بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
27:1 Ta-seen tilka ayatualqur-ani wakitabin mubeenin
27:1 T9S60. These are the signs of the Quran and a clear book.1
27:1 T'S, these are the signs of the Qur'an and a clear Book.
27:1 Ta. Sin.1 THESE ARE MESSAGES of the Qur'an - a divine writ clear in itself and clearly showing the truth:2
See Appendix II.
For an explanation of this composite rendering of the adjective, mubin, see note 2 on 12:1. In the present instance, the term kitab ("divine writ") is preceded by the conjunction wa, which primarily signifies "and", but in this case has a function more or less similar to the expression "namely" hence, it may be replaced in translation by a dash without affecting the meaning of the sentence.
27:1 T. S. These (letters) constitute proofs of the Quran; a profound scripture.,1
See Appendix 1 for the meaning of these Quranic initials.
27:1 T.S. Taa-Seen (Toor-e-Sina, Mount Sinai. Recall the initiation of revelation to Moses, and now) - These are messages of the Qur’an, the Book clear in itself and clearly showing the truth.1
This is the 27th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 93 verses. This Surah is often misinterpreted for relying heavily on conjecture-based traditions and for trying to give literal meanings to allegories.
While Naml does mean ant in Arabic, this Surah refers to the Valley and the community known as An-Naml in Southern Arabia. Namlat = The Lady of Naml, Queen of the tribe of Banu Shisan or Banu Naml. (Ref: Taj-il-‘Uroos refers to the Valley and the Tribe of Namla – Qamoos states, “The tribe Al-Abraqa is from the waters (descendants) of An-Namla.” - A Journey Through The Yemen by Walter Harris - Nelson’s Encyclopedia - English T ranslation of the Holy Quran by Maulvi Muhammad Ali - Urdu Translation by him, Bayan-ul-Quran)
This Surah is an excellent example of how the Qur’an makes beautiful use of metaphors, similes and allegories. Verse 3:7 clearly states that many of the Qur’anic verses are allegorical, especially those concerning the Unseen: History, future and the abstract.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
27:2 Hudan wabushra lilmu/mineena
27:2 A guide and good news to those who acknowledge.
27:2 A guide and good news to the believers.
27:2 a guidance and a glad tiding to the believers
27:2 A beacon, and good news, for the believers.,
27:2 A guidance and a glad tiding for the believers.
27:3 Allatheena yuqeemoona alssalatawayu/toona alzzakata wahum bial-akhiratihum yooqinoona
27:3 Those who hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards betterment, and regarding the Hereafter they are certain.
27:3 Those who hold the contact prayer, and contribute towards purification, and regarding the Hereafter they are certain.
27:3 who are constant in prayer and spend in charity:3 for it is they, they who in their innermost are certain of the life to come!
This is obviously the meaning of the term zakah in the above context, since at the time of the revelation of this surah it had not yet received its later, specific connotation of a tax incumbent upon Muslims (cf. surah 2 note 34).
27:3 Who observe the Contact Prayers (Salat), give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and they are, with regard to the Hereafter, absolutely certain.,
27:3 Who establish and consolidate the Divine System and set up the Economic Order of Zakaat. They have conviction in the life to come (that the human ‘self’ lives on after death, and that all actions meet a just requital.)
27:4 Inna allatheena la yu/minoonabial-akhirati zayyanna lahum aAAmalahumfahum yaAAmahoona
27:4 As for those who do not acknowledge the Hereafter, We have made their work appear pleasing to them, so they walk around blind.
27:4 As for those who do not believe in the Hereafter, We have made their work appear pleasing to them, so they walk around blind.
27:4 As for those who will not believe in the life to come - behold, goodly have We made their own doings appear unto them, and so they stumble blindly to and fro4
The implication is that people who do not believe in life after death concentrate all their endeavours as a rule, on material gains alone, and cannot think of anything worthwhile "beyond their own doings". See also note 7 on 2:7, which explains why the "causing" of this spiritual blindness and confusion - in itself but a consequence of mans own behaviour - is attributed to God.
27:4 Those who do not believe in the Hereafter, we adorn their works in their eyes. Thus, they continue to blunder.,
27:4 Those who do not believe in the Eternity of the ‘self’, will obviously deny the continuation of life after death. Our law makes their deeds of instant gratification pleasing in their eyes and so they keep stumbling blindly to and fro.
27:5 Ola-ika allatheena lahum soo-oalAAathabi wahum fee al-akhirati humu al-akhsaroona
27:5 They will have the worst retribution, and in the Hereafter they are the biggest losers.
27:5 They will have the worst retribution, and in the Hereafter they are the biggest losers.
27:5 It is they whom the worst of suffering awaits: for it is they, they who in the life to come shall be the greatest losers!
27:5 It is these who incur the worst retribution, and in the Hereafter, they will be the worst losers.,
27:5 It is they for whom the worst suffering awaits, and they will be the greatest losers in the Hereafter.
27:6 Wa-innaka latulaqqa alqur-anamin ladun hakeemin AAaleemin
27:6 You are receiving the Quran from One who is Wise, Knowledgeable.
27:6 And you are receiving the Qur'an from One who is Wise, Knowledgeable.
27:6 But [as for thee, O believer,] verily, thou hast received this Qur'an out of the grace of One who is wise, all-knowing.5
This stress on the spiritual illumination offered to man through divine revelation not only connects with the opening verses of this surah, but also forms a link between this passage and the following one, which calls to mind the sudden illumination of Moses, symbolized by the vision of the burning bush.
27:6 Surely, you are receiving the Quran from a Most Wise, Omniscient.,
27:6 Surely, you are receiving the Qur’an from the Presence of One Wise, Aware.
27:7 Ith qala moosa li-ahlihiinnee anastu naran saateekum minhabikhabarin aw ateekum bishihabin qabasinlaAAallakum tastaloona
Moses27:7 Moses said to his family: "I have seen a fire, I will bring you from there some news or I will bring you a burning piece so that you may be warmed."
27:7 And Moses said to his family: "I have seen a fire, I will bring you from there some news or I will bring you a burning piece so that you may be warmed."
27:7 Lo! [While lost in the desert,] Moses said to his family:6 Behold, I perceive a fire [far away]; I may bring you from there some tiding [as to which way we arc to pursue], or bring you [at least] a burning brand so that you might warm yourselves."
Cf. 20:9 ff., and particularly note 7 on verse 10 of that surah.
Moses27:7 Recall that Moses said to his family, "I see a fire; let me bring you news therefrom, or a torch to warm you.",
27:7 (Moses was also given a clear book. When he and his family were in a cold and dark valley), Moses said, "I see a fire. I may bring you news from there (about our location). Or bring you a burning torch so that you might warm yourselves." (20:10, 28:29)
27:8 Falamma jaaha noodiya anboorika man fee alnnari waman hawlahawasubhana Allahi rabbi alAAalameena
27:8 So when he came to it he was called: "Blessed is the One at the fire and whoever is around it, and glory be to God, the Lord of the worlds."
27:8 So when he came to it he was called: "Blessed is the One at the fire and whoever is around it, and glory to God, Lord of the worlds."
27:8 But when he came close to it, a call was sounded: Blessed are all who are within [reach of] this fire, and all who are near it!7 And limitless in His glory is God, the Sustainer of all the worlds!"
Thus Zamakhshari explains the expression hawlaha (lit., "around it"). According to some of the earliest commentators, quoted by Tabari the "fire" (nar) is in this context synonymous with "light" (nur), namely, the illumination which God bestows on His prophets, who - one may presume - <are a priori near it" by virtue of their inborn spiritual sensitivity. Alternatively, the phrase man fi n-nar wa-man hawlaha may be understood as referring to God's Own light, which encompasses, and is the core of, all spiritual illumination.
27:8 When he came to it, he was called: "Blessed is the One (who is speaking from) within the fire, and those around it." Glory be to GOD, Lord of the universe.,
27:8 But when he came close to it, he was called, "Blessed are all who are in and near the Light! And Exalted is God, Lord of the Worlds." (7:137, 28:30)
27:9 Ya moosa innahu ana AllahualAAazeezu alhakeemu
27:9 "O Moses, it is I, God, the Noble, the Wise."
27:9 "O Moses, it is I God, the Noble, the Wise."
27:9 [And God spoke thus:] O Moses! Verily I alone am God, the Almighty, the Wise!"
27:9 "O Moses, this is Me, GOD, the Almighty, Most Wise.,
27:9 "O Moses! It is I, God, the Almighty, the Wise."
27:10 Waalqi AAasaka falamma raahatahtazzu kaannaha jannun walla mudbiranwalam yuAAaqqib ya moosa la takhaf innee layakhafu ladayya almursaloona
27:10 "Throw down your staff." So when he saw it vibrated as if it were a Jinni, he ran away and would not turn back. "O Moses, do not fear, for My messengers shall have no fear from Me."
27:10 "And cast down your staff." So when he saw it vibrate as if it were a Jinn, he ran away and would not turn back. "O Moses, do not fear, for My messengers shall have no fear from Me."
27:10 [And then He said:] Now throw down thy staff!"8 But when he saw it move rapidly, as if it were a serpent, he drew back [in terror], and did not [dare to] return.9 [And God spoke to him again:] O Moses! Fear not - for, behold, no fear need the message-bearers have in My Presence,
For a tentative explanation of the symbolism underlying the miracle of the staff, see note 14 on 20:20.
27:10 "Throw down your staff." When he saw it moving like a demon, he turned around and fled. "O Moses, do not be afraid. My messengers shall not fear.,
27:10 "Now rehearse the truth." When Moses did that, he felt that he had the vibrant Force of truth in hand. Yet he was awe-struck by the uphill task before him, like grabbing a huge python. God said, "O Moses! Do not fear! The Messengers do not fear in My Presence."2
27:11 Illa man thalama thummabaddala husnan baAAda soo-in fa-innee ghafoorun raheemun
27:11 "Except one who transgresses. But then if he replaces the evil deed with good, then I am Forgiving, Compassionate."
27:11 "Except he who has done wrong. But then if he replaces the evil deed with good, then I am Forgiving, Merciful."
27:11 and neither10 need anyone who has done wrong and then has replaced the wrong with good:11 for, verily, I am much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!
For my rendering of illa, in this context, as "and neither", see note 38 on 4:29.
I.e., by sincere repentance. Apart from its general significance, this may also be an allusion to the crime, which Moses had committed in his youth by slaying the Egyptian (see 28:15).
27:11 "Except those who commit a transgression, then substitute righteousness after sinning; I am Forgiving, Most Merciful.,
27:11 "Nor anyone who has replaced evil with good should have any fear. I am Forgiving, Merciful." [26:20, 28:15-17]
27:12 Waadkhil yadaka fee jaybika takhruj baydaamin ghayri soo-in fee tisAAi ayatin ilafirAAawna waqawmihi innahum kanoo qawman fasiqeena
27:12 "Place your hand into your pocket; it will come out white with no blemish, one of nine signs to Pharaoh and his people."
27:12 "And place your hand into your pocket; it will come out white with no blemish, one of nine signs to Pharaoh and his people; for they are a wicked people."
27:12 Now place thy hand into thy bosom: it will come forth [shining] white, without blemish!"12 [And thou shalt go] with nine [of My] messages unto Pharaoh and his people13 for, verily, they are people depraved!"
See note 85 on 7:108.
Cf. 17:101 - "We gave unto Moses nine clear messages" - and the corresponding note 119.
27:12 "Put your hand in your pocket; it will come out white, without a blemish. These are among nine miracles to Pharaoh and his people, for they are wicked people.",
27:13 Falamma jaat-hum ayatunamubsiratan qaloo hatha sihrun mubeenun
27:13 So when Our signs came to them for all to see, they said, "This is clearly magic!"
27:13 So when Our signs came to them for all to see, they said: "This is clearly magic!"
27:13 But when Our light-giving messages came unto them, they said, This is clearly [but] spellbinding deception!"14
See note 99 on 10:76. The people referred to as "they" are Pharaoh and his nobles.
27:13 When our miracles were presented to them, clear and profound, they said, "This is obviously magic.",
27:13 But when they received Our illuminating messages, they said, "This is obvious magic (a spellbinding deception)."
27:14 Wajahadoo biha waistayqanat-haanfusuhum thulman waAAuluwwan faonthurkayfa kana AAaqibatu almufsideena
27:14 They rejected them; they justified transgression and arrogance for themselves. So see how it ended for the wicked.
27:14 And they rejected them, while their souls knew, out of transgression and arrogance. So see how it ended for the wicked.
27:14 - and in their wickedness and self-exaltation they rejected them, although their minds were convinced of their truth: and behold what happened in the end to those spreaders of corruption!
27:14 They rejected them and were utterly convinced of their wrong ways, due to their arrogance. Note the consequences for the evildoers.,
27:14 And they rejected the messages wrongfully and out of pride, although they were convinced within themselves. Reflect on what happened in the end to the corrupters.
27:15 Walaqad atayna dawoodawasulaymana AAilman waqala alhamdulillahi allathee faddalana AAalakatheerin min AAibadihi almu/mineena
David and Solomon27:15 We bestowed upon David and Solomon knowledge, and they both said, "Praise be to God who preferred us over many of His acknowledging servants."
27:15 And We bestowed upon David and Solomon knowledge, and they both said: "Praise be to God who preferred us over many of His believing servants."
27:15 AND, INDEED, We granted [true] knowledge15 unto David and Solomon [as well]; and both were wont to say: All praise is due to God, who has [thus] favoured us above many of His believing servants!"
I.e., spiritual insight.
David and Solomon27:15 We endowed David and Solomon with knowledge, and they said, "Praise GOD for blessing us more than many of His believing servants.",
27:15 We bestowed upon David and Solomon knowledge and they used to say, "All praise belongs to God Who has blessed us more than a great many of His believing servants."
27:16 Wawaritha sulaymanu dawoodawaqala ya ayyuha alnnasuAAullimna mantiqa alttayri waooteenamin kulli shay-in inna hatha lahuwa alfadlualmubeenu
27:16 Solomon inherited from David, and he said, "O people, we have been taught how to understand the speech of creatures that fly, and we have been given from everything. This is indeed an evident grace."
27:16 And Solomon inherited from David, and he said: "O people, we have been taught how to understand the speech of the creatures that fly, and we have been given from everything. This is indeed an evident grace."
27:16 And [in this insight] Solomon was [truly] David's heir; and he would say: O you people! We have been taught the speech of birds, and have been given [in abundance] of all [good] things: this, behold, is indeed a manifest favour [from God]!"
27:16 Solomon was David's heir. He said, "O people, we have been endowed with understanding the language of the birds, and all kinds of things have been bestowed upon us. This is indeed a real blessing.",
27:16 Solomon was David’s heir (as a Prophet and king) He said, "O People! We have been given a great cavalry of ready horses with best knowledge of training them, and we have been given every blessing. This is a manifest bounty.”4
21:79, 34:10. Solomon ruled as King from 965 to 926 BC. The common misconception that Solomon could speak to birds is denied here, as he clearly says that all his people understood Tayir. Mantiq = Knowledge = Logic = Speech and concept. Tayir = Omen = Destiny = Record of Deeds = Fleet-footed horse = Cavalry = Bird. 5:110, 7:131, 27:47, 27:47, 17:13, 27:16, 2:260, 6:38, 24:4. At-Tayiran = Those marching to war
27:17 Wahushira lisulaymanajunooduhu mina aljinni waal-insi waalttayrifahum yoozaAAoona
27:17 Solomon's soldiers were gathered, comprising of humans and Jinn and birds, for they were to be spread out.
27:17 And the soldiers of Solomon were gathered, comprising of mankind and Jinn and birds, for they were to be spread out.
27:17 And [one day] there were assembled before Solomon his hosts of invisible beings,16 and of men, and of birds; and then they were led forth in orderly ranks,
Apart from 114:6, which contains the earliest Quranic reference to the concept of jinn, the above is apparently the oldest instance where this concept occurs in the personalized form of "invisible beings". (For a fuller discussion, see Appendix III.)
27:17 Mobilized in the service of Solomon were his obedient soldiers of jinns and humans, as well as the birds; all at his disposal.,
27:17 Solomon’s army included warrior tribes of the woods and the mountains, dwellers of townships, and great riders of the tribe of Taer. They were well disciplined, and dedicated to any appointed mission.
27:18 Hatta itha ataw AAalawadi alnnamli qalat namlatun ya ayyuhaalnnamlu odkhuloo masakinakum la yahtimannakumsulaymanu wajunooduhu wahum la yashAAuroona
27:18 Until they came to a valley of ants, a female ant said, "O ants, enter your homes else you will be crushed by Solomon and his soldiers while they do not notice."2
Solomon's demonstration of miracles makes sense within the context of the Quran, but how can we explain the ants’ recognition of Solomon and his troops and communicating this information with each other? Were ants also showing miracles?! Do all ants have such a secret talent? Did they recognize Solomon from the smell of his feet? 20:114.
27:18 Until they came to a valley of ants, a female ant said: "O ants, enter your homes else you will be crushed by Solomon andhis soldiers while they do not notice."
27:18 till, when they came upon a valley [full] of ants, an ant exclaimed: O you ants! Get into your dwellings, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you without [even] being aware [of you]!"
27:18 When they approached the valley of the ants, one ant said, "O you ants, go into your homes, lest you get crushed by Solomon and his soldiers, without perceiving.",2
The more unusual the events in a given sura, the stronger the mathematical evidence supporting them. This helps assure us that such strangephenomena are indicative of God's power. This sura's initials, T.S., constitutea complex part of the mathematical miracles related to the Quranic initials.The unusual birth and miracles of Jesus are in Sura 19, which is prefixedwith five Quranic Initials. See Appendix1 for thedetails.
27:18 Once (when Solomon was on an expedition), they came upon the valley ruled by An-Naml. The Queen, (realizing the power of Solomon), ordered her armies, “Go back in your barracks, lest Solomon and his armies crush you without knowing that we are a peaceful tribe.”
27:19 Fatabassama dahikan min qawlihawaqala rabbi awziAAnee an ashkura niAAmataka allateeanAAamta AAalayya waAAala walidayya waan aAAmala salihantardahu waadkhilnee birahmatika fee AAibadikaalssaliheena
27:19 He then smiled, amused by what she said. He said, "My Lord, help me to be thankful for the blessings You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may promote reforms that pleases You, and admit me by Your Compassion with Your righteous servants."
27:19 He then smiled, amused by what she said. And he said: "My Lord, help me to be thankful for the blessings You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do good works that please You, and admit me by Your mercy with Your righteous servants."
27:19 Thereupon [Solomon] smiled joyously at her words, and said: O my Sustainer! Inspire me so that I may forever be grateful for those blessings of Thine with which Thou hast graced me and my parents,17 and that I may do what is right [in a manner] that will please Thee; and include me, by Thy grace, among Thy righteous servants!"
In this instance, Solomon evidently refers to his own understanding and admiration of nature (cf. 38:31 and the corresponding notes) as well as to his loving compassion for the humblest of God's creatures, as a great divine blessing: and this is the Quranic moral of the legendary story of the ant.
27:19 He smiled and laughed at her statement, and said, "My Lord, direct me to be appreciative of the blessings You have bestowed upon me and my parents, and to do the righteous works that please You. Admit me by Your mercy into the company of Your righteous servants.",
27:19 Solomon smiled joyously at her words and said, "My Lord! Enable me to be grateful for Your blessings upon me and my parents. And enable me to work for the betterment of humanity and thus achieve Your approval. Include me, by Your grace, among Your righteous servants."
27:20 Watafaqqada alttayra faqalama liya la ara alhudhuda am kana minaalgha-ibeena
27:20 He inspected the birds, then said, "Why do I not see the hoopoe, or is he among those absent?"
27:20 And he inspected the birds, then said: "Why do I not see the hoopoe, or is he among those absent?"
27:20 And [one day] he looked in vain for [a particular one of] the birds; and so he said: How is it that I do not see the hoopoe? Or could he be among the absent?
27:20 He inspected the birds, and noted: "Why do I not see the hoopoe? Why is he missing?,
27:20 (Leaving the peaceful tribe of An-Naml alone, Solomon marched forward.) As he examined the cavalry, he said, “How is it that I do not see the commander Hud-Hud (the Hoopoe)? Is he one of the absentees?”
27:21 LaoAAaththibannahu AAathabanshadeedan aw laathbahannahu aw laya/tiyannee bisultaninmubeenin
27:21 "I will punish him severely, or I will kill him, else he should have a clear excuse."
27:21 "I will punish him severely, or I will kill him, else he should have a clear excuse."
27:21 [If so,] I will punish him most severely or will kill him unless he bring me a convincing excuse!"18
Lit., a clear evidence. The threat of "killing" the hoopoe is, of course, purely idiomatic and not to be taken literally.
27:21 "I will punish him severely or sacrifice him, unless he gives me a good excuse.",
27:21 (Absconding from the marching army was a breach of discipline.) Solomon said, "Unless the commander presented a good reason I would punish him or demote him to a low rank."
27:22 Famakatha ghayra baAAeedin faqala ahattubima lam tuhit bihi waji/tuka min saba-inbinaba-in yaqeenin
27:22 But the hoopoe did not stay away long, then he said, "I have seen what you do not know, and I have come to you from Sheba with news which is certain."
27:22 But the hoopoe did not stay away long, then he said: "I have seen what you do not know, and I have come to you from Sheba with news which is certain."
27:22 But [the hoopoe] tarried but a short while; and [when it came] it said: I have encompassed [with my knowledge] something that thou hast never yet encompassed [with thine] - for I have come to thee from Sheba with a tiding sure!19
Thus, we are parabolically reminded that even the most lowly being can - and on occasion does - have knowledge of things of which even a Solomon in all his wisdom may he ignorant (Razi) - a reminder which ought to counteract the ever-present danger (fitnah) of self-conceit to which learned men, more than anyone else, are exposed (Zamakhshari). As regards the kingdom of Sheba, see note 23 on 34:15.
27:22 He did not wait for long. (The hoopoe) said, "I have news that you do not have. I brought to you from Sheba, some important information.,
27:22 But before long Hud-Hud showed up. (He was coming back from a reconnaissance mission to the Kingdom of Queen Bilqees, Sheba.) He said, "I have come with the latest news, some important and reliable information from the land of Sheba that you are not aware of.”5
Their armies were planning an expedition to North
27:23 Innee wajadtu imraatan tamlikuhum waootiyatmin kulli shay-in walaha AAarshun AAatheemun
27:23 "I found them owned by a woman, and she was given all possession, and she had a great throne."
27:23 "I found them ruled by a woman, and she was given all possessions, and she had a great throne."
27:23 Behold, I found there a woman ruling over them; and she has been given [abundance] of all [good] things, and hers is a mighty throne,
27:23 "I found a woman ruling them, who is blessed with everything, and possesses a tremendous palace.,
27:23 “The country is ruled by a Queen who has been given everything and she has a tremendous throne.”
27:24 Wajadtuha waqawmaha yasjudoonalilshshamsi min dooni Allahi wazayyana lahumu alshshaytanuaAAmalahum fasaddahum AAani alssabeeli fahumla yahtadoona
27:24 "I found her and her people prostrating to the sun instead of God! The devil had made their work appear good to them, so he kept them away from the path, for they are not being guided."3
For prostration, see 16:49.
27:24 "And I found her and her people prostrating to the sun instead of God! And the devil had made their works appear good to them, so he kept them away from the path, for they are not being guided."
27:24 And I found her and her people adoring the sun instead of God; and Satan has made these doings of theirs seem goodly to them, and [thus] has barred them from the path [of God], so that they cannot find the right way:
27:24 "I found her and her people prostrating before the sun, instead of GOD. The devil has adorned their works in their eyes, and has repulsed them from the path; consequently, they are not guided.",
27:24 "I found her and her people worshiping the sun instead of God. Their ego makes them think that they are doing right. Satan (the priesthood of the Sun-Temple) hinders them from the right path. So they cannot find the right way."
27:25 Alla yasjudoo lillahi allatheeyukhriju alkhabaa fee alssamawati waal-ardiwayaAAlamu ma tukhfoona wama tuAAlinoona
27:25 "Will they not prostrate to God who brings out what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and He knows what you hide and what you declare?"
27:25 "Will they not prostrate to God who brings out what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and He knows what you hide and what you declare?"
27:25 [for they have come to believe] that they ought not to adore God20 [although it is He] who brings forth all that is hidden in the heavens and on earth,21 and knows all that you would conceal as well as all that you bring into the open:
I.e., their own immoral impulses (which is the meaning of ash-shaytan in this context) had persuaded them that they should not submit to the idea of man's responsibility to a Supreme Being who, by definition, is "beyond the reach of human perception" but should worship certain perceivable natural phenomena instead.
An allusion to the appearance and disappearance of the sun and other celestial bodies which the Sabaeans - in common with almost all the Semites of antiquity - used to worship, (Cf. the story of Abraham's search for God in 6:74 ff.)
27:25 They should have been prostrating before GOD, the One who manifests all the mysteries in the heavens and the earth, and the One who knows everything you conceal and everything you declare.,
27:25 "They do not adore God Who brings forth what is hidden in the heavens and earth, and knows what you hide and what you reveal."
27:26 Allahu la ilaha illahuwa rabbu alAAarshi alAAatheemi
27:26 "God, there is no god but He, the Lord of the great throne."
27:26 "God, there is no god except He, the Lord of the supreme Throne."
27:26 God, save whom there is no deity - the Sustainer, in awesome almightiness enthroned!"22
See surah 9 note 171.
27:26 GOD: there is no other god beside Him; the Lord with the great dominion.,
27:26 (They do not understand) "God; there is no god but He, Lord of Supreme Control.”
27:27 Qala sananthuru asadaqtaam kunta mina alkathibeena
27:27 He said, "We will see if you are being truthful or are one of those who lie."
27:27 He said: "We will see if you are being truthful or are one of those who lie."
27:27 Said [Solomon]: We shall see whether thou hast told the truth or art one of the liars!
27:27 (Solomon) said, "We will see if you told the truth, or if you are a liar.,
27:27 (Solomon listened to the report and decided to carry out further investigation.) He said, "Soon we shall see whether you have told the truth or lied."
27:28 Ithhab bikitabee hathafaalqih ilayhim thumma tawalla AAanhum faonthurmatha yarjiAAoona
27:28 "Take this letter of mine and deliver it to them, then withdraw from them and observe what they respond with."
27:28 "Take this letter of mine and cast it to them, then withdraw from them and observe what they respond with."
27:28 Go with this my letter and convey it to them; and thereafter withdraw from them and see what [answer] they return."
27:28 "Take this letter from me, give it to them, then watch for their response.",
27:28 (He gave a letter to the commander of the cavalry to take to the court of Sheba, and to watch their response), "Go with this letter of mine, deliver it to them, and then watch for their response."
27:29 Qalat ya ayyuha almalaoinnee olqiya ilayya kitabun kareemun
27:29 She said, "O commanders, a noble letter has been delivered to me."
27:29 She said: "O commanders, a noble letter has been delivered to me."
27:29 [When the Queen had read Solomon's letter,] she said: O you nobles! A truly distinguished letter has been conveyed unto me.
Back in Sheba27:29 She said, "O my advisers, I have received an honorable letter.,
27:29 The Queen said, "O Chiefs! A very noble letter has been delivered to me."
27:30 Innahu min sulaymana wa-innahu bismiAllahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
Solomon too Received the Numerically Coded Message27:30 "It is from Solomon, and it reads: In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate"4
27:30 "It is from Solomon, and it reads: 'In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful'"
27:30 Behold, it is from Solomon, and it says, 'In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace:
27:30 "It is from Solomon, and it is, `In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.',3
The `Basmalah' included in this verse compensates for the `Basmalah' that is missing from Sura 9, 19 suras earlier. This restores the total occurrenceof `Basmalah' to 114, 19x6. See Appendix29for details ofa vast and profound miracle attached to this`Basmalah.'
27:30 "It is from Solomon and it says, ‘With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness.’"
27:31 Alla taAAloo AAalayya wa/tooneemuslimeena
27:31 ""Do not be arrogant toward me and come to me peacefully surrendering""5
Did Solomon violate the principle of "no compulsion in religion" by issuing such a threat? Or, was he just bluffing? Even if he did not mean what he said, didn't he risk the possibility of a war? Solomon could not have violated the divine principles, such as freedom of choosing one's own religion (2:256), the freedom to reject the truth (2:193; 10:99; 18:29), and the promotion of peace among people (2:208).
The above questions raised in the first edition of the QRT pulled the attention of some other students of the Quran. For instance, El Mehdi Haddou, pulled my attention to the word taMLiKuhum in verse 27:23 and reminded me its meaning, "own them, posess them." He proposed "owning" instead of "leading." Indeed, the derivatives of this word occur 44 times in the Quran and all are related to ownership and posession. I would like to quote from Mehdi's article on this verse, which is published in an anthology containing articles of thirty authors, Critical Thinkers for Islamic Reform, Brainbow Press, 2009:
"What really made Solomon angry is the state of slavery that affects the people owned by the Queen of Sheba and not their religion. Solomon’s reaction against slavery and oppression should be an example for every leader who has the power, the means and the potential to free slaves and fight for the rights of oppressed people even if they are living in another country. What Solomon did in the past is what the United States should do in our time. Their resemblance is reflected in their military power but the difference resides in the fact that only Solomon has submitted to God’s laws. If Solomon was living in the 21st century, who would you think will be at the top of his black list? Yes, many from the so called Muslim countries."
27:31 "'Do not be arrogant towards me and come to me as submitters'"
27:31 [God says:] Exalt not yourselves against Me, but come unto Me in willing surrender!' "23
My interpolation, at the beginning of this verse, of the words "God says" is based on the fact that, within the context of the above legend, the information brought by the hoopoe is the very first link between the kingdoms of Sheba and of Solomon. In the absence of any previous contact, hostile or otherwise, there would have been no point whatever in Solomon's telling the people of Sheba that they should not "exalt themselves" against or above himself. On the other hand, the narrative of the hoopoe makes it clear that the Sabaeans did "exalt themselves" against God by worshipping the sun and by being convinced "that they ought not to worship God" (verses 24-25 above). Hence, Solomon, being a prophet, is justified in calling upon them, in the name of God, to abandon this blasphemy and to surrender themselves to Him. (Cf. the almost identical phrase, "Exalt not yourselves against God", in 44:19.)
27:31 "Proclaiming: `Do not be arrogant; come to me as submitters.' ",
27:31 ‘Exalt not yourselves against me, but come to me as those who surrender.’”6
The Kingdom of Queen Bilqees Sheba of Yemen-Abyssinia had hostile plans towards the North
27:32 Qalat ya ayyuha almalaoaftoonee fee amree ma kuntu qatiAAatan amran hattatashhadoona
27:32 She said, "O commanders, advise me in this matter of mine, for I will not take a decision until you give testimony."
27:32 She said: "O commanders, advise me in this matter of mine, for I will not take a decision until you give testimony."
27:32 She added: O you nobles! Give me your opinion on the problem with which I am now faced;24 I would never make a [weighty] decision unless you are present with me."
Lit., "on this case [or "problem"] of mine".
27:32 She said, "O my advisers, counsel me in this matter. I am not deciding anything until you advise me.",
27:32 She said, "O Chiefs! Advise me in this matter. (You know that) I take no decisions without you."
27:33 Qaloo nahnu oloo quwwatinwaoloo ba/sin shadeedin waal-amru ilayki faonthureematha ta/mureena
27:33 They said, "We are people of strength and mighty in power. But the decision is yours, so see what you will command."
27:33 They said: "We are a people of strength and mighty in power. But the decision is yours, so see what you will command."
27:33 They answered: We are endowed with power and with mighty prowess in war - but the command is thine; consider, then, what thou wouldst command."
27:33 They said, "We possess the power, we possess the fighting skills, and the ultimate command is in your hand. You decide what to do.",
27:33 They said, "We have the power, we are tough in warfare, and the command is yours. Think about (other aspects of the situation) and command as you will."
27:34 Qalat inna almulooka ithadakhaloo qaryatan afsadooha wajaAAaloo aAAizzata ahlihaathillatan wakathalika yafAAaloona
27:34 She said, "When the kings enter a town they destroy it and make its most noble people humiliated. It is such that they do."6
It is interesting that Queen is criticizing Kings for their corruption and aggression. The Queen is depicted by the Quran as someone who is not a tyrant, but a reasonable leader who consults others in her affairs, which is one of the main principles in the Quran (42:38). The Queen of Sheba tested Solomon by sending him some gifts. When she learned that he was not interested in her wealth or her country's resources, she became curious about Solomon and accepted his invitation. The event implies more communication between the two leaders and the emergence of a trust between them. Ultimately, she realizes that Solomon is not one of those corrupt kings, but a servant of God with great morals.
The Bible mentions this meeting but it contains some differences. For instance, in I Kings 10:1-13 we learn that Solomon accepted her valuable gifts, but the Quran tells us that Solomon showed no interest. The same biblical passage is repeated at II Chronicles 9:1-12 .
27:34 She said: "When the kings enter a town they destroy it and make its most noble people humiliated. It is such that they do."
27:34 Said she: Verily, whenever kings enter a country they corrupt it,25 and turn the noblest of its people into the most abject. And this is the way they [always] behave?26
In this context - as pointed out by all classical commentators - the term dukhul undoubtedly connotes "entering by force (anwatan)", whether it be by armed invasion or by usurpation of political power from within the country. The term muluk, lit., "kings", may he understood to denote also persons who, while not being "kings" in the conventional sense of this word, wrongfully seize and forcibly hold absolute power over their "subjects".
Thus, the Queen of Sheba rules out force as a suitable method for dealing with Solomon. Implied in her statement is the Quranic condemnation of all political power obtained through violence (anwatan) inasmuch as it is bound to give rise to oppression, suffering and moral corruption.
27:34 She said, "The kings corrupt any land they invade, and subjugate its dignified people. This is what they usually do.,
27:34 She said, "When kings invade a town, they ruin it and humiliate its dignitaries. Thus they behave.
27:35 Wa-innee mursilatun ilayhim bihadiyyatin fanathiratunbima yarjiAAu almursaloona
27:35 "I will send to them a gift, then I will see with what the messengers will return."
27:35 "And I will send to them a gift, then I will see with what the messengers will return."
27:35 Hence, behold, I am going to send a gift to those [people], and await whatever [answer] the envoys bring back."
27:35 "I am sending a gift to them; let us see what the messengers come back with.",
27:35 So, I am going to send a gift to them and see the response that our envoys bring."7
The intelligent Queen made a prudent decision disregarding the advice of her loyal chiefs. She was cognizant of King Solomon's might, and she was impressed by the benevolent message in the letter
27:36 Falamma jaa sulaymana qalaatumiddoonani bimalin fama ataniyaAllahu khayrun mimma atakum bal antumbihadiyyatikum tafrahoona
27:36 So when they came to Solomon he said, "Are you providing me with wealth? What God has provided for me is far better than what He has given you. Now you are happy with your gift!"
27:36 So when they came to Solomon he said: "Are you providing me with wealth? What God has provided for me is far better than what He has given you. Now you are happy with your gift!"
27:36 Now when [the Queen's messenger] came unto Solomon, he said: Do you people mean to add to my wealth? But that which God has given me27 is [so much] better than all that He has given you! Nay, it is [only such as] you28 that would rejoice in this gift of yours!
I.e., not only worldly wealth but also faith, wisdom and an insight into realities normally hidden from other men.
I.e., people who prize only material things and have no inkling of spiritual values.
27:36 When the hoopoe returned to Solomon (he told him the news), and he responded (to Sheba's people): "Are you giving me money? What GOD has given me is far better than what He has given you. You are the ones to rejoice in such gifts.",
27:36 The envoys reached Solomon with the gift and a letter from the Queen. Solomon said, "What! Do you want to please me with a gift of vanity? God has given me better than what He has given you (material wealth and guidance). Nay, it is you who exult in your gift.”8
The gift was studded with precious jewels and diamonds. Solomon, being a Prophet and a powerful emperor expected the Queen to denounce her hostile intentions in the region and to reflect about the One True God
27:37 IrjiAA ilayhim falana/tiyannahum bijunoodinla qibala lahum biha walanukhrijannahum minhaathillatan wahum saghiroona
27:37 "Return to them. For we shall come to them with soldiers the like of which they have never seen, and we will drive them out humiliated, while they are feeble."
27:37 "Go back to them. For we shall come to them with soldiers the like of which they have never seen, and we will drive them out humiliated, while they are feeble."
27:37 Go thou back unto them [that have sent thee]! For, [God says:] 'We shall most certainly come upon them with forces which they will never be able to withstand, and shall most certainly cause them to be driven from that [land of theirs], despicable and humbled!' "29
Lit., "and they will be humbled". Since the Qur'an explicitly prohibits all wars of aggression (see 2:190 and the corresponding notes), it is not plausible that this same Qur'an should place a crude threat of warlike aggression in the mouth of a prophet. We must, therefore, assume that here again, as in verse 31 above, it is God who, through His prophet, warns the people of Sheba of His "coming upon them" - i.e., punishing them - unless they abandon their blasphemous belief that they "ought not" to worship God. This interpretation finds considerable support in the sudden change from the singular in which Solomon speaks of himself in the preceding (as well as in the subsequent) verses, to the majestic plural "We" appearing in the above sentence.
27:37 (To the hoopoe, he said,) "Go back to them (and let them know that) we will come to them with forces they cannot imagine. We will evict them, humiliated and debased.",
27:37 Solomon said to the envoys, “Go back to them, (and tell them that) we certainly will come to them with forces they cannot withstand. We will drive the leaders out of power and they will be humiliated.”9
Historically the Kingdom of Sheba flourished from 1100 BC to 115 BC. At their zenith they were the richest nation in the world. Their economy was based on excellent agriculture and international trade. They had the most advanced irrigation systems of the times, with great water dams. Their Kingdom included today’s whole of Yemen, Somalia and Ethiopia, and boasting a strong army they frequently had expansive designs further south and up north. As the inevitable result of worshiping multiple false deities, including the sun, their society was not without inequities of caste and creed. Solomon, the King and the Prophet, planned to subdue the Sheba Empire to thwart their aggressive designs and to protect the region from oppression. And he succeeded magnificently. Queen Bilqees of Sheba and her people embraced Solomon’s message and reverted to the worship and obedience of the One True God
27:38 Qala ya ayyuha almalaoayyukum ya/teenee biAAarshiha qabla an ya/toonee muslimeena
Teleportation27:38 He said, "O commanders, which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me peacefully surrendering?"
27:38 He said: "O commanders, which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?"
27:38 [When Solomon learned that the Queen of Sheba was coming,]30 he said [to his council]: O you nobles! Which of you can bring me her throne ere she and her followers come unto me in willing surrender to God?"31
I.e., evidently in response to his message (Razi, Ibn Kathir).
Lit., "before they come unto me as people who surrender themselves (muslimin)" i.e., to God (see verse 31 above). The term "throne (arsh) is used here and in the sequence - as well as at the end of verse 23 - in its metonymic sense of "dominion" or "regal power" (Raghib). It appears that Solomon intends to confront his guest with an image of her worldly power, and thus to convince her that her "throne" is as nothing when compared with the awesome almightiness of God.
Faster Than the Speed of Light27:38 He said, "O you elders, which of you can bring me her mansion, before they arrive here as submitters?",
27:38 (When Solomon found out that the Queen was coming), he said, “O Chiefs! Which one of you can present the best plan to shake her throne (seat of power) before they come to me surrendering?”10
1500 miles between Ma'aarib, the capital of Sheba to Jerusalem
27:39 Qala AAifreetun mina aljinni anaateeka bihi qabla an taqooma min maqamika wa-inneAAalayhi laqawiyyun ameenun
27:39 A powerful being from among the Jinn said, "I will bring it to you before you rise from your station. For I am strong and trustworthy."
27:39 A powerful being from among the Jinn said: "I will bring it to you before you rise from your station. For I am strong and trustworthy."
27:39 Said a bold one of the invisible beings [subject to Solomon]: I shall bring it to thee ere thou rise from thy council-seat - for, behold, I am powerful enough to do it, [and] worthy of trust!"
27:39 One afrit from the jinns said, "I can bring it to you before you stand up. I am powerful enough to do this.",
27:39 One of the strong commanders of the mountain division said, "My troops can accomplish this mission with lightning speed, before you rise up to think of and assign anyone else. I am competent and trustworthy for this job."
27:40 Qala allathee AAindahu AAilmunmina alkitabi ana ateeka bihi qabla anyartadda ilayka tarfuka falamma raahumustaqirran AAindahu qala hatha min fadlirabbee liyabluwanee aashkuru am akfuru waman shakara fa-innamayashkuru linafsihi waman kafara fa-inna rabbee ghaniyyun kareemun
27:40 One who had knowledge from the book said, "I will bring it to you before you blink." So when he saw it resting before him, he said, "This is from the grace of my Lord, so that He tests me whether I am thankful or whether I reject. As for he who is thankful, he is thankful for himself, and as for he who rejects, then my Lord is Rich, Bountiful."
27:40 And one who had knowledge from the Book said: "I will bring it to you before you blink." So when he saw it resting before him, he said: "This is from the grace of my Lord, so that He tests me whether I am thankful or whether I reject. As for he who is thankful, he is thankful for himself, and as for he who rejects, then my Lord is Rich, Bountiful."
27:40 Answered he who was illumined by revelation:32 [Nay,] as for me - I shall bring it to thee ere the twinkling of thy eye ceases!"33 And when he saw it truly before him, he exclaimed:34 This is [an outcome] of my Sustainer's bounty, to test me as to whether I am grateful or ungrateful!35 However, he who is grateful [to God] is but grateful for his own good; and he who is ungrateful [should know that], verily, my Sustainer is self-sufficient, most generous in giving!"
Lit., "he who had knowledge out of [or "through"] revelation (al-kitab)" - i.e., Solomon himself (Razi).
I.e., faster than any magic could achieve: thus alluding to the symbolic nature of the forthcoming appearance of the "throne". Here, as in the whole of the story of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, symbolism and legendary "fact" are subtly intertwined, evolving into an allegory of the human soul's awakening to a gradual realization of spiritual values.
Lit., "established before him". Since the verbal form istaqarra and its participle mustaqirr often indicate no more than that something "has being" or "exists" (cf. Lane VII, 2500), the phrase ra'ahu mustaqirran indahu may be understood as "he saw it being (i.e., actually) before him": hence my rendering.
I.e., "whether I attribute my spiritual powers to God or, vaingloriously, to myself".
27:40 The one who possessed knowledge from the book said, "I can bring it to you in the blink of your eye." When he saw it settled in front of him, he said, "This is a blessing from my Lord, whereby He tests me, to show whether I am appreciative or unappreciative. Whoever is appreciative is appreciative for his own good, and if one turns unappreciative, then my Lord is in no need for him, Most Honorable.",
27:40 Another powerful commander, who had knowledge of the correspondence, said, "I can accomplish the mission even sooner, before your gaze returns to you (before you having to rethink)." (Solomon dispatched the forces and the mission was smoothly accomplished. The Queen’s seat of power was weakened before she arrived subdued) and he could envision the results right before him. He said, "This success is a blessing from my Lord, that He may try me whether I am grateful or ungrateful. Whoever is grateful is grateful for one’s own good, and whoever is ungrateful, should know that my Lord is Absolutely Independent, Supremely Honorable.”
27:41 Qala nakkiroo laha AAarshahananthur atahtadee am takoonu mina allatheenala yahtadoona
27:41 He said, "Disguise her throne so we may see if she will be guided or if she will be of those who are not guided."
27:41 He said: "Disguise her throne so we may see if she will be guided or if she will be of those who are not guided."
27:41 [And] he continued: Alter her throne so that she may not know it as hers: let us see whether she allows herself to be guided [to the truth] or remains one of those who will not be guided."36
I.e., whether she remains satisfied with perceiving only the outward appearance of things and happenings, or endeavours to fathom their spiritual reality. Seeing that the people of Sheba were, until then, motivated by love of luxury and worldly power. Solomon intends to show the Queen her "throne", or the image of her dominion, as it could be if it were inspired by faith in God and, hence, by a consciousness of moral responsibility.
27:41 He said, "Remodel her mansion for her. Let us see if she will be guided, or continue with the misguided.",
27:41 Solomon then said, “Let her realize the weakening power so that we may see whether she gets the point and comes to guidance or whether she remains unguided.”
27:42 Falamma jaat qeela ahakathaAAarshuki qalat kaannahu huwa waooteena alAAilmamin qabliha wakunna muslimeena
27:42 So when she came, it was said, "Is your throne like this?" She said, "It appears to be similar." We were given knowledge before her, and we had peacefully surrendered.
27:42 So when she came, it was said: "Is your throne like this?" She said: "It appears to be similar." "And we were given knowledge before her, and we had submitted."
27:42 And so, as soon as she arrived, she was asked: Is thy throne like this?" She answered: It is as though it were the same!"37 [And Solomon said to his nobles: She has arrived at the truth without any help from us,]38 although it is we who have been given [divine] knowledge before her, and have [long ago] surrendered ourselves unto God!
Sc., "and yet not quite the same": thus, she expresses doubt - and doubt is the first step in all spiritual progress. She realizes that the "altered throne" is outwardly the same as that which she has left behind; but she perceives intuitively that it is imbued with a spiritual quality which the other did not possess, and which she cannot yet quite understand.
Thus Tabari, Zamakhshari and Ibn Kathir, on whose interpretation of this passage my rendering and the above interpolation are based.
27:42 When she arrived, she was asked, "Does your mansion look like this?" She said, "It seems that this is it." (Solomon said,) "We knew beforehand what she was going to do, and we were already submitters.",
27:42 So, when she came, she was asked, “Is your seat of authority like this (so weak)?” She said, “It seems that this is so. We already knew that the truth is on your side and my chiefs and I have surrendered to it.”11
The previous knowledge about Solomon’s character and Kingdom, the distinguished letters he wrote to her and reports by her envoys, and now his superb court in the desert had convinced the intelligent and open-minded Queen
27:43 Wasaddaha ma kanattaAAbudu min dooni Allahi innaha kanat minqawmin kafireena
27:43 She was prevented by what she served besides God. She was of the people who were ingrates.
27:43 And she was prevented by that which she served besides God. She was of the people who were rejecters.
27:43 [And she has recognized the truth] although that which she has been wont to worship instead of God had kept her away [from the right path]:39 for, behold, she is descended of people who deny the truth!"40
An allusion to her and her people's worship of celestial bodies (cf. verses 24-25 and the corresponding notes 20 and 21).
Lit., "she was (sc., "born") of people ", etc. - thus stressing the role of the idolatrous tradition in which she had grown up, and which in the past had made it difficult for her to find the right path. Considering this cultural background, Solomon points out, her awakening at the very moment of her leaving her ancestral environment must be deemed most remarkable and praiseworthy.
27:43 She had been diverted by worshipping idols instead of GOD; she belonged to disbelieving people.,
27:43 What she used to worship other than God, had been stopping her. She had been of the disbelieving folk.12
Solomon advised her that obeying God could bring not only the best provision in the world but insure eternal success. Queen Sheba embraced the message and stopped worshiping the sun and other creations of God
27:44 Qeela laha odkhulee alssarhafalamma raat-hu hasibat-hu lujjatan wakashafat AAansaqayha qala innahu sarhunmumarradun min qawareera qalat rabbi innee thalamtunafsee waaslamtu maAAa sulaymana lillahi rabbi alAAalameena
27:44 It was said to her: "Enter the palace." So when she saw it she thought there was a pool, and she uncovered her legs. He said, "It is a palace paved with crystal." She said, "My Lord, I have wronged myself; and I peacefully surrender with Solomon to God, the Lord of the worlds."
27:44 It was said to her: "Enter the palace." So when she saw it she thought there was a pool, and she uncovered her legs. He said: "It is a palace paved with crystal." She said: "My Lord, I have wronged myself; and I submit with Solomon to God, Lord of the worlds."
27:44 [After a while] she was told: Enter this court!" - but when she saw it, she thought that it was a fathomless expanse of water, and she bared her legs.41 Said he: Behold, it is [but] a court smoothly paved with glass!"42 Cried she: O my Sustainer! I have been sinning against myself thy worshipping aught but Thee]: but [now] I have surrendered myself, with Solomon, unto the Sustainer of all the worlds!"
I.e., in order to wade into it, or perhaps to swim through it, thus braving the seemingly fathomless deep: possibly a symbolic indication of the fear which a human being may feel when his own search after truth forces him to abandon the warm, soothing security of his erstwhile social and mental environment, and to venture into the - as yet - unknown realm of the spirit.
I.e., not a dangerous, bottomless deep, as it appeared at first glance, but, rather, the firm, glass-clear light of truth: and with her perception of the ever-existing difference between appearance and reality, the Queen of Sheba comes to the end of her spiritual journey.
27:44 She was told, "Go inside the palace." When she saw its interior, she thought it was a pool of water, and she (pulled up her dress,) exposing her legs. He said, "This interior is now paved with crystal." She said, "My Lord, I have wronged my soul. I now submit with Solomon to GOD, Lord of the universe.",
27:44 She was escorted to the make-shift palace. It was said, “Enter the hall.” When she saw the smooth polished glass floor, she thought that it was a pool of water and she was spellbound. Solomon said, “This is a palace paved smooth with slabs of glass.” She said, "I have been doing wrong to myself, and now I submit with Solomon to God, the Lord of the Worlds."13
She realized that following the Divine laws ensures the best bounties in this life as well. There are some historical accounts that Solomon and Bilqees got married. But the Rabbinical Talmudic traditions propose that they committed adultery then and there, out of which Nimrod Nebuchadnezzar, the tyrant emperor of Babylon was born! That is of course inconceivable of God’s Prophet. Kashafat ‘an saaqaiha idiomatically means that she was spellbound, and not that she bared her calves; a common error of many translators. For example, tying one’s hand to the neck means miserliness.
27:45 Walaqad arsalna ila thamoodaakhahum salihan ani oAAbudoo Allahafa-itha hum fareeqani yakhtasimoona
Saleh27:45 We have sent to Thamud their brother Saleh: "You shall serve God." But they became two disputing groups.
27:45 And We have sent to Thamud their brother Saleh: "You shall serve God." But they became two disputing groups.
27:45 AND [likewise], indeed, We sent unto [the tribe of] Thamud their brother Salih [with this message]: Worship God alone!"43 and, behold, they were [split into] two factions contending with one another.
For the story of the Thamud and their prophet Salih, see notes 56 and 57 on 7:73. [My interpolation of the word "likewise" at the beginning of this verse is based on the fact that Salih's message to the tribe of Thamud is identical with that of Solomon to the Queen of Sheba - which, in itself, is an indication of the sameness of the fundamental truths underlying all revealed religions.
Saleh27:45 We have sent to Thamoud their brother Saaleh, saying, "You shall worship GOD." But they turned into two feuding factions.,
27:45 We sent to Thamud their brother Saleh saying, “Serve God alone.” They had divided into two contending classes (the rich and the poor).
27:46 Qala ya qawmi limatastaAAjiloona bialssayyi-ati qabla alhasanati lawlatastaghfiroona Allaha laAAallakum turhamoona
27:46 He said, "My people, why do you hasten with evil ahead of good? If you would only seek God's forgiveness, perhaps you will receive mercy."
27:46 He said: "My people, why do you hasten with evil ahead of good? If you would only seek the forgiveness of God, perhaps you will receive mercy."
27:46 Said [Salih to the erring ones]: Why do you seek to hasten the coming upon you of evil instead of hoping for the good?"44 Why do you not, rather, ask God to forgive you your sins, so that you might be graced with His mercy?"
27:46 He said, "O my people, why do you hasten to commit evil instead of good works? If only you implore GOD for forgiveness, you may attain mercy.",
27:46 Saleh said, "O My people! Why do you hasten to commit evil instead of doing good? Why do you not (mend your ways and) seek the protecting forgiveness of God so that you may become worthy of His mercy?”
27:47 Qaloo ittayyarna bikawabiman maAAaka qala ta-irukum AAinda Allahibal antum qawmun tuftanoona
27:47 They said, "You have an ill omen with you and those with you." He said, "Your ill omen is with God, but you are a people that are being tested."
27:47 They said: "You have an ill omen with you and those with you." He said: "Your ill omen is with God, but you are a people who are being tested."
27:47 They answered: We augur evil from thee and those that follow thee!"45 Said he: Your destiny, good or evil, rests with God yea, you are people undergoing a test!"46
See surah 7 note 95.
Sc., "who has tied every human being's destiny (ta'ir) to his neck": see 17:13 and the corresponding note 17.
27:47 They said, "We consider you a bad omen for us, you and those who joined you." He said, "Your omen is fully controlled by GOD. Indeed, you are deviant people.",
27:47 They answered, "We consider you, and your companions a bad omen for us." He said, "Your 'omen' is nothing but God's law of requital against your deeds. Clearly, you are going through testing circumstances (whether you reform or not)."
27:48 Wakana fee almadeenati tisAAatu rahtinyufsidoona fee al-ardi wala yuslihoona
27:48 In the city were nine thugs who were causing corruption in the land, and they were not reforming.
27:48 And in the city were nine ruffians who were causing corruption in the land, and they were not reforming.
27:48 Now there were in the city nine men who were wont to commit deeds of depravity all over the land, and would not reform;47
Or "nine clans", since, in the above context, the term raht is liable to either of these two interpretations. The "city" referred to is evidently the region known as Al-Hijr, in northern Hijaz (cf. surah 7 notes 56 and 59). In contrast with the preceding story of the Queen of Sheba's eager way to faith, the stories of the tribe of Thamud and (in verses 54-58) of Lot's people are meant to call attention to the hostility which a call to righteousness so often evokes in people who are strong but vain, or, alternatively, weak and addicted to senseless passions.
27:48 There were nine gangsters in the city who were wicked, and never did anything good.,
27:48 There was a gang of nine leaders in the city who spread disorder in the land, and blocked all reform.
27:49 Qaloo taqasamoo biAllahilanubayyitannahu waahlahu thumma lanaqoolanna liwaliyyihi mashahidna mahlika ahlihi wa-inna lasadiqoona
27:49 They said, "Swear by God to one another that we will attack him and his family at night, and we will then say to his supporters: 'We did not witness who murdered his family, and we are being truthful.'"
27:49 They said: "Swear by God to one another that we will attack him and his family at night, and we will then say to his supporters: 'We did not witness who murdered his family, and we are being truthful'"
27:49 [and] after having bound one another by an oath in God's name,48 they said: Indeed, we shall suddenly fall upon him and his household by night [and slay them all]; and then we shall boldly say to his next of kin, 'We did not witness the destruction of his household - and, behold, we are indeed men of truth!' "
Lit., "by God". As is evident from 7:73 ff. and from the above allusion, the Thamud did have a vague notion of God, but their erstwhile faith had been overlaid by their excessive arrogance and thus deprived of all spiritual value.
27:49 They said, "Let us swear by GOD that we kill him and his people, then tell his tribe, `We know nothing about their death. We are truthful.' ",
27:49 They called a meeting and after swearing to one another in the name of God, said, “We will all ambush him and his family by night, and afterward we shall boldly say to his tribe, We know nothing about their death. And we are truthful.”
27:50 Wamakaroo makran wamakarna makranwahum la yashAAuroona
27:50 They plotted a scheme and We plotted a scheme, while they did not notice.
27:50 And they schemed a scheme and We schemed a scheme, while they did not notice.
27:50 And so they devised an evil scheme; but We devised a subtle scheme (of Our own), and they perceived it not.
God Protects The Believers27:50 They plotted and schemed, but we also plotted and schemed, while they did not perceive.,
27:50 And so they devised an evil scheme. But Our ever-vigilant Law of Requital invariably has counter designs. And they perceived it not.
27:51 Faonthur kayfa kanaAAaqibatu makrihim anna dammarnahumwaqawmahum ajmaAAeena
27:51 So see what the result of their planning was! We destroyed them and their people together.
27:51 So see what the result of their planning was! We destroyed them and their people together.
27:51 Behold, then, what all their scheming came to in the end: We utterly destroyed them and their people, all of them;
27:51 Note the consequences of their plotting; we annihilated them and all their people.,
27:52 Fatilka buyootuhum khawiyatan bimathalamoo inna fee thalika laayatanliqawmin yaAAlamoona
27:52 So these are their homes, ruined, for what they transgressed. In that is a sign for a people who know.
27:52 So these are their homes, ruined, for what they transgressed.In that is a sign for a people who know.
27:52 and [now] those dwellings of theirs are empty, [ruined] as an outcome of their evil deeds. In this, behold, there is a message indeed for people of [innate] knowledge
27:52 Here are their homes utterly ruined, because of their transgression. This should be a lesson for people who know.,
27:52 And now their dwellings are empty, ruined, as a result of their violation of human rights. Herein, is a sign for those who make use of what they learn.
27:53 Waanjayna allatheena amanoowakanoo yattaqoona
27:53 We saved those who acknowledged and were righteous.
27:53 And We saved those who believed and were righteous.
27:53 seeing that We saved those who had attained to faith and were conscious of Us,
27:53 We save those who believe and lead a righteous life.,
27:53 And We saved those who chose to believe and lived righteously.
27:54 Walootan ith qalaliqawmihi ata/toona alfahishata waantum tubsiroona
Lot27:54 And Lot, when he said to his people: "Are you committing lewdness while you can clearly see?"
27:54 And Lot, when he said to his people: "Why do you commit immorality when you can clearly see?"
27:54 AND [thus, too, did We save] Lot, when he said unto his people:49 Would you commit this abomination with your eyes open (to its being against all nature)?50
The story of Lot and the perverted people of Sodom is mentioned in several places, particularly in 7:80, 11:69 and 26:60.
Thus Zamakhshari and Razi, stressing the principle that a revolt against the God-willed nature of heterosexuality is a revolt against God Himself.
Lot27:54 Lot said to his people, "How could you commit such an abomination, publicly, while you see?,
27:54 (We also sent) Lot who said to his people, "Will you commit this abomination while you see and understand?"
27:55 A-innakum lata/toona alrrijalashahwatan min dooni alnnisa-i bal antum qawmuntajhaloona
27:55 "You are approaching the men out of lust instead of the women! No, you are an ignorant people!"
27:55 "You are approaching the men out of desire instead of the women! Indeed, you are an ignorant people."
27:55 Must you really approach men with lust instead of women? Nay, but you are people without any awareness (of right and wrong)!"
27:55 "You practice sex with the men, lustfully, instead of the women. Indeed, you are ignorant people.",
27:55 You approach men with lust instead of women. Nay, you are a people who act senselessly.” [27:54]
27:56 Fama kana jawabaqawmihi illa an qaloo akhrijoo ala lootinmin qaryatikum innahum onasun yatatahharoona
27:56 But the reply of his people was that they said, "Expel the family of Lot from your town, for they are a people who are being pure!"
27:56 But the reply of his people was that they said: "Expel the family of Lot from your town, for they are a people who are being pure!"
27:56 But his people's only answer was this: Expel [Lot and] Lot's followers from your township! Verily, they are folk who make themselves out to be pure!"51
See note 65 on 7:82.
27:56 The only response from his people was their saying, "Banish Lot's family from your town; they are people who wish to be pure.",
27:56 But the answer of his people was nothing but, "Expel Lot’s followers from your town! For, they are people who show off to be pure."
27:57 Faanjaynahu waahlahu illaimraatahu qaddarnaha mina alghabireena
27:57 So We saved him and his family, except for his wife, for We found her to be of those who will remain.
27:57 So We saved him and his family, except for his wife; We found her to be of those doomed.
27:57 Thereupon We saved him and his household - all but his wife, whom We willed to be among those that stayed behind -*
27:57 Consequently, we saved him and his family, except his wife; we counted her among the doomed.,
27:58 Waamtarna AAalayhim mataranfasaa mataru almunthareena
27:58 We rained down a rain upon them. Miserable was the rain of those warned.
27:58 And We rained down a rain upon them. Miserable was the rain of those warned.
27:58 the while We rained a rain [of destruction] upon the others: and dire is such rain upon all who let themselves be warned [to no avail]52 53
Cf. 26:173 and the corresponding note 73.
27:58 We showered them with a certain shower. It was a miserable shower upon people who had been warned.,
27:58 And We showered a rain upon them. Dreadful was the rain for those who had been warned.
27:59 Quli alhamdu lillahi wasalamunAAala AAibadihi allatheena istafaallahu khayrun amma yushrikoona
God27:59 Say, "Praise be to God, and peace be upon His servants whom He has selected." Is God better, or what you set up?
27:59 Say: "Praise be to God, and peace be upon His servants whom He has selected." Is God better, or that which you set up?
27:59 SAY: All praise is due to God, and peace be upon those servants of His whom He chose [to be His message-bearers]!" Is not God far better than anything to which men [falsely] ascribe a share in His divinity?54
Lit., "Is God better, or that to which they ascribe ", etc.: thus including, by implication, not only deified beings or forces of nature, but also false social and moral values to which custom and ancestral tradition have lent an almost "religious" sanction.
Make No Distinction Among God's Messengers27:59 Say, "Praise be to GOD and peace be upon His servants whom He chose. Is GOD better, or the idols some people set up?",
27:59 Say, "All praise to God and salutation on His servants whom He has raised in ranks!” Is God Best or the ‘partners’ they ascribe to Him?
27:60 Amman khalaqa alssamawatiwaal-arda waanzala lakum mina alssama-imaan faanbatna bihi hada-iqa thatabahjatin ma kana lakum an tunbitoo shajarahaa-ilahun maAAa Allahi bal hum qawmun yaAAdiloona
27:60 The One who created the heavens and the earth, and He sent down water from the sky for you, so We cause gardens to grow with it that are full of beauty. It is not your ability to cause the growth of its trees. Is there a god with God? No. But they are a people who ascribe equals!
27:60 The One who has created the heavens and the earth, and He sent down water from the sky for you, so We cause gardens to grow with it that are full of beauty. It is not your ability that causes the growth of its trees. Is there a god with God? No. But they are a people who ascribe equals!
27:60 Nay - who is it that has created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you [life-giving] water from the skies? For it is by this means that We cause gardens of shining beauty to grow - [whereas] it is not in your power to cause [even one single of] its trees to grow! Could there be any divine power besides God? Nay, they [who think so] are people who swerve [from the path of reason]
God ALONE Worthy of Worship27:60 Who is the One who created the heavens and the earth? Who is the One who sends down to you from the sky water, whereby we produce gardens full of beauty - you could not possibly manufacture its trees? Is it another god with GOD? Indeed, they are people who have deviated.,
27:60 Who is it that has created the heavens and the earth, and sends down for you water from the sky? And with it We cause beautiful orchards to spring forth. It was not of your doing to make the trees in them grow - any god besides God? Nay, they are a people swerving away from reason.
27:61 Amman jaAAala al-arda qararanwajaAAala khilalaha anharan wajaAAala laharawasiya wajaAAala bayna albahrayni hajizana-ilahun maAAa Allahi bal aktharuhum layaAAlamoona
27:61 The One who made the earth a habitat, and He made in it rivers and He made for it stabilizers, and He made between the two seas a barrier. Is there a god with God? No. But most of them do not know.
27:61 The One who made the earth a habitat, and He made in it rivers and He made for it stabilizers, and He made between the two seas a barrier. Is there a god with God? No. But most of them do not know.
27:61 Nay - who is it that has made the earth a fitting abode55 [for living things], and has caused running waters [to flow] in its midst, and has set upon it mountains firm, and has placed a barrier between the two great bodies of water?56 Could there be any divine power besides God? Nay, most of those [who think so] do not know [what they are saying]!
Lit., "place of rest" (qarar). But see also 77:25 and the corresponding note 9.
See 25:53 and the corresponding notes 41 and 42.
Jesus, Mary, Muhammad, the Saints, etc. Never Participated27:61 Who is the One who made the earth habitable, caused rivers to run through it, placed on it mountains, and created a barrier between the two waters? Is it another god with GOD? Indeed, most of them do not know.,
27:61 Nay, who is it that has made the earth habitable, and caused rivers to run through it, has set upon it firm mountains, and has set a barrier between two great bodies of water - any god besides God? Nay, most of them do not use what they know. [25:53]
27:62 Amman yujeebu almudtarra ithadaAAahu wayakshifu alssoo-a wayajAAalukum khulafaaal-ardi a-ilahun maAAa Allahi qaleelan matathakkaroona
27:62 The One who answers the distressed when he calls Him, and He removes the evil, and He makes you successors on earth. Is there a god with God? Little do you remember!
27:62 The One who answers the distressed when he calls Him, and He removes the evil, and He makes you successors on the earth. Is there a god with God? Little do you remember!
27:62 Nay - who is it that responds to the distressed when he calls out to Him, and who removes the ill [that caused the distress], and has made you inherit the earth?57 Could there be any divine power besides God? How seldom do you keep this in mind!
Cf. 2:30 and the corresponding note 22. In the present instance the accent is on God's having caused man to "inherit the earth" by endowing him with specific faculties and abilities - an implicit denial of man's claim that he is independent and "master of his fate".
27:62 Who is the One who rescues those who become desperate and call upon Him, relieves adversity, and makes you inheritors of the earth? Is it another god with GOD? Rarely do you take heed.,
27:62 Nay, who is it that responds to the distressed when he calls out to Him, and removes the distress, and gave you supremacy on earth - any god besides God? How seldom do you keep this in mind! [24:54-55]
27:63 Amman yahdeekum fee thulumatialbarri waalbahri waman yursilu alrriyahabushran bayna yaday rahmatihi a-ilahun maAAa AllahitaAAala Allahu AAamma yushrikoona
27:63 The One who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea, and He sends the winds to spread between the hands of His mercy. Is there a god with God? God be exalted above what they set up!
27:63 The One who guides you in the darkness of the land and the sea, and He sends the winds to spread between the hands of His mercy. Is there a god with God? God be exalted above what they set up!
27:63 Nay - who is it that guides you in the midst of the deep darkness of land and sea,58 and sends forth the winds as a glad tiding of His coming grace?59 Could there be any divine power besides God? Sublimely exalted is God above anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!
I.e., metonymically, through all the seemingly insoluble complexities of human life.
See 7:57 and the corresponding note 44.
27:63 Who is the One who guides you in the darkness of land and sea? Who is the One who sends the winds with good news, signaling His mercy? Is it another god with GOD? Most exalted is GOD, above having any partner.,
27:63 Nay, who is it that shows you the way in the darkness of land and sea, and sends forth the winds as heralds of His grace – any god besides God? Sublime, Exalted is God from all that they associate with Him.
27:64 Amman yabdao alkhalqa thumma yuAAeeduhuwaman yarzuqukum mina alssama-i waal-ardia-ilahun maAAa Allahi qul hatoo burhanakumin kuntum sadiqeena
27:64 The One who initiates the creation then He returns it, and He provides for you from the sky and the land. Is there a god with God? Say, "Bring your proof if you are being truthful."
27:64 The One who initiates the creation then He returns it, and He provides for you from the sky and the land. Is there a god with God? Say: "Bring your proof if you are being truthful."
27:64 Nay - who is it that creates [all life] in the first instance, and then brings it forth anew?60 And who is it that provides you with sustenance out of heaven and earth?61 Could there be any divine power besides God? Say: [If you think so,] produce your evidence - if you truly believe in your claim!"62
This relates to man's life on earth and his resurrection after bodily death as well as to the this-worldly cycle of birth, death and regeneration manifested in all organic nature.
As in 10:31, the term "sustenance" (rizq) has here both a physical and a spiritual connotation; hence the phrase, "out of heaven and earth".
Lit., "if you are truthful" - the implication being that most people who profess a belief in a multiplicity of divine powers, or even in the possibility of the one God's "incarnation" in a created being, do so blindly, sometimes only under the influence of inherited cultural traditions and habits of thought, and not out of a reasoned conviction.
27:64 Who is the One who initiates the creation, then repeats it? Who is the One who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? Is it another god with GOD? Say, "Show me your proof, if you are truthful.",
27:64 Nay, who is it that initiates creation, and then reproduces it? And who is it that provides for you from the heaven and the earth – any god besides God? Say, “If you think so bring your evidence if you are men of truth.” [23:117]
27:65 Qul la yaAAlamu man fee alssamawatiwaal-ardi alghayba illa Allahu wamayashAAuroona ayyana yubAAathoona
27:65 Say, "None in the heavens or the earth know the unseen except God. They do not perceive when they will be resurrected."
27:65 Say: "None in the heavens or the earth know the unseen except God. And they do not perceive when they will be resurrected."
27:65 Say: None in the heavens or on earth knows the hidden reality [of anything that exists: none knows it] save God."63 And neither can they [who are living] perceive when they shall be raised from the dead:
In this context, the term al-ghayb - rendered by me here as "the hidden reality" - apparently relates to the "how" of God's Being, the ultimate reality underlying the observable aspects of the universe and the meaning and purpose inherent in its creation. My repetition, within brackets, of the words "none knows it", i.e., save God, is necessitated by the fact that He is infinite, unlimited as to space, and cannot, therefore, be included among the beings "in the heavens or on earth", who have all been created by Him.
27:65 Say, "No one in the heavens and the earth knows the future except GOD. They do not even perceive how or when they will be resurrected.",
27:65 Say, “None in the heavens and the earth knows the Unseen, none whatsoever but God. Nor do they perceive when they will be raised.” [16:22]
27:66 Bali iddaraka AAilmuhum fee al-akhiratibal hum fee shakkin minha bal hum minha AAamoona
27:66 No, they have no knowledge of the Hereafter. No, they are in doubt regarding it. No, they are blind to it.7
Having doubts about the hereafter is considered to be similar to not accepting it. The Quran does not accept "faith" as is understood by English speaking people; the Quran expects us to acknowledge the hereafter as a fact, by reflecting on circumstantial evidence abundant around us and within us. According to the Quran, those who do not find the Quran sufficient for guidance, those who do not enjoy mentioning God's name alone, and those who expect the intercession of a savior, do not really acknowledge the hereafter. See 6:113; 27:66; 34:21; 39:45; 74:46.
27:66 No, they have no knowledge of the Hereafter. No, they are in doubt regarding it. No, they are blind to it.
27:66 nay, their knowledge of the life to come stops short of the truth:64 nay, they are [often] in doubt as to its reality: nay, they are blind to it.65
I.e., they cannot truly visualize the hereafter because its reality is beyond anything that man may experience in this world: and this, it cannot he stressed often enough, is an indirect explanation of the reason why all Quranic references to the conditions, good or bad, of man's life after death are of necessity expressed in purely allegorical terms.
I.e., blind to its logical necessity within God's plan of creation. For, it is only on the premise of a life after death that the concept of man's moral responsibility and hence, of God's ultimate judgment can have any meaning; and if there is no moral responsibility, there can be no question of a preceding moral choice; and if the absence of choice is taken for granted, all differentiation between right and wrong becomes utterly meaningless as well.
Believing in the Hereafter: Great Obstacle for Most People27:66 In fact, their knowledge concerning the Hereafter is confused. In fact, they harbor doubts about it. In fact, they are totally heedless thereof.,
27:66 But their knowledge of the Hereafter stops short of conviction. They are in doubt concerning it. Nay, they blind their minds from realizing (the unwavering Law of Requital).
27:67 Waqala allatheena kafaroo a-ithakunna turaban waabaona a-innalamukhrajoona
27:67 Those who rejected said, "When we have become dust, as our fathers, shall we be brought out?"
27:67 And those who rejected said: "When we have become dust, as our fathers, shall we be brought out?"
27:67 And so, they who are bent on denying the truth are saying: What! After we have become dust - we and our forefathers - shall we [all], forsooth, be brought forth [from the dead]?
27:67 Those who disbelieved said, "After we turn into dust, and also our parents, do we get brought out?,
27:67 And so, those in denial say, “What! After we have become dust - and our fathers - shall we be brought forth again?
27:68 Laqad wuAAidna hatha nahnuwaabaona min qablu in hatha illaasateeru al-awwaleena
27:68 "We have been promised this, both us and our fathers before. This is nothing but tales of the ancients!"
27:68 "We have been promised this, both us and our fathers before. This is nothing except fictional tales of old!"
27:68 Indeed, we were promised this - we and our forefathers - in the past as well; it is nothing but fables of ancient times!"
27:68 "We have been given the same promise in the past. These are nothing but tales from the past.",
27:68 Yes, we were promised this, and our fathers before us. But these are nothing but tales of the ancients.”
27:69 Qul seeroo fee al-ardi faonthurookayfa kana AAaqibatu almujrimeena
27:69 Say, "Roam the earth and see what the end of the criminals was."
27:69 Say: "Roam the earth and see how was the end of the criminals."
27:69 Say: Go all over the earth and behold what happened in the end to those [who were thus] lost in sin!"66
I.e., those who denied the reality of a life after death and, hence, of man's ultimate responsibility for his conscious doings. As pointed out in the preceding note, the unavoidable consequence of this denial is the loss of all sense of right and wrong: and this, in its turn, leads to spiritual and social chaos, and so to the downfall of communities and civilizations.
27:69 Say, "Roam the earth and note the consequences for the guilty.",
27:69 Say, “Travel in the land and see what has been the end of the guilty.”
27:70 Wala tahzan AAalayhim walatakun fee dayqin mimma yamkuroona
27:70 Do not be saddened for them, and do not be distraught for what they plot.
27:70 And do not be saddened for them, and do not be distraught for what they plot.
27:70 But do not grieve over them, and neither be distressed by the false arguments which they devise [against Gods messages].67
Lit., "by their scheming". For the Quranic use of the term makr in the sense of "devising false arguments [against something]", see 10:21 and the corresponding note 33.
27:70 Do not grieve over them, and do not be annoyed by their scheming.,
27:70 And grieve not for them, nor distress yourself because of their plots.”
27:71 Wayaqooloona mata hathaalwaAAdu in kuntum sadiqeena
27:71 They say, "When is this promise if you are truthful?"
27:71 And they say: "When is this promise if you are truthful?"
27:71 And [when] they ask, When is this promise [of resurrection] to be fulfilled? [Answer this, O you who believe in it,] if you are men of truth!"
27:71 They say, "When will that promise come to pass, if you are truthful?",
27:71 And they say, “When is this promise to be fulfilled, if you are men of truth?”
27:72 Qul AAasa an yakoona radifa lakumbaAAdu allathee tastaAAjiloona
27:72 Say, "You may already be being followed by some of what you hasten."
27:72 Say: "Perhaps He is now sending your way some of that which you hasten."
27:72 say thou: It may well be that something of that which [in your ignorance] you so hastily demands68 has already drawn close unto you."
I.e., the end of their own life, which must precede their resurrection.
27:72 Say, "You are already suffering some of the retribution you challenge.",
27:72 Say, “You are already going through some of the suffering you challenge.”
27:73 Wa-inna rabbaka lathoo fadlinAAala alnnasi walakinna aktharahum layashkuroona
27:73 Your Lord has made favors for people, but most of them are not thankful.
27:73 And your Lord has given grace to the people, but most of them are not thankful.
27:73 Now, verily, thy Sustainer is indeed limitless in His bounty unto men - but most of them are bereft of gratitude.
27:73 Your Lord is full of grace towards the people, but most of them are unappreciative.,
27:73 Your Lord is full of bounty to mankind. Yet most of them are ungrateful.
27:74 Wa-inna rabbaka layaAAlamu ma tukinnusudooruhum wama yuAAlinoona
27:74 Your Lord knows what is concealed in their chests and what they reveal.
27:74 And your Lord knows what is concealed in their chests and what they reveal.
27:74 But, verily, thy Sustainer knows all that their hearts conceal as well as all that they bring into the open:
27:74 Your Lord fully knows what their chests hide, and what they declare.,
27:74 But your Lord knows what their hearts conceal, and all that they proclaim.
27:75 Wama min gha-ibatin fee alssama-iwaal-ardi illa fee kitabin mubeenin
27:75 There is not a thing hidden in the heavens or the earth, but is in a clear record.
27:75 And there is not a thing hidden in the heavens or the earth, but is in a clear record.
27:75 for there is nothing [so deeply] hidden in the heavens or on earth but is recorded in [His] clear decree.
27:75 There is nothing in the heavens and the earth that is hidden (from God); everything is in a profound record.,
27:75 And there is nothing hidden in the heaven and the earth but it is in a clear Record.
27:76 Inna hatha alqur-ana yaqussuAAala banee isra-eela akthara allathee humfeehi yakhtalifoona
27:76 This Quran narrates to the Children of Israel most of what they are in dispute over.
27:76 This Qur'an tells to the Children of Israel most of that which they are in dispute over.
27:76 BEHOLD, this Qur'an explains69 to the children of Israel most [of that] whereon they hold divergent views;70
For this rendering of the verb yaqussu, see note 5 on 12:3.
I.e., where they differ from the truth made evident to them in their scriptures. The term "children of Israel" comprises here both the Jews and the Christians (Zamakhshari) inasmuch as both follow the Old Testament, albeit in a corrupted form. It is precisely because of this corruption, and because of the great influence, which Jewish and Christian ideas exert over a large segment of mankind, that the Qur'an sets out to explain certain ethical truths to both these communities. The above reference to "most" (and not all) of the problems alluded to in this context shows that the present passage bears only on mans moral outlook and social life in this world and not on ultimate, metaphysical questions which - as the Qur'an so often repeats - will be answered only in the hereafter.
27:76 This Quran settles many issues for the Children of Israel; issues that they are still disputing.,
27:76 This Qur’an explains to the Children of Israel most of wherein they differ (such as the nature of Jesus).
27:77 Wa-innahu lahudan warahmatunlilmu/mineena
27:77 It is a guidance and mercy for those who acknowledge.
27:77 And it is a guidance and a mercy for the believers.
27:77 and, verily, it is a guidance and a grace unto all who believe [in it].
27:77 And most assuredly, it is a guide and mercy for the believers.,
27:77 It is a guidance and grace for all who believe in it.
27:78 Inna rabbaka yaqdee baynahum bihukmihiwahuwa alAAazeezu alAAaleemu
27:78 Your Lord decides between them by His judgment. He is the Noble, the Knowledgeable.
27:78 Your Lord decides between them by His judgment. And He is the Noble, the Knowledgeable.
27:78 Verily, [O believer,] thy Sustainer will judge between them in His wisdom - for He alone is almighty, all-knowing.
27:78 Your Lord is the One who judges among them in accordance with His rules. He is the Almighty, the Omniscient.,
27:78 Surely, your Lord will judge between them in His wisdom, for, He is the Mighty, the Knower.
27:79 Fatawakkal AAala Allahi innakaAAala alhaqqi almubeeni
27:79 So put your trust in God, for you are clearly on the truth.
27:79 So put your trust in God, for you are clearly on the truth.
27:79 Hence, place thy trust in God [alone] - for, behold, that in which thou believest is truth self-evident.71
Lit., "thou art [or "standest"] upon the obvious [or "self-evident"] truth".
27:79 Therefore, put your trust in GOD; you are following the manifest truth.,
27:79 So, put your trust in God alone, for, you are taking stand on self-evident truth.
27:80 Innaka la tusmiAAu almawta walatusmiAAu alssumma aldduAAaa ithawallaw mudbireena
27:80 You cannot make the dead hear, nor can you make the deaf hear the call when they turn their backs and flee.
27:80 You cannot make the dead hear, nor can you make the deaf hear the call when they turn their backs and flee.
27:80 [But,] verily, thou canst not make the dead hear: and [so, too,] thou canst not make the deaf [of heart] hear this call when they turn their backs [on thee] and go away,
27:80 You cannot make the dead, nor the deaf, hear the call, if they turn away.,
27:80 But you cannot make the dead (or the “living-dead”) hear, nor can you make the deaf of heart to hear the call when they turn back to retreat.
27:81 Wama anta bihadee alAAumyiAAan dalalatihim in tusmiAAu illa manyu/minu bi-ayatina fahum muslimoona
27:81 Nor can you guide the blind from their misguidance. You can only make those who acknowledge Our signs hear you, for they have peacefully surrendered.
27:81 Nor can you guide the blind from their misguidance. You can only make those who believe in Our revelations hear you, for they have submitted.
27:81 just as thou canst not lead the blind [of heart] out of their error; none canst thou make hear save such as [are willing to] believe in Our messages, and thus surrender themselves unto Us.72
This passage corresponds to the oft-repeated Quranic statement that "God guides him that wills [to be guided] (yahdi man yasha)".
27:81 Nor can you guide the blind out of their straying. The only ones who will hear you are those who believe in our revelations, and decide to be submitters.,
27:81 Nor can you lead the blind of reason out of their error. You can only make those hear who believe in Our signs, so they submit.
27:82 Wa-itha waqaAAa alqawlu AAalayhimakhrajna lahum dabbatan mina al-arditukallimuhum anna alnnasa kanoo bi-ayatinala yooqinoona
Computer Speaks27:82 When the punishment has been deserved by them, We will bring out for them a creature made of earthly material, it will speak to them that the people have been unaware regarding Our signs.8
Note that the creature mentioned here is described as dabbatan min al-ard (creature from earth), which means either a creature coming out of earth or a creature made of earthly materials. Could it refer to the computer that became the tool for the discovery of the code 19 and declaration of its message?
Unlike the creatures made of water (24:45), this one is made from earthly elements. After the discovery of the code 19, and from the context of this verse, this creature (DaBBa) might be understood as a reference to the computer that uses silicon as its essential part. In traditional books, there are bizarre descriptions of this prophesied creature. Contrary to the Quran’s positive depiction of the earth-based creature, hadith books contain negative descriptions.
Some may object to our interpretation by saying that the word DaBBa implies something alive that moves. This objection is reasonable. But, we prefer the computer to an animal since we can understand the phrase dabbatan min al-ard not as a creature geographically from earth, but rather a creature made of earth. Thus, we can accept some differences in mobility between the "dabba from water" and "dabba from earth." Since a computer has many moving parts, from its hard disk to the information carried by trillions of electrons, it is not a far-fetched understanding of DaBBa. See 72:24.
27:82 And when the punishment has been deserved by them, We will bring out for them a creature from the earth, it will speak to them that the people have been unaware regarding Our revelations.
27:82 Now, [as for the deaf and blind of heart ] when the word [of truth] stands revealed against them,73 We shall bring forth unto them out of the earth a creature, which will tell them that mankind had no real faith in Our messages.74
Lit., "comes to pass against them" - i.e., when the truth becomes obvious to them against all their expectations, and thus confounds them utterly: an allusion to the approach of the Last Hour, Resurrection and God's Judgment, all of which they were wont to regard as "fables of ancient times" (cf. verses 67-68 above). Alternatively, the phrase idha waqa a al-qawl alayhim may be understood as when the sentence [of doom] is passed on them", i.e., at the approach of the Last Hour, when it will be too late for repentance.
The "creature brought forth out of the earth" is apparently an allegory of man's "earthly" outlook on life - in other words, the soul-destroying materialism characteristic of the time preceding the Last Hour. This "creature" parabolically "tells" men that their submergence in exclusively materialistic values - and, hence, their approaching self-destruction - is an outcome of their lack of belief in God. (See also 7:175 and the corresponding note 141.)
The Computer Is The Creature27:82 At the right time, we will produce for them a creature, made of earthly materials, declaring that the people are not certain about our revelations.4 ,
(2+7+8+2 = 19) The computer was required to unveil the Quran's mathematical miracle, and it proved that most people have discarded God'smessage (see Appendices1 &19).
27:82 When the Word comes to pass against them, We will cause the poor exploited ones to rise up, practically telling people that they did not have conviction in Our messages.16
Dabbatam-min-Al-ardh applies to the humbled ones just as ‘mountains’ in several places in the Qur’an indicate the elite. The common understanding of this term as 'a creature coming out of the earth’, in my humble opinion, is incorrect. For, supra-natural phenomena stand contrary to the Changeless Divine laws. The error is the result of trying to give literal meaning to an allegory in blind following of fabricated Ahadith. See 6:65
27:83 Wayawma nahshuru min kulli ommatinfawjan mimman yukaththibu bi-ayatinafahum yoozaAAoona
27:83 The day We gather from every nation a party that denied Our signs, then they will be driven.
27:83 And the Day We gather from every nation a party that denied Our revelations, then they will be driven.
27:83 And on that Day We shall gather from within every community a host of those who gave the lie to Our messages; and they will be grouped [according to the gravity of their sins]
27:83 The day will come when we summon from every community some of those who did not believe in our proofs, forcibly.,
27:83 And times will come when We will gather forces from every community who denied Our revelations, and they will meet one another in combat.
27:84 Hatta itha jaooqala akaththabtum bi-ayatee walam tuheetoobiha AAilman ammatha kuntum taAAmaloona
27:84 Until they have come, He will say, "Have you denied My signs while you had no explicit knowledge of them? What were you doing?"9
See the relationship between this and verse 10:38.
27:84 Then, when they have come, He will say: "Have you denied My revelations while you had no explicit knowledge of them? What were you doing?"
27:84 until such a time as they shall come [to be judged. And] He will say: Did you give the lie to My messages even though you failed to encompass them with [your] knowledge?75 Or what was it that [you thought] you were doing?"
I.e., without having understood them or made any attempt to understand them (Zamakhshari).
Study the Quran's Mathematical Code27:84 When they arrive, He will say, "You have rejected My revelations, before acquiring knowledge about them. Is this not what you did?",
27:84 When they arrive, He will say, “Did you deny My revelations, before acquiring knowledge about them? Or what else was it that you were doing?” [10:39]
27:85 WawaqaAAa alqawlu AAalayhim bima thalamoofahum la yantiqoona
27:85 The punishment was deserved by them for what they transgressed, for they did not speak.
27:85 And the punishment was deserved by them for what they transgressed; they shall not speak.
27:85 And the word [of truth] will stand revealed against them in the face of76 all the wrong which they had committed, and they will not [be able to] utter a single word [of excuse]:
Or: "the sentence [of doom] will have been passed on them in recompense of ", etc. (see note 73 above)
27:85 They will incur the requital for their wickedness; they will say nothing.,
27:85 And the word of truth will stand revealed against them for all the wrongs they had committed. Then they will not utter a single word.
27:86 Alam yaraw anna jaAAalnaallayla liyaskunoo feehi waalnnahara mubsiraninna fee thalika laayatin liqawmin yu/minoona
27:86 Did they not see that We made the night for them to rest in, and the day to see in? In that are signs for a people who have faith.
27:86 Did they not see that We made the night for them to reside in, and the day to see in? In that are signs for a people who have faith.
27:86 for, were they not aware that it is We who had made the night for them, so that they might rest therein, and the day, to make [them] see?77 In this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who will believe!
In the present context (as in 10:67 or 40:61) the reference to "night" and "day" has a symbolic significance: namely, man's God-given ability to gain insight through conscious reasoning ("the day that makes them see") as well as through the intuition that comes from a restful surrender to the voice of one's own heart ("the night made for rest") - both of which tell us that the existence of God is a logical necessity, and that a rejection of His messages is a sin against ourselves.
27:86 Have they not seen that we made the night for their rest, and the day lighted? These should be sufficient proofs for people who believe.,
27:86 Do they not see that We have made the Night for them to rest and the Day to give them light? In this are signs for any people who will accept the truth.17
The Divine laws are as operational in the human society as they are in the Universe
27:87 Wayawma yunfakhu fee alssoorifafaziAAa man fee alssamawati waman feeal-ardi illa man shaa Allahu wakullunatawhu dakhireena
27:87 On the day when the horn is blown, then those in the heavens and the earth will be in terror except for whom God wills. All shall come to Him humbled.
27:87 And on the Day when the horn is blown, then those in the heavens and the earth will be horrified, except for whom God wills. And all shall come to Him humbled.
27:87 And on that Day the trumpet [of judgment] will be sounded, and all [creatures] that are in the heavens and all that are on earth will be stricken with terror, except such as God wills [to exempt]: and in utter lowliness all will come unto Him.
27:87 On the day when the horn is blown, everyone in the heavens and the earth will be horrified, except those chosen by GOD. All will come before Him, forcibly.,
27:87 And on the Day when the Trumpet is sounded, everyone of the elite and of the humbled will be horrified, except such as God wills to exempt. All will present themselves to Him in humility.18
27:88 Watara aljibala tahsabuhajamidatan wahiya tamurru marra alssahabi sunAAaAllahi allathee atqana kulla shay-in innahukhabeerun bima tafAAaloona
Earth's Motion27:88 You see the mountains, you think they are solid, while they are passing by like the clouds. The making of God who perfected everything. He is Ever-aware of what you do.10
Interspersed among the verses about the hereafter, the verses 86 and 88 remind us of examples of God's power that we witness. During the revelation of the Quran, not many people considered the earth a moving object; perhaps none knew about the tectonic movement of mountains. Early commentators of the Quran also could not comprehend this fact. So, they struggled to make sense out of this bizarre claim in their holy book. They claimed that the verse was referring to the end of the world. However, they ignored that the verses describing the last Hour depicted chaos and destruction. The end of the world is a calamity of cosmic proportions, which creates an utmost shock and panic among those who will experience it (See chapter 81 and 101 of the Quran). Thus, the unnoticed event described in 27:88 cannot be about the chaos created by the destruction of the universe. Indeed, the end of the verse 27:88 leaves no room for such confusion: "the making of God who perfected everything." The end of the world is neither the perfection of art, nor an imperceptible event. The early audience of the Quran, unable even to imagine the motion of the mountains and earth, tried hard to reconcile it with the verses describing the destruction, chaos and panic of the end times. See 21:33; 36:40; 39:5; 68:1; 79:30.
Since the Bible has been tampered by clergymen (See Quran 2:59), it contains numerous false information about nature and scientific issues. Christendom, up to the 17th century, firmly believed that the earth was a firm center of the universe. The Church persecuted many scientists, including Galileo, for asserting that the earth rotates around the sun. See Psalms 93:1; 96:10; 104:5; 1 Chronicles 16:30 .
27:88 And you see the mountains, you think they are solid, while they are passing by like the clouds. The making of God who perfected everything. He is Expert over what you do.
27:88 And thou wilt see the mountains, which [now] thou deemest so firm, pass away as clouds pass away: a work of God, who has ordered all things to perfection!78 Verily, He is fully aware of all that you do!
I.e., in perfect consonance with the purpose for which He has created them: which is the approximate meaning of the verb atqana. In this particular instance, stress is laid on the God-willed transitory nature of the world, as we know it, (cf. 14:48 and 20:105, and the corresponding notes) in contrast with the lasting reality of the life to come.
Earth's Movement: A Scientific Miracle27:88 When you look at the mountains, you think that they are standing still. But they are moving, like the clouds. Such is the manufacture of GOD, who perfected everything. He is fully Cognizant of everything you do.,
27:88 And the powerful elite that you consider firm as mountains, will float around like weightless clouds. Such is the Design of God Who disposes off all things in perfect order. Surely, He is fully Aware of what you do.
27:89 Man jaa bialhasanatifalahu khayrun minha wahum min fazaAAin yawma-ithinaminoona
27:89 Whoever comes with a good deed will receive better than it, and from the terror of that day they will be safe.
27:89 Whoever comes with a good deed will receive better than it, and from the terror of that Day they will be safe.
27:89 Whoever shall come [before Him] with a good deed will gain [further] good there from;79 and they will be secure from the terror of that Day.
Lit., "good shall be his from it", i.e., inconsequence or in result of it (Ibn Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj, all of them quoted by Tabari) - thus stressing the Quranic doctrine that what is metaphorically described as "rewards" and "punishments" in the life to come are but the natural consequences, good or bad, of man's attitudes and doings in this world. On a different level, the above phrase may also be understood thus: "Whoever shall come with a good deed will gain something better than [or "through"] it" - an illusion to the fact that whereas the deed itself may be transitory, its merit is enduring (Zamakhshari).
The Day of Judgment27:89 Those who bring good works (in their records) will receive far better rewards, and they will be perfectly secure from the horrors of that day.,
27:89 Those who benefit mankind will be rewarded better than the recompense for their good deeds. And they will be secure from terror that Day. [21:103, 27:87]
27:90 Waman jaa bialssayyi-atifakubbat wujoohuhum fee alnnari hal tujzawna illama kuntum taAAmaloona
27:90 Whoever comes with the bad deed, their faces will be cast in hell. Are you not being rewarded for what you used to do?
27:90 And whoever comes with the bad deed, their faces will be cast in Hell. Are you not being rewarded for what you used to do?
27:90 But they who shall come with evil deeds 80 their faces will be thrust into the fire, [and they will be asked:] Is this aught but a just requital81 for what you were doing [in life]?"
I.e., those who did only evil, or whose evil deeds greatly outweigh their good deeds (Ibn Kathir).
Lit., "Are you requited for anything else than ", etc.
27:90 As for those who bring evil works, they will be forced into Hell. Do you not get requited for what you did?,
27:90 But those who cause inequity in the world, will fall prone into the fire of humiliation. “Are you rewarded for anything but what you did?”
27:91 Innama omirtu an aAAbuda rabba hathihialbaldati allathee harramaha walahu kullushay-in waomirtu an akoona mina almuslimeena
27:91 "I have been ordered to serve the Lord of this town that He has made restricted, and to Him are all things, and I have been ordered to be of those who peacefully surrender."
27:91 "I have been ordered to serve the Lord of this land that He has made restricted, and to Him are all things, and I have been ordered to be of those who submit."
27:91 [SAY, O Muhammad:] I have been bidden to worship the Sustainer of this City 82 Him who has made it sacred, and unto whom all things belong: and I have been bidden to be of those who surrender themselves to Him,
I.e., Mecca, where the first temple dedicated to the One God was built (cf. 3:96).
27:91 I am simply commanded to worship the Lord of this town - He has made it a safe sanctuary - and He possesses all things. I am commanded to be a submitter.,
27:91 Say (O Prophet), “I am commanded to serve the Lord of this town (Makkah) – Him Who has made it sacred, and to Whom all things belong. And I am commanded to be of those who surrender to Him.
27:92 Waan atluwa alqur-ana famani ihtadafa-innama yahtadee linafsihi waman dalla faqulinnama ana mina almunthireena
27:92 "That I recite the Quran." He who is guided is guided for himself, and to he who is misguided, say, "I am but one of the warners."
27:92 "And that I recite the Qur'an." He who is guided is guided for himself, and to he who is misguided, say: "I am but one of the warners."
27:92 and to convey this Qur'an [to the world]." Whoever, therefore, chooses to follow the right path, follows it but for his own good; and if any wills to go astray, say [unto him]: I am only a warner.
27:92 And to recite the Quran. Whoever is guided is guided for his own good, and if they go astray, then say, "I am simply a warner.",
27:92 And to convey this Qur’an (to mankind). Whoever, then, goes right, goes right only for the good of his own ‘self’. As for him who goes astray, say, “I am only a warner!”
27:93 Waquli alhamdu lillahisayureekum ayatihi fataAArifoonaha wamarabbuka bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloona
For the Future27:93 Say, "Praise be to God, He will show you His signs and you will know them. Your Lord is not unaware of what you do."11
27:93 Say: "Praise be to God, He will show you His signs and you will know them. And your Lord is not unaware of what you do."
27:93 And say: All praise is due to God! In time He will make you see [the truth of] His messages, and then you shall know them [for what they are]." And thy Sustainer is not unmindful of whatever you all may do.
27:93 And say, "Praise be to GOD; He will show you His proofs, until you recognize them. Your Lord is never unaware of anything you do.",
27:93 And say, “All praise is due to God! In time He will show you His Signs, so that you will recognize them.” And your Lord is not unaware of whatever you do.