بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
49:1 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tuqaddimoo bayna yadayi Allahi warasoolihi waittaqooAllaha inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleemun
49:1 O you who acknowledge, do not advance yourselves before God and His messenger. Be aware of God. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.1
Followers of hadith and sunna claim that God is represented by the Quran, and the messenger is represented by his opinions on the Quran. Thus, they claim that the Quran is not enough for salvation. Some people may not utter this claim straightforwardly. They may even claim that the Quran is complete and enough for our guidance. However, further questioning will reveal that their quran is not "the Quran." The Quran is the one that consists of 114 Chapters and 6346 verses. It is a mathematically coded book. However, their minds are confused, and their quran is contaminated with human speculations and limited by a snapshot interpretation. They try to scare the believers by saying "you do not like the messenger." The belief that God is represented by the Quran, and the messenger by his teaching is a satanic claim. There are several points to remember:
Quran represents God and His messenger.
Obeying the Quran is obeying God and the messenger.
Quran never says: "Obey God and Moses," or "Obey God and Muhammed." Rather, Quran consistently states: "Obey God and the messenger." This is because the word messenger (rasul) comes from the "message" (risala). The message is entirely from God; messengers cannot exist without the message.
Messengers, as humans, make mistakes. Thus, when believers made a covenant with prophet Muhammed they promised to obey him conditionally, i.e., his righteous orders (60:12). Moreover, God specifically orders Muhammed to consult the believers around him (3:159). If nobody can object to the opinion of the messenger, then consultation is meaningless. However, whenever the final decision after consultation is made, it should be followed.
During their lifetimes, messengers are community leaders. In this regard, messengers are not different than the believers who are in charge (4:59); both should be obeyed. But, this obedience is not absolute. It is open to consultation and discussion.
The position of messengers is different during their lives; they are interactive teachers and curious students as well. We have the chance to ask them further questions, discuss issues, learn their intentions, and even correct their mistakes. On the other hand, they have the opportunity to correct our misunderstandings. However, when they pass away, their teaching becomes frozen and looses its advancing three-dimensional character. The frozen, snap-shot fragments of knowledge are a dangerous weapon in the hands of ignorant people; they use it to stop God's perpetual teaching. They defend every plain error in the name of the messenger. They insult every sincere student of God's revelation.
We reject Hadith because we respect Muhammed. No sound person would like to have people born several centuries after him roam the earth and collect hearsay attributed to him. Besides, if Muhammed and his supporters really believed that the Quran was not sufficient for guidance, or an ambiguous book, or lacked details, then, surely they would have been the first ones to write the hadith down and collect them in books. After all, their numbers were in the hundreds of thousands and they had plenty of wealth. They could afford some ink, papyrus paper or leather, and some brain cells, for such an important task. They would not leave it to a guy from faraway Bukhara or his ilk to collect hearsay reports called hadiths more than two hundred years later in a land soaked with blood because of sectarian wars. Additionally, Muhammed had many unemployed and handicapped people around who would gladly volunteer for such a mission. To explain away this 200-year gap in history, the traditionalists created an excuse for prophet Muhammed and his supporters. Supposedly, Muhammed and his followers feared that people would mix the Quran with hadiths. This is nonsense. They were smart enough to distinguish both, and there were enough people to keep track of them.
Besides, it is the followers of hadith and sunna themselves who claim that the Quran was a "literary miracle." If their claim of "literary miracle" were true, then it would be much easier to separate the verses of the Quran from hadith. Let's assume that they could not really distinguish the text of the Quran from Muhammed's words, then couldn't they simply mark the pages of the scripture with the letter Q for the Quran and letter H for Hadith, or let some record only the Quran, or simply color code their covers? Or allocate leather for the Quran and paper for hadith, or vice versa? They could find many ways to keep different books separate from each other. They did not need to study rocket science or have computer technology to accomplish that primitive task. The collectors of hadiths wished that people would accept their assertion that Muhammed and his supporters did not have ink, paper or leather, minds, and willingness to collect hadith before them. It is no wonder they even fabricated a few hadiths claiming that Muhammed's companions were competing with dogs for bones to write the verses of the Quran on!
Most likely, Muhammed feared that people would mix his words with the Quran. Not in the primitive way that is claimed by the Sunnis and Shiites, since as we pointed out, there were many ways to eliminate that concern. But the real concern of Muhammed was different. Because of the warnings of the Quran, he feared that muslims would follow the footsteps of Jews and would create their own Mishna, Gomorra, and Talmud: hadith would be considered to be an authority, as another source besides the Quran, setting him up as a partner with God!
Ironically, the followers of hadith and sunna accomplished exactly that. They did not need to publish the text of hadith together with the Quran--though they have done that in many commentaries—since they have been doing worse. Though they usually have kept hadith separate from the Quran physically, when it comes to purposes of guidance and religious authority, they mix them with the verses of the Quran with passion. Even worse, they consider the understanding of the Quran to be dependent on the understanding of hadith, thereby elevating hadith to a position of authority over the Quran.
Thus, if indeed Muhammed was worried about people mixing his words with the Quran, the followers of hadith proved his worries right: centuries after him, not only did they mix his words with the Quran, but also mixed thousands of fabrications and nonsense attributed to him. See 25:30; 59:7.
49:1 O you who believe, do not place your opinion above that of God and His messenger. And be aware of God. God is Hearer, Knowledgeable.
49:1 O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not put yourselves forward1 in the presence of [what] God and His Apostle [may have ordained], but remain conscious of God: for, verily, God is all-hearing, all-knowing!
I.e., "do not allow your own desires to have precedence".
49:1 O you who believe, do not place your opinion above that of GOD and His messenger. You shall reverence GOD. GOD is Hearer, Omniscient.,
49:1 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not be forward in the presence of God and His Messenger, and be mindful of God. God is Hearer, Knower.1
This is the 49th Surah of the Qur’an and it has 18 verses. The Surah primarily deals with social manners, respect of privacy and our behavior in general that leads to success in both lives. It includes a most revolutionary Injunction that it is only the character and nothing else that can make a human being superior to another.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
Let us refrain from holding our opinions above what God has revealed to His Messenger
49:2 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tarfaAAoo aswatakum fawqa sawti alnnabiyyiwala tajharoo lahu bialqawli kajahri baAAdikumlibaAAdin an tahbata aAAmalukumwaantum la tashAAuroona
49:2 O you who acknowledge, do not raise your voices above the voice of the prophet, nor shall you speak loudly at him as you would speak loudly to each other, lest your works become nullified while you do not perceive.
49:2 O you who believe, do not raise your voices above the voice of the prophet, nor shall you speak loudly to him as you would speak loudly to each other, lest your works become nullified while you do not perceive.
49:2 O you who have attained to faith! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet,2 and neither speak loudly to him, as you would speak loudly to one another,3 lest all your [good] deeds come to nought without your perceiving it.
This has both a literal and a figurative meaning: literal in the case of the Prophet's Companions, and figurative for them as well as for believers of later times - implying that one's personal opinions and predilections must not be allowed to overrule the clear-cut legal ordinances and/or moral stipulations promulgated by the Prophet (cf. 4:65 and the corresponding note 84).
I.e., address him, or (in later times) speak of him, with unbecoming familiarity.
49:2 O you who believe, do not raise your voices above the voice of the prophet, nor shall you shout at him as you shout at each other, lest your works become nullified while you do not perceive.,1
Whenever the word ``prophet'' (Nabi) is used in reference to Muhammad, it invariably refers to him during his life, not after his death. Obviously,we cannot possibly raise our voices above Muhammad's voice, now that he isdead. See also33:56.
49:2 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and you must not speak loudly to him, as you would speak loudly to one another, lest your works be rendered vain while you perceive not.2
In my opinion, this verse applies today as well. We must be respectful whenever we speak of him. 33:56
49:3 Inna allatheena yaghuddoona aswatahumAAinda rasooli Allahi ola-ika allatheenaimtahana Allahu quloobahum lilttaqwalahum maghfiratun waajrun AAatheemun
49:3 Surely, those who lower their voices in the presence of the messenger of God, they are the ones whose hearts have been tested by God for righteousness. They have deserved forgiveness and a great recompense.
49:3 Surely, those who lower their voices with the messenger of God, they are the ones whose hearts have been tested by God for righteousness. They have deserved forgiveness and a great recompense.
49:3 Behold, they who lower their voices in the presence of God's Apostle - it is they whose hearts God has tested [and opened] to consciousness of Himself; [and] theirs shall be forgiveness and a reward supreme.
49:3 Surely, those who lower their voices at the messenger of GOD are the ones whose hearts are prepared by GOD to become righteous. They have deserved forgiveness and a great recompense.,2
Respecting the messenger helps outsiders and visitors in coming to God's message.
49:3 Those who lower their voices in the presence of the Messenger of God, it is those whose hearts God has primed for righteousness. For them will be the protection through forgiveness and a supreme reward.
49:4 Inna allatheena yunadoonaka minwara-i alhujurati aktharuhum layaAAqiloona
49:4 Surely, those who call out to you from behind the private apartments, most of them do not reason.
49:4 Surely, those who call on you from behind the lodgings, most of them do not comprehend.
49:4 Verily, [O Prophet,] as for those who call thee from without thy private apartments - most of them do not use their reason:4
While this relates in the first instance to the Prophet, it may also be taken to apply to any supreme leader of the community (amir al-muminin) who acts as the Prophet's successor (khalifah) and rules in his name, i.e., under the aegis of Islamic Law. (As regards the Prophet himself, the above exhortation to reverent behaviour implies, in the view of many outstanding Islamic thinkers, a prohibition to "call out to him" when visiting his tomb.)
49:4 As for those who call on you from outside the walls, most of them do not understand.,
49:4 Those who call out to you from behind the private apartments, most of them lack understanding.
49:5 Walaw annahum sabaroo hattatakhruja ilayhim lakana khayran lahum waAllahughafoorun raheemun
49:5 If they had only been patient till you came out to them, it would have been better for them. God is Forgiver, Compassionate.
49:5 And if they had only been patient until you came out to them, it would have been better for them. God is Forgiver, Merciful.
49:5 for, if they had the patience [to wait] until thou come forth to them [of thine own accord], it would be for their own good. Still, God is much forgiving, a dispenser of grace.
49:5 Had they been patient until you came out to them, it would have been better for them. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
49:5 If they only had patience until you came out to them, it would certainly be better for them. God is Forgiving, Merciful (and so shall you be).
49:6 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooin jaakum fasiqun binaba-in fatabayyanoo an tuseebooqawman bijahalatin fatusbihoo AAala mafaAAaltum nadimeena
Investigate Rumors49:6 O you who acknowledge, if a wicked person comes to you with any news, then you shall investigate it. Lest you harm a people out of ignorance, then you will become regretful over what you have done.
49:6 O you who believe, if a wicked person comes to you with any news, then you shall investigate it. Lest you harm a people out of ignorance, then you will become regretful over what you have done.
49:6 O YOU who have attained to faith! If any iniquitous person comes to you with a [slanderous] tale, use your discernment,5 lest you hurt people unwittingly and afterwards be filled with remorse for what you have done.6
I.e., verify the truth before giving credence to any such report or rumour. The tale-bearer is characterized as "iniquitous" because the very act of spreading unsubstantiated rumours affecting the reputation of other persons constitutes a spiritual offence.
Thus, after laying stress in the preceding verses on the reverence due to God's message- bearer - and, by implication, to every righteous leader of the community - the discourse turns to the moral imperative of safeguarding the honour and reputation of every member of the community, man and woman alike. This principle is taken up, more explicitly, in verse 12.
Investigate Rumors Before Believing Them49:6 O you who believe, if a wicked person brings any news to you, you shall first investigate, lest you commit injustice towards some people, out of ignorance, then become sorry and remorseful for what you have done.,
49:6 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! If an indiscreet person comes to you with any news, verify it lest you hurt some people in ignorance and then regret what you have done.
49:7 WaiAAlamoo anna feekum rasoola Allahilaw yuteeAAukum fee katheerin mina al-amri laAAanittum walakinnaAllaha habbaba ilaykumu al-eemanawazayyanahu fee quloobikum wakarraha ilaykumu alkufra waalfusooqawaalAAisyana ola-ika humu alrrashidoona
49:7 Know that among you is the messenger of God. If he were to obey you in many things, you would be in difficulty. But God made you love acknowledgement and He adorned it in your hearts; He made you hate denial, wickedness, and disobedience. These are the rightly guided ones.
49:7 And know that among you is the messenger of God. If he were to obey you in many things, you would have deviated. But God made you love faith and He adorned it in your hearts, and He made you hate disbelief, wickedness, and disobedience. These are the rightly guided ones.
49:7 And know that God's Apostle is among you:7 were he to comply with your inclinations in each and every case,8 you would be bound to come to harm [as a community]. But as it is, God has caused [your] faith to be dear to you, and has given it beauty in your hearts, and has made hateful to you all denial of the truth, and all iniquity, and all rebellion [against what is good]. Such indeed are they who follow the right course
Sc., "and he ought to be an example for you as regards your behaviour towards one another": i.e., he would not accept rashly a hearsay tale affecting the honour of third persons, but would either refuse to listen to it altogether or, should a clarification become necessary in the interests of the community, would insist on ascertaining the truth objectively.
Lit., "in many a case (amr)": the implication being that, more often than not, man is prone to give credence to malicious rumours devoid of any real evidence.
49:7 And know that GOD's messenger has come in your midst. Had he listened to you in many things, you would have made things difficult for yourselves. But GOD made you love faith and adorned it in your hearts, and He made you abhor disbelief, wickedness, and disobedience. These are the guided ones.,
49:7 And be constantly aware that in your midst is God’s Messenger. If he were to obey you in much of the governance, you would certainly be in chaos. But God has made belief dear to you and has beautified it in your hearts. And He has made disbelief, immoral conduct and disobedience detestable to you. Such are those who are rightly guided.
49:8 Fadlan mina Allahi waniAAmatanwaAllahu AAaleemun hakeemun
49:8 Such is the grace from God and a blessing. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
49:8 Such is the grace from God and a blessing. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.
49:8 through God's bounty and favour; and God is all-knowing, truly wise.
49:8 Such is grace from GOD and His blessings. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise.,
49:8 A bounty and bliss from God, and God is Knower, Wise.
49:9 Wa-in ta-ifatani minaalmu/mineena iqtataloo faaslihoo baynahumafa-in baghat ihdahuma AAala al-okhrafaqatiloo allatee tabghee hatta tafee-a ilaamri Allahi fa-in faat faaslihoobaynahuma bialAAadli waaqsitoo inna Allahayuhibbu almuqsiteena
Be a Peacemaker; Observe Justice and Respect Diversity49:9 If two parties of those who acknowledge battle with each other, you shall reconcile them; but if one of them aggresses against the other, then you shall fight the one aggressing until it complies with God's command. Once it complies, then you shall reconcile the two groups with justice, and be equitable; for God loves those who are equitable.
49:9 And if two parties of believers battle with each other, you shall reconcile them; but if one of them aggresses against the other, then you shall fight the one aggressing until it complies with the command of God. Once it complies, then you shall reconcile the two groups with justice, and be equitable; for God loves those who are equitable.
49:9 Hence, if two groups of believers fall to fighting,9 make peace between them; but then, if one of the two [groups] goes on acting wrongfully towards the other, fight against the one that acts wrongfully until it reverts to God's commandment;10 and if they revert, make peace between them with justice, and deal equitably [with them]: for verily, God loves those who act equitably!
The expression "fighting" comprises in this context all modes of discord and contention, both in word and deed, evidently as a consequence of the slanderous rumours spoken of in verse 6 above.
I.e., that the believers should act as brethren (see next verse).
Reconcile The Believers49:9 If two groups of believers fought with each other, you shall reconcile them. If one group aggresses against the other, you shall fight the aggressing group until they submit to GOD's command. Once they submit, you shall reconcile the two groups equitably. You shall maintain justice; GOD loves those who are just.,
49:9 And if two groups of believers engage in fighting, make peace between them. But then, if one of the two transgresses against the other, fight the one that transgresses until it complies with God’s command (the decision that was made by the Central Authority). Once they comply, make peace between them with justice, and act equitably. God loves the equitable.
49:10 Innama almu/minoona ikhwatun faaslihoobayna akhawaykum waittaqoo Allaha laAAallakum turhamoona
49:10 Those who acknowledge are but brothers; so reconcile between your brothers, and be aware of God, that you may receive mercy.2
Some readers commit the logical fallacy called Accent in understanding of this verse, "Those who acknowledge are but brethren…" They read the beginning of the Arabic statement, innama al-muminuna ikhwah, with an emphasis on the first two words rather than on the last word, leading to a mistranslation, "Only believers are brethren," thereby creating contradiction with the verses of the Quran depicting all humanity as brethren from Adam.
49:10 The believers are brothers; so reconcile between your brothers, and be aware of God, that you may receive mercy.
49:10 All believers are but brethren.11 Hence, [whenever they are at odds,] make peace between your two brethren, and remain conscious of God, so that you might be graced with His mercy.
The plural noun ikhwah ("brethren" or "brotherhood") has here, of course, a purely ideological connotation, comprising men and women alike; the same applies to the subsequent mention of "your two brethren".
The Real Family49:10 The believers are members of one family; you shall keep the peace within your family and reverence GOD, that you may attain mercy.,
49:10 The believers are but a single Brotherhood. So, make peace between your brothers and sisters. And be mindful of God so that you may attain mercy.3
They are members of one family, brothers and sisters to one another
49:11 يايها الذين ءامنوا لا يسخر قوم من قوم عسى ان يكونوا خيرا منهم ولا نساء من نساء عسى ان يكن خيرا منهن ولا تلمزوا انفسكم ولا تنابزوا بالالقب بئس الاسم الفسوق بعد الايمن ومن لم يتب فاولئك هم الظلمون
49:11 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola yaskhar qawmun min qawmin AAasa an yakoonookhayran minhum wala nisaon min nisa-in AAasaan yakunna khayran minhunna wala talmizoo anfusakum walatanabazoo bial-alqabi bi/sa al-ismualfusooqu baAAda al-eemani waman lam yatub faola-ikahumu alththalimoona
49:11 O you who acknowledge, let not a people ridicule other people, for they may be better than them. Nor shall any women ridicule other women, for they may be better than them. Nor shall you mock one another, or call each other names. Evil indeed is the reversion to wickedness after attaining acknowledgement. Anyone who does not repent, then these are the transgressors.
49:11 O you who believe, let not any people ridicule other people, for they may be better than they. Nor shall any women ridicule other women, for they may be better than they. Nor shall you mock one another, or call each other names; miserable indeed is the name of wickedness after attaining faith. And anyone who does not repent, then these are the transgressors.
49:11 O YOU who have attained to faith! No men shall deride [other] men: it may well be that those [whom they deride] are better than themselves; and no women [shall deride other] women: it may well be that those [whom they deride] are better than themselves.12 And neither shall you defame one another, nor insult one another by [opprobrious] epithets: evil is all imputation of iniquity after [one has attained to] faith;13 and they who [become guilty thereof and] do not repent - it is they, they who are evildoers!
The implication is that believers, whether men or women, shall never deride one another (Zamakhshari , Baydawi).
This applies no less to the faith of the one who insults than to that of the insulted (Razi): cf. 6:82 - "[those] who have not obscured their faith by wrongdoing".
Believers Set the Example49:11 O you who believe, no people shall ridicule other people, for they may be better than they. Nor shall any women ridicule other women, for they may be better than they. Nor shall you mock one another, or make fun of your names. Evil indeed is the reversion to wickedness after attaining faith. Anyone who does not repent after this, these are the transgressors.,
49:11 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! No people shall make mockery of other people, for they may be better than they are. Nor shall any women make mockery of other women, for they may be better than they are. Neither shall you defame nor be sarcastic to one another. And do not insult one other by nicknames. Evil is calling by indecent names after attaining ‘Iman’. Those who do not desist are wrongdoers.
49:12 Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooijtaniboo katheeran mina alththanni innabaAAda alththanni ithmun walatajassasoo wala yaghtab baAAdukum baAAdanayuhibbu ahadukum an ya/kula lahma akheehimaytan fakarihtumoohu waittaqoo Allaha inna Allahatawwabun raheemun
49:12 O you who acknowledge, you shall avoid much suspicion, for some suspicion is sinful. Do not spy on one another, nor shall you gossip one another. Would one of you enjoy eating the flesh of his dead brother? You certainly would hate this. You shall observe God. God is Redeemer, Compassionate.
49:12 O you who believe, you shall avoid much suspicion, for some suspicion is sinful. And do not spy on one another, nor shall you backbite. Would any of you enjoy eating the flesh of his dead brother? You certainly would hate this. You shall observe God. God is Redeemer, Merciful.
49:12 O you who have attained to faith! Avoid most guesswork [about one another]14 for, behold, some of [such] guesswork is [in itself] a sin; and do not spy upon one another, and neither allow yourselves to speak ill of one another behind your backs. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, you would loathe it! And be conscious of God. Verily, God is an acceptor of repentance, a dispenser of grace!
I.e., guesswork that may lead to unfounded suspicion of another person's motives: see note 22 on 24:19.
Suspicion Is Sinful49:12 O you who believe, you shall avoid any suspicion, for even a little bit of suspicion is sinful. You shall not spy on one another, nor shall you backbite one another; this is as abominable as eating the flesh of your dead brother. You certainly abhor this. You shall observe GOD. GOD is Redeemer, Most Merciful.,
49:12 O You who have chosen to be graced with belief! Avoid much suspicion, for suspicion in some cases hurts your ‘self’. And spy not, neither back-bite one another. Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Nay, you would detest it! Be mindful of God. Certainly, God is Relenting, Merciful.
49:13 Ya ayyuha alnnasuinna khalaqnakum min thakarin waonthawajaAAalnakum shuAAooban waqaba-ila litaAAarafooinna akramakum AAinda Allahi atqakum inna AllahaAAaleemun khabeerun
There is no Superiority of one Sex over another or One Nation over another; the Only Criterion for Superiority is Righteousness49:13 O people, We created you from a male and female, and We made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is Knowledgeable, Ever-aware.3
This verse unequivocally rejects sexism and racism and reminds us that neither male nor female, neither this race nor that race, is superior to the other. Recognition and appreciation of diversity is an important point in our test. The only measure of superiority is righteousness; being a humble, moral and socially conscientious person who strives to help others. See 4:34; 7:19; 24:61; 30:21; 33:5; 48:17; 60:12.
49:13 O people, We created you from a male and female, and We made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is Knowledgeable, Expert.
49:13 O men! Behold, We have created you all out of a male and a female,15 and have made you into nations and tribes, so that you might come to know one another.16 Verily, the noblest of you in the sight of God is the one who is most deeply conscious of Him. Behold, God is all-knowing, all-aware.
I.e., "We have created every one of you out of a father and a mother" (Zamakhshari , Razi, Baydawi) - implying that this equality of biological origin is reflected in the equality of the human dignity common to all.
I.e., know that all belong to one human family, without any inherent superiority of one over another (Zamakhshari ). This connects with the exhortation, in the preceding two verses, to respect and safeguard each other's dignity. In other words, men's evolution into "nations and tribes" is meant to foster rather than to diminish their mutual desire to understand and appreciate the essential human oneness underlying their outward differentiations; and, correspondingly, all racial, national or tribal prejudice (asabiyyah) is condemned - implicitly in the Qur'an, and most explicitly by the Prophet (see second half of note 15 on 28:15). In addition, speaking of people's boasting of their national or tribal past, the Prophet said: "Behold, God has removed from you the arrogance of pagan ignorance (jahiliyyah) with its boast of ancestral glories. Man is but a God-conscious believer or an unfortunate sinner. All people are children of Adam, and Adam was created out of dust." (Fragment of a hadith quoted by Tirmidhi and Abu Da'ud, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah.)
The Only Criterion For Distinguishing Among The People49:13 O people, we created you from the same male and female, and rendered you distinct peoples and tribes, that you may recognize one another. The best among you in the sight of GOD is the most righteous. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant.,
49:13 O Mankind! We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that you may recognize one another. Certainly, the most honored among you in the Sight of God is the one who is best in conduct. God is Knower, Aware.4
Unfortunately even today, national or tribal origins, wealth, professions etc remain an important part of a person’s status instead of character. Recognition becomes especially important in a strange environment, matrimonial and travel etc. In the ancient times, the tribe one belonged to was the only means of identification. ‘Min zakarinwwa untha’ = Of a kind that is male, and of a kind that is female = Male and female = Some of you are men and some of you are women. On this note I find myself in agreement with M. Pickthall 39:6
49:14 Qalati al-aAArabu amannaqul lam tu/minoo walakin qooloo aslamna walammayadkhuli al-eemanu fee quloobikum wa-in tuteeAAooAllaha warasoolahu la yalitkum min aAAmalikumshay-an inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
49:14 The Arabs said, "We acknowledge." Say, "You have not acknowledged; but you should say, 'We have peacefully surrendered', for acknowledgement has not yet entered into your hearts." If you obey God and His messenger, He will not put any of your works to waste. God is Forgiver, Compassionate.
49:14 The Nomads said: "We believe." Say: "You have not believed; but you should say: 'We have submitted', for belief has not yet entered into your hearts." If you obey God and His messenger, He will not put any of your works to waste. God is Forgiver, Merciful.
49:14 THE BEDOUIN say, We have attained to faith." Say [unto them, O Muhammad]: You have not [yet] attained to faith; you should [rather] say, 'We have [outwardly] surrendered' - for [true] faith has not yet entered your hearts.17 But if you [truly] pay heed unto God and His Apostle, He will not let the least of your deeds go to waste:18 for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace."
Inasmuch as this is evidently an allusion to the intense tribalism of the bedouin and their "pride of descent" (Razi), the above verse connects with the preceding condemnation of all tribal preferences and prejudices, and with the call for their abandonment as a prerequisite of true faith. Primarily, this relates to the bedouin contemporaries of the Prophet, but its import is general and timeless.
I.e., "your own deeds, in distinction from the supposed 'glorious deeds' of your ancestors, which count for nothing in His sight".
Muslim vs Mu'men49:14 The Arabs said, "We are Mu'mens (believers)." Say, "You have not believed; what you should say is, `We are Muslims (submitters),' until belief is established in your hearts." If you obey GOD and His messenger, He will not put any of your works to waste. GOD is Forgiver, Most Merciful.,
49:14 The Bedouins say, “We have attained belief.” Say (O Prophet), “You have not yet attained belief.” Rather say, “We have submitted to the System” since IMAN (Conviction in the Truth) has not yet entered into your hearts. Yet, if you obey God and His Messenger, He will not diminish in the least the reward of your deeds. Surely, God is Absolver of imperfections, Merciful.”
49:15 Innama almu/minoona allatheenaamanoo biAllahi warasoolihi thumma lam yartaboowajahadoo bi-amwalihim waanfusihim fee sabeeli Allahiola-ika humu alssadiqoona
49:15 Those who acknowledge are those who acknowledge God and His messenger, then they do not doubt; they strive with their money and their lives in the cause of God. These are the truthful ones.
49:15 Believers are those who believe in God and His messenger, then they became without doubt, and they strive with their money and their lives in the cause of God. These are the truthful ones.
49:15 [Know that true] believers are only those who have attained to faith in God and His Apostle and have left all doubt behind,19 and who strive hard in God's cause with their possessions and their lives: it is they, they who are true to their word!
Lit., "and thereafter have had no doubt".
49:15 Mu'mens (believers) are those who believe in GOD and His messenger, then attain the status of having no doubt whatsoever, and strive with their money and their lives in the cause of GOD. These are the truthful ones.,
49:15 The true believers (Mu’mins) are only those who have attained conviction in God and His Messenger, and afterwards, doubt not, but strive in the way of God with their wealth and their person. Such are true to their word. [2:8, 4:136]
49:16 Qul atuAAallimoona Allaha bideenikumwaAllahu yaAAlamu ma fee alssamawatiwama fee al-ardi waAllahu bikullishay-in AAaleemun
49:16 Say, "Are you teaching God about your system while God knows everything in the heavens and the earth? God is knowledgeable of all things."
49:16 Say: "Are you teaching God about your system while God knows everything in the heavens and the earth? God is knowledgeable of all things."
49:16 Say: Do you, perchance, [want to] inform God of [the nature of] your faith20 although God knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth? Indeed, God has full knowledge of everything!"
Like the preceding passage, this, too, is addressed in the first instance to certain contemporaries of the Prophet, but its meaning extends to all people, at all times, who think that their mere profession of faith and outward adherence to its formalities makes them "believers".
49:16 Say, "Are you informing GOD about your religion? GOD knows everything in the heavens and the earth. GOD is Omniscient.",
49:16 Say, “Do you inform God of your religiousness when God knows all that is in the heavens and all that is on earth?” And God is Knower of all things.
49:17 Yamunnoona AAalayka an aslamoo qul latamunnoo AAalayya islamakum bali Allahu yamunnuAAalaykum an hadakum lil-eemani in kuntum sadiqeena
49:17 They think they are doing you a favor by having peacefully surrendered. Say, "Do not think you are doing me any favors by your peacefully surrender. For it is God who is doing you a favor that He has guided you to the acknowledgement, if you are honest."
49:17 They think they are doing you a favor by having submitted! Say: "Do not think you are doing me any favors by your submission. For it is God who is doing you a favor that He has guided you to the faith, if you are being true."
49:17 Many people21 think that they have bestowed a favour upon thee [O Prophet] by having surrendered [to thee].22 Say thou: Deem not your surrender a favour unto me: nay, but it is God who bestows a favour upon you by showing you the way to faith - if you are true to your word!"
Lit., "They" (see preceding note).
I.e., "by professing to be thy followers".
Who Is Doing Whom A Favor?49:17 They act as if they are doing you a favor by embracing Submission! Say, "You are not doing me any favors by embracing Submission. GOD is the One who is doing you a great favor by guiding you to the faith, if you are sincere.",
49:17 Some people act as if they are doing you a favor by embracing Islam. Say, “Do not think that your Islam is a favor upon me. Nay, it is God Who bestows a favor upon you that He has guided you to faith, if you are true to your word.”
49:18 Inna Allaha yaAAlamu ghayba alssamawatiwaal-ardi waAllahu baseerunbima taAAmaloona
49:18 Surely, God knows all the unseen in the heavens and the earth; God is Seer of everything you do.
49:18 Surely, God knows all the unseen in the heavens and the earth; God is Seer of what you do.
49:18 Verily, God knows the hidden reality of the heavens and the earth; and God sees all that you do.
49:18 GOD knows all the secrets in the heavens and the earth; GOD is Seer of everything you do.,
49:18 God knows the Unseen of the heavens and earth, and God is Seer of all that you do.