. Kalimatan Tayyebah = There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His Messenger = Goodly Word = Noble Ideology = Creed = Ordained System of Life. 35:10
14:25 Tu/tee okulaha kulla heeninbi-ithni rabbiha wayadribu Allahual-amthala lilnnasi laAAallahum yatathakkaroona
14:25 It bears its fruit every so often by its Lord's leave. God cites the examples for the people, perhaps they will remember.
14:25 It bears its fruit every so often with the permission of its Lord; and God puts forth the examples for the people, perhaps they will remember.
14:25 yielding its fruit at all times by its Sustainer's leave. And [thus it is that] God propounds parables unto men,' so that they might bethink themselves [of the truth].37
See note 33 on the first clause of 39:27.
14:25 It produces its crop every season, as designed by its Lord. GOD thus cites the examples for the people, that they may take heed.,
14:25 It (the tree of this Ideology) bears fruit in all seasons by the leave of its Lord. God sets forth examples to humans that they may reflect.
14:26 Wamathalu kalimatin khabeethatinkashajaratin khabeethatin ijtuththat min fawqi al-ardi malaha min qararin
14:26 The example of a bad word is like a tree which has been uprooted from the surface of the earth, it has nowhere to settle.
14:26 Andthe example of a bad word is like a tree which has been uprooted from the surface of the earth, it has nowhere to settle.
14:26 And the parable of a corrupt word is that of a corrupt tree, torn up [from its roots] onto the face of the earth, wholly unable to endure.38
Lit., "having no permanance (qarar) whatever": i.e., the "corrupt word" (see note 36 above) is ephemeral in its effect, however strong its original impact on the minds of people who fall prey to
14:26 And the example of the bad word is that of a bad tree chopped at the soil level; it has no roots to keep it standing.,
14:26 And the example of an evil ideology is that of a bad tree that gets easily uprooted from the surface of the earth, and it has no stability.12
It is neither firmly rooted, nor reaches any heights
14:27 Yuthabbitu Allahu allatheena amanoobialqawli alththabiti fee alhayatialddunya wafee al-akhirati wayudilluAllahu alththalimeenawayafAAalu Allahu ma yasha/o
14:27 God makes firm those who acknowledge with firm sayings in the worldly life, and in the Hereafter. God sends the wicked astray, and God does what He wishes.
14:27 Godmakes firm those who believe with firm sayings in the worldly life, and in the Hereafter. And God misguides the wicked, and God does what He wishes.
14:27 [Thus,] God grants firmness unto those who have attained to faith through the word that is unshakably true39 in the life of this world as well as in the life to come; but the wrongdoers He lets go astray:40 for God does whatever He wills.
Lit., "firm" (thabit). The term Bawl -similar to the term kalimah (see note 36 above) - denote, beyond its primary meaning of "saying" or "utterance", also anything that can be defined as a statement of belief or opinion, namely, "concept", "tenet", "assertion of faith", and so on. In this context it expresses the concept that there is no deity save God, and that Muhammad is His Apostle: which is an interpretation of the above phrase given by the Prophet himself, as quoted by Bukhari in a Tradition on the authority of Al-Bara' ibn`Azib (Kitab at-Tafsir), and by other Traditionists, including Muslim, on the authority of Shu`bah. The adjective thabit connotes the "firmness"-that is, the unshakable truth-of the "word" (or "concept",) which it qualifies, thus connecting it with the preceding parable of the "good word" and the "good tree".
See note 4 on verse 4 of this surah.
14:27 GOD strengthens those who believe with the proven word, in this life and in the Hereafter. And GOD sends the transgressors astray. Everything is in accordance with GOD's will. They Remove Their Families From God's Protection,
14:27 God strengthens those who choose to believe, with the Word that stands firm, in the life of this world and in the Hereafter. But God leaves to stray, those who choose to do wrong. God does everything according to His laws.
14:28 Alam tara ila allatheenabaddaloo niAAmata Allahi kufran waahalloo qawmahumdara albawari
14:28 Did you not see those who replaced God's blessings with rejection, and they caused their people to dwell in the abode of destruction?
14:28 Didyou not see those who replaced the blessings of God with rejection, and they caused their people to dwell in the abode of destruction?
14:28 ART THOU NOT aware of those who have preferred a denial of the truth to God's blessings,41 and [thereby] invited their people to alight in that abode of utter desolation
Lit., "who have exchanged God's blessings for a denial of the truth". The expression "God's blessings (ni'mah)" obviously refers here to the messages revealed through His apostles.
14:28 Have you noted those who responded to GOD's blessings by disbelieving, and thus brought disaster upon their own families?,
14:28 Have you not considered those who exchange God’s blessing with ingratitude and lead their people down to an abode of utter loss?
14:29 Jahannama yaslawnaha wabi/saalqararu
14:29 Hell is where they will burn, what a miserable place to settle.
14:29 Hell is where they will burn, what a miserable place to settle.
14:29 - hell - which they [themselves] will ' have to endure?42 And how vile a state to settle in!
This is evidently an allusion to the relationship between the arrogant leaders of thought and their weak followers spoken of in verse 21 above.
14:29 Hell is their destiny, wherein they burn; what a miserable end!,
14:29 Into Hell! They are exposed to it. What a miserable place to rest in!13
They show ingratitude by holding on to God’s blessings for themselves, and exhort their people to do the same
14:30 WajaAAaloo lillahi andadanliyudilloo AAan sabeelihi qul tamattaAAoo fa-inna maseerakumila alnnari
14:30 They made equals to God in order that they may divert from His path. Say, "Enjoy, for your destiny is to the fire."
14:30 Andthey made to God equals in order that they may misguide from His path. Say: "Enjoy, for your destiny is to the Fire."
14:30 For, they claimed that there are powers that could rival God,43 and so they strayed from His path. Say: "Enjoy yourselves [in this world], but, verily, the fire will be your journey's end!"
Lit., "they gave God compeers (andad)". For an explanation of my paraphrase of this sentence (fully justified by Razi), see surah 2, note 13. -The particle li prefixed to the subsequent verb li-yudillu does not denote intent but is a so-called lam al-`aqibah, i.e., "the [letter] lam indicating a consequence" or "a result" (Razi), and is in this case suitably rendered as "and so".
Idol Worship: The Mother of All Evil14:30 They set up rivals to rank with GOD and to divert others from His path. Say, "Enjoy for awhile; your final destiny is Hell.",
14:30 And they set up rivals to God to mislead from His way. (They take the clergy as their authorities instead of the Word of God, thus setting up ‘rivals’ to Him.) Tell them, "Enjoy life while you can, for your sure destination is the fire.”
14:31 Qul liAAibadiya allatheena amanooyuqeemoo alssalata wayunfiqoo mimmarazaqnahum sirran waAAalaniyatan min qabli anya/tiya yawmun la bayAAun feehi wala khilalun
14:31 Say to My servants who acknowledge, that they should hold the contact prayer, and spend from provisions We granted them, secretly and publicly, before a day comes when there is no trade therein, nor will there be any friends.
14:31 Sayto My servants who believe, that they should hold the contact prayer, and spend from what provisions We granted them secretly and openly, before a Day comes when there is no trade therein, nor will there be any friends.
14:31 [And] tell [those of] My servants who have attained to faith that they should be constant in prayer and spend [in Our way], secretly and openly, out of what We provide for them as sustenance,44 ere there come a Day when there will be no bargaining, and no mutual befriending.45
See surah 2, note 4.
Cf. 2:254. According to the philologist Abu `Ubaydah, as quoted by Razi, the expression bay` ("selling and buying" or "bargaining") denotes here the metaphorical "[giving and taking] ransom" which, as the Qur'an repeatedly stresses, will be inadmissible on the Day of Judgment (cf. 3:91 and the corresponding note 71, as well as 5:36, 10:54, 13:18, 39:47 and 70:11); similarly, the denial of khilal - which Abu `Ubaydah regards as synonymous, in this context, with mukhalah ("mutual befriending")-expresses the impossibility of "ransom" through intercession on Judgment Day, for "now, indeed, you have come unto Us in a lonely state, even as We created you in the first instance" (6:94).
Crucial Commandments14:31 Exhort My servants who believed to observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), and to give (to charity) from our provisions to them, secretly and publicly, before a day comes where there is neither trade, nor nepotism.,
14:31 (O Prophet), "Tell My believing servants to establish the Divine System and spend on others of the provision We have given them, secretly and openly, before a Day comes wherein there shall be neither trading nor befriending.” [2:254]
14:32 Allahu allathee khalaqa alssamawatiwaal-arda waanzala mina alssama-i maanfaakhraja bihi mina alththamarati rizqan lakumwasakhkhara lakumu alfulka litajriya fee albahri bi-amrihiwasakhkhara lakumu al-anhara
14:32 God is the One who created the heavens and the earth. He sent down water from the sky and brought out fruits as provisions for you. He committed for you the ships to run in the sea by His command, and He committed for you the rivers.
14:32 Godis the One who has created the heavens and the earth, and He has sent down water from the sky thus bringing out with it fruits as provisions for you, and He has commissioned for you the ships to run in the sea by His command, and He has commissioned for you the rivers.
14:32 [And remember that] it is God who has created the heavens and the earth, and who sends down water from the sky and thereby brings forth [all manner] of fruits for your sustenance; and who has made ships subservient to. you, so that they may sail through the sea at His behest; and has made the rivers subservient [to His laws, so that they be of use] to you;
14:32 GOD is the One who created the heavens and the earth, and He sends down from the sky water to produce all kinds of fruit for your sustenance. He has committed the ships to serve you on the sea in accordance with His command. He has committed the rivers as well to serve you.,
14:32 (Think of the Source of your wealth and provision!) God is the One Who has created the heavens and earth, and sends down water from the sky, thereby producing fruit and vegetation as provision for you. And He makes ships and boats to be of service to you that they sail in the sea by His command, and has made of service to you the rivers.
14:33 Wasakhkhara lakumu alshshamsa waalqamarada-ibayni wasakhkhara lakumu allayla waalnnahara
14:33 He committed for you the sun and the moon, both in continuity; and He committed for you the night and the day.
14:33 AndHe has commissioned for you the sun and the moon, in continuity; and He has commissioned for you the night and the day.
14:33 and has made the sun and the moon, both of them constant upon their courses, subservient [to His laws, so that they be of use] to you; and has made the night and the day subservient [to His laws, so that they be of use] to you.46
Almost all classical commentators agree that God's having made the natural phenomena "subservient" to man is a metaphor (majaz) for His having enabled man to derive lasting benefit from them: hence my explanatory interpolations. In the same sense, the night and the day are spoken of in 10:67, 27:86 or 40:61 as having been "made for you" (resp. "for them").
14:33 He has committed the sun and the moon in your service, continuously. He has committed the night and the day to serve you.,
14:33 And He made the sun and the moon, both of them constant on their courses and committed the night and the day to serve you.
14:34 Waatakum min kulli masaaltumoohu wa-in taAAuddoo niAAmata Allahi la tuhsoohainna al-insana lathaloomun kaffarun
14:34 He gave you all that you have asked Him. If you were to count God's blessings, you will never enumerate them. The human is indeed transgressing, unappreciative.
14:34 AndHe has given you from all that you have asked Him. And if you count the blessings of God, you will not be able to number them. Man is indeed transgressing, disbelieving.
14:34 And [always] does He give you something out of what you may be asking of Him;47 and should you try to count God's blessings, you could never compute them. [And yet,] behold, man is indeed most persistent in wrongdoing, stubbornly ingrate!
Le., God satisfies every one of man's desires, provided that His unfathomable wisdom regards its satisfaction as ultimately beneficial to the human being concerned: this is the meaning of the preposition min (lit., "out of", but in this context, "something out of") preceding the phrase "what you may be asking".
14:34 And He gives you all kinds of things that you implore Him for. If you count GOD's blessings, you can never encompass them. Indeed, the human being is transgressing, unappreciative.,
14:34 And He gives you all that you would be asking Him for. If you count the blessings of God’s provision never will you be able to enumerate them. Indeed, the human being is persistent in wrongdoing, stubbornly ingrate. [55:29]
14:35 Wa-ith qala ibraheemurabbi ijAAal hatha albalada aminan waojnubneewabaniyya an naAAbuda al-asnama
Abraham14:35 When Abraham said, "My Lord, make this town a sanctuary, and keep me and my sons away from serving idols."
14:35 AndAbraham said: "My Lord, make this a land of peace, and keep me and my sons away from serving statues."
14:35 AND [remember the time] when Abraham spoke [thus]:48 "O my Sustainer! Make this land secure,49 and preserve me and my children from ever worshipping idols50 -
The whole of this passage (verses 35-41)-from which the title of this surah is derived represents a parenthetic reminder, in the form of Abraham's prayer, of the only way to righteousness, in the deepest sense of the word, open to man: namely, a recognition of God's existence, oneness and uniqueness and, hence, a rejection of all belief in "other powers" supposedly co-existent with Him (cf. verse 30 above). Inasmuch as this prayer implies a realization of, and gratitude for, God's infinite bounty, it connects directly with the preceding verse 34 and the subsequent verse 42.
Le., the land in which the Ka'bah is situated (see surah 2, note 102) and, more specifically, Mecca.
The term "idols" (asnam, sing. sanam) does not apply exclusively to actual, concrete representations of false "deities": for shirk -that is, an attribution of divine powers or qualities to anyone or anything beside God-may consist also, as Razi points out, in a worshipful devotion to all manner of "causative agencies and outward means to an end" - an obvious allusion to wealth, power, luck, people's favour or disfavour, and so forth-"whereas genuine faith in the oneness and uniqueness of God (at-tawhid al-mahd) consists in divesting oneself of all inner attachment to [such] causative agencies and in being convinced that there exists no real directing power apart from God".
Abraham14:35 Recall that Abraham said, "My Lord, make this a peaceful land, and protect me and my children from worshipping idols.,
14:35 Recall that Abraham said, “My Lord! Make this a peaceful land and protect me and my children from idolatry in any form.” [2:125]
14:36 Rabbi innahunna adlalna katheeranmina alnnasi faman tabiAAanee fa-innahu minneewaman AAasanee fa-innaka ghafoorun raheemun
14:36 "My Lord, they have misguided many from amongst the people. So, whoever follows me, then he is of me, and whoever disobeys me, then You are Forgiving, Compassionate."
14:36 "MyLord, they have misguided many from among the people. So, whoever follows me, then he is of me, and whoever disobeys me, then You are Forgiving, Merciful."
14:36 for, verily, O my Sustainer, these [false objects of worship] have led many people astray! "Hence, [only] he who follows me [in this my faith]~ is truly of me;51 and as for him who disobeys me - Thou art, verily, much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!
Thus, Abraham accepts God's verdict (given in 2:124) regarding the sinners from among his descendants.
14:36 "My Lord, they have misled so many people. As for those who follow me, they belong with me. As for those who disobey me, You are Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
14:37 Rabbana innee askantu min thurriyyateebiwadin ghayri thee zarAAin AAinda baytika almuharramirabbana liyuqeemoo alssalata faijAAalaf-idatan mina alnnasi tahwee ilayhim waorzuqhummina alththamarati laAAallahum yashkuroona
14:37 "My Lord, I have resided part of my progeny in an uncultivated valley near your Restricted Sanctuary. My Lord, so that they may hold the contact prayer. So let the hearts of the people incline towards them. Provide them with fruits that they may appreciate."
14:37 "OurLord, I have resided part of my progeny in a barren valley near your Restricted Sanctuary. Our Lord, that they may hold the contact prayer, so let the hearts of the people incline towards them and give provisions to them of the fruits that they may give thanks."
14:37 "O our Sustainer! Behold, I have settled some of my offspring in a valley in which there is no arable land,52 close to Thy sanctified Temple, so that, O our Sustainer, they might devote themselves to prayer: cause Thou, therefore, people's hearts to incline towards them53 and grant them fruitful sustenance, so that they might have cause to be grateful.
Le., the narrow desert valley of Mecca, which is enclosed by barren, rocky hills. By "some of my offspring" Abraham refers to Ishmael and his descendants who settled at Mecca.
Le., to be desirous of visiting them - namely, on pilgrimage to Mecca - and thus help them to maintain themselves in the holy but barren land. The phrase af'idah min an-nas lends itself also to the rendering "the hearts of some people", in which case it could be taken to mean "the hearts of the believers" (Baghawi, Razi, Ibn Kathir).
14:37 "Our Lord, I have settled part of my family in this plantless valley, at Your Sacred House. Our Lord, they are to observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), so let throngs of people converge upon them, and provide for them all kinds of fruits, that they may be appreciative.,
14:37 “Our Lord! I have settled some of my family in this barren valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House. Our Lord! They are here to establish the Divine System. Give them the nobility of character so that the hearts of people incline toward them. Provide for them with your blessings so that they may focus on their Mission. Make their efforts fruitful and enable them to show gratitude by sharing the bounties with others.”15
The meaning of Shukrhas been detailed in the last sentence
14:38 Rabbana innaka taAAlamu manukhfee wama nuAAlinu wama yakhfa AAalaAllahi min shay-in fee al-ardi wala fee alssama/-i
14:38 "Our Lord, you know what we hide and what we declare. Nothing is hidden from God in the earth nor in the heavens."
14:38 "Our Lord, you know what we hide and what we declare. And nothing at all is hidden from God on the earth or in the heavens."
14:38 "O our Sustainer! Thou truly knowest all that we may hide [in our hearts] as well as all that we bring into the open:' for nothing whatever, be it on earth or in heaven, remains hidden from God.
14:38 "Our Lord, You know whatever we conceal and whatever we declare - nothing is hidden from GOD on earth, nor in the heavens.,
14:38 “Our Lord! You know what we conceal and what we reveal.” Nothing is hidden from God, whether on earth or in heaven.
14:39 Alhamdu lillahi allatheewahaba lee AAala alkibari ismaAAeela wa-ishaqainna rabbee lasameeAAu aldduAAa/-i
14:39 "Praise be to God who has granted me, despite my old age, Ishmael and Isaac. My Lord is the hearer of prayers."
14:39 "Praise be to God who has granted me to my old age Ishmael and Isaac; my Lord is Hearer of the prayer."
14:39 "All praise is due to God, who has bestowed upon me, in my old age, Ishmael and Isaac! Behold, my Sustainer hears indeed all prayer:
14:39 "Praise be to GOD for granting me, despite my old age, Ismail and Isaac. My Lord answers the prayers.,
14:39 “All praise to God Who has given me sons like Ishmael and Isaac in later age! My Lord is the Hearer of prayer.”
14:40 Rabbi ijAAalnee muqeema alssalatiwamin thurriyyatee rabbana wtaqabbal duAAa/-i
14:40 "My Lord, let me hold the contact prayer, and also from my progeny. Our Lord, accept my prayer."
14:40 "MyLord, let me hold the contact prayer, and also from my progeny. Our Lord, and accept my prayer."
14:40 [hence,] O my Sustainer, cause me and [some] of my offspring to remain constant in prayer!54 "And, O our Sustainer, accept this my prayer:
I.e., metonymically, "to remain utterly devoted to Thee". The particle min ("[some] of") preceding the word dhurriyati ("my offspring") is obviously an allusion to 2:124, where God says in answer to Abraham's question about his descendants: "My covenant does not embrace the evildoers." Thus, Abraham has been given to understand that not all of his posterity would be righteous and that none can claim to belong to a "chosen people" by virtue of his or her descent from an apostle of God: a statement which relates not only to the Israelites, who descended from Abraham through Isaac, but also to the Arabian (Ishmaelite) branch of the Abrahamic peoples, from whom the Quraysh were to spring: hence, by implication, even to the unrighteous among the descendants of the Last Prophet, Muhammad, who belonged to the tribe of Quraysh.
The Contact Prayers: Gift From God14:40 "My Lord, make me one who consistently observes the Contact Prayers (Salat), and also my children. Our Lord, please answer my prayers.,
14:40 “My Lord! Enable me and my children to establish the Divine System. Our Lord! Accept my prayer.”
14:41 Rabbana ighfir lee waliwalidayyawalilmu/mineena yawma yaqoomu alhisabu
14:41 "Our Lord, forgive me and my parents, and those who acknowledge on the day the reckoning is called."
14:41 "Our Lord, forgive me and my parents, and the believers on the Day the judgment is called."
14:41 Grant Thy forgiveness unto me, and my parents, and all the believers, on the Day on which the [last] reckoning will come to pass!"
14:41 "My Lord, forgive me and my parents, and the believers, on the day when the reckoning takes place.",
14:41 Our Lord! Grant the shelter of forgiveness to me, my parents, and the believers on the Day when the final reckoning comes to pass.” [9:114]
14:42 Wala tahsabanna Allahaghafilan AAamma yaAAmalu alththalimoonainnama yu-akhkhiruhum liyawmin tashkhasu feehial-absaru
14:42 Do not think that God is unaware of what the wicked do. He is merely delaying them to a day when all eyes are watching.
14:42 Anddo not think that God is unaware of what the wicked do. He is merely delaying them to a Day when all eyes are watching.
14:42 AND DO NOT think that God is unaware of what the evildoers are doing: He but grants them respite until the Day when their eyes will stare in horror,55
This verse connects with the last sentence of Abraham's prayer, namely, his reference to "the Day on which the [last] reckoning will come to pass". The wrongdoers mentioned here are those who indulge in the belief "that there are other powers that can rival God" (cf. verse 30 above), and thus commit the unforgivable sin of shirk. As regards the "respite" granted to them, see the first clause of 11:20 and the corresponding note 39.
14:42 Do not ever think that GOD is unaware of what the transgressors are doing. He only respites them until a day where the eyes stare in horror.,
14:42 Do not think that God is unaware of what the wrongdoers are doing. He but gives them respite. They will stare in horror on the Day when all their deeds will reach their logical conclusion.
14:43 MuhtiAAeena muqniAAee ruoosihim layartaddu ilayhim tarfuhum waaf-idatuhum hawa/on
14:43 They will approach with their heads bowed, their eyes will not blink, and their hearts will be void.
14:43 They will approach with their heads bowed, and their eyes will not blink, and their hearts will be void.
14:43 the while they will be running confusedly to and fro, with their heads upraised [in supplication], unable to look away from what they shall behold,56 and their hearts an abysmal void.
Lit., "their gaze will not revert to them".
14:43 As they rush (out of the graves), their faces will be looking upward, their eyes will not even blink, and their minds will be horrified.,
14:43 As they rush to and fro with their faces looking upwards, their eyes will not even blink, and their hearts will be horrified.
14:44 Waanthiri alnnasa yawmaya/teehimu alAAathabu fayaqoolu allatheena thalamoorabbana akhkhirna ila ajalin qareebin nujibdaAAwataka wanattabiAAi alrrusula awa lam takoonooaqsamtum min qablu ma lakum min zawalin
Warning14:44 Warn the people of the day when the retribution will come to them, and those who were wicked will say, "Our Lord, delay this for us until a short time, and we will respond to Your call and follow the messengers!" Did you not swear before this that you would last forever?
14:44 Andwarn the people of the Day when the retribution will come to them, and those who have been wicked will say: "Our Lord, delay this for us until a short time, and we will heed your call and follow the messengers!" Did you not swear before this that you would last forever?
14:44 Hence, warn men of the Day when this suffering may befall them, and when those who did wrong [in their lifetime] will exclaim: "O our Sustainer! Grant us respite for a short while, so that we might respond to Thy call and follow the apostles!"57 [But God will answer:] "Why - were you not aforetime wont to swear that no kind of resurrection and retribution awaited you?58
Lit., "that there would be no going down [or "no removal"] whatever for you" - i.e., no passing-over from earthly life to a life in the hereafter, attended by God's retribution of sins: a reference to many people's refusal, often mentioned in the Qur'an, to believe in life after death and, hence, in God's ultimate judgment.
God Sends His Commands Through His Messengers14:44 You shall warn the people of the day when the retribution comes to them. Those who transgressed will say, "Our Lord, give us one more respite. We will then respond to Your call and follow the messengers." Did you not swear in the past that you will last forever?,
14:44 So, warn mankind of the Day when the suffering may befall them, and the wrongdoers will say, "Our Lord! Give us a little time. We will respond to Your Call and follow the Messengers.” (They will be told), "What! Did you not use to swear in the past that there would never be a decline for you?"
14:45 Wasakantum fee masakini allatheenathalamoo anfusahum watabayyana lakum kayfa faAAalnabihim wadarabna lakumu al-amthala
14:45 You even resided in the homes of those who had wronged themselves, and it was made clear to you what We did to them. We had cited the examples to you.
14:45 Andyou resided in the dwellings of those who had wronged themselves, and it was made clear to you what We did to them; and We had put forth the examples for you.
14:45 And yet, you dwelt in the dwelling-places of those who had sinned against their own selves [before your time],59 and it was made obvious to you how We had dealt with them: for We have set forth unto you many a parable [of sin, resurrection and divine retribution]."60
I.e., "you lived on the same earth, and in basically the same human environment, as those earlier generations who offended against all ethical values and thereby brought destruction upon themselves: hence, their tragic fate should have been a warning to you".
Lit., "the parables", i.e., the parables in the Qur'an which illuminate the idea of resurrection and of God's final judgment (Razi). See also note 37 above.
14:45 You dwelled in the homes of those before you, who wronged their souls, and you have seen clearly what we did to them. We have set many precedents for you.,
14:45 “You dwelled in the homes and towns where people before you had dwelt and wronged their own ‘self’ oppressing the weak. And you were made well aware of how We dealt with them. And We gave you plenty of examples.”
14:46 Waqad makaroo makrahum waAAinda Allahimakruhum wa-in kana makruhum litazoola minhu aljibalu
14:46 Indeed they schemed their scheming, and their scheming was at God; though their scheming was enough to eliminate mountains.
14:46 Andthey schemed their scheming, and their scheming is known to God; and their scheming was enough to make the mountains cease to exist.
14:46 And [this retribution will befall all evildoers because] they devise that false imagery of theirs61 - and all their false imagery is within God's knowledge. [And never can the blasphemers prevail against the truth - not] even if their false imagery were so (well devised and so powerful] that mountains could be moved thereby.
Lit., "they devised their devising", i.e., their blasphemous belief in the existence of other "divine powers" side by side with God: this is the interpretation given by Tabari towards the end of his long commentary on this verse. For my rendering of the term makr, in this context, as "false imagery", see surah 13, note 62.
14:46 They schemed their schemes, and GOD is fully aware of their schemes. Indeed, their schemes were sufficient to erase mountains.,
14:46 They made mighty schemes and their schemes were well within the Sight of God. And they were strong enough to intimidate the strongest of resolves.16
Literally, strong enough to shake mountains
14:47 Fala tahsabanna Allahamukhlifa waAAdihi rusulahu inna Allaha AAazeezun thoointiqamin
14:47 So do not think that God will fail to keep His promise to His messengers. God is Noble, able to seek revenge.
14:47 So do not think that God will fail to keep His promise to His messengers. God is Noble, capable of seeking revenge.
14:47 HENCE, do not think that God will fail to fulfil the promise which He gave to His apostles:62 verily, God is almighty, an avenger of evil!
I.e., the promise of resurrection and recompense on the Day of Judgment. This relates specifically to the "respite" occasionally granted to evildoers for the duration of their lifetime (cf. verse 42 above).
Guaranteed Victory for God's Messengers14:47 Do not think that GOD will ever break His promise to His messengers. GOD is Almighty, Avenger.,
14:47 Never think that God would fail His Messengers in His promise. Surely, God is Mighty, the Lord of just requital.
14:48 Yawma tubaddalu al-ardu ghayra al-ardiwaalssamawatu wabarazoo lillahi alwahidialqahhari
New Earth and New Heavens14:48 The day the earth is replaced with another earth, as are the heavens, and they will appear before God, the One, the Irresistible.3
14:48 TheDay the earth is replaced with another earth, as are the heavens, and they will appear before God, the One, the Supreme.
14:48 [His promise will be fulfilled] on the Day when the earth shall be changed into another earth, as shall be the heavens63 and when [all men] shall appear before God, the One who holds absolute sway over all that exists.
This is an allusion to the total, cataclysmic change, on the Last Day, of all natural phenomena, and thus of the universe as known to man (cf. 20:105 and the corresponding note 90). Since that change will be beyond anything that man has ever experienced or what the human mind can conceive, all the Qur'anic descriptions - in the next two verses as well as in many other places-of what is to happen on that Last Day are, of necessity, expressed in allegorical terms: and this applies also to all descriptions of man's condition, good or bad, in, the life to come. (Cf. note 37 above, relating to the term "parable" often used in the Qur'an.)
New Heavens and New Earth14:48 The day will come when this earth will be substituted with a new earth, and also the heavens, and everyone will be brought before GOD, the One, the Supreme.4 ,
14:48 The Day will come when this earth will be replaced with a new earth, and the heavens too will be replaced and they will come forth to God, the One, the Dominating.17
14:49 Watara almujrimeena yawma-ithinmuqarraneena fee al-asfadi
14:49 You will see the criminals on that day held by restraints.
14:49 Andyou will see the criminals that Day bound together in fetters.
14:49 For on that Day thou wilt see all who were lost in sin linked together in fetters,64
In his commentary on this passage, Razi expresses the view that the reference to the sinners' being "linked together in fetters" is a metaphor of their own evil deeds and inclinations and, consequently, of the utter despair which will be common to all of them in the hereafter. To my mind, it may also be an allusion to the chain-reaction which every evil deed is bound to set in motion on earth, one evil unavoidably begetting another.
14:49 And you will see the guilty on that day chained in shackles.,
14:49 And you will see the criminals effectively immobilized.
14:50 Sarabeeluhum min qatraninwataghsha wujoohahumu alnnaru
14:50 Their clothes will be of tar, and the fire will overwhelm their faces.
14:50 Their clothes will be of tar, and the fire will overwhelm their faces.
14:50 clothed in garments of black pitch, with fire veiling their faces.65
According to Razi, the "garments of black pitch (gatiran)"' and the "fire veiling their faces" are metaphors of the inexpressible suffering and loathsome horror which will enwrap the sinners' souls on the Day of Judgment. (See also surah 73, note 7.)
14:50 Their garments will be made of tar, and fire will overwhelm their faces.,
14:50 They will be drenched in the flames of their own igniting, feeling as if the coal tar is stuck on their whole existence.
14:51 Liyajziya Allahu kulla nafsin makasabat inna Allaha sareeAAu alhisabi
14:51 Thus God will recompense every person what it earned. God is quick to reckoning.
14:51 Thus God will recompense every soul for what it had earned. God is swift to reckoning.
14:51 [And all shall be judged on that Day,] so that God may requite every human being for all that he has earned [in life]: verily, God is swift in reckoning!
14:51 For GOD will pay each soul for whatever it earned; GOD is the most efficient reckoner.,
14:51 Justice will be swift in the Divine Order, so that everyone is paid a quick recompense and peace will remain undisturbed. God is Swift at reckoning.
14:52 Hatha balaghun lilnnasiwaliyuntharoo bihi waliyaAAlamoo annama huwa ilahunwahidun waliyaththakkara oloo al-albabi
14:52 This is a proclamation for the people and so that they are warned with it, and so that they know that there is but One god, and so that those with intelligence will remember.
14:52 This is a proclamation for the people and so that they are warned with it, and so that they know that there is but One god, and so that those who possess intelligence will remember.
14:52 THIS IS A MESSAGE unto all mankind. Hence, let them be warned thereby, and let them know that He is the One and Only God; and let those who are endowed with insight take this to heart!
14:52 This is a proclamation for the people, to be warned herewith, and to let them know that He is only one god, and for those who possess intelligence to take heed.,
14:52 This is a clear message for all mankind in order that they may be warned thereby, and that they may know that He is One God. Let those endowed with insight take this to heart.18
Danger signs have been posted on the highway of life as the caravan of humanity moves along to the noble goal of Peace. God is the Lord and Cherisher of all humanity and His law is Supreme 1:1, 114:1. Men and women of understanding and discernment, and those of history, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and those in positions of authority must pay heed to what their Lord is telling them. 9:31, 14:48, 18:48, 48:28, 61:9