بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Transcription
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
Edip-Layth
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
The Monotheist Group
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
Muhammad Asad
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
Rashad Khalifa
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
Shabbir Ahmed
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Çeviriyazı
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Edip Yüksel
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Yaşar Nuri Öztürk
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
Muhammed Esed
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Ali Bulaç
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla

90:1 لا اقسم بهذا البلد

Transcription (English)
90:1 La oqsimu bihatha albaladi
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:1 I swear by this land.1

Note 1

For the function of oaths in the Quran, see 89:5.

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:1 I do swear by this land.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:1 NAY! I call to witness this land –
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:1 I solemnly swear by this town.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:1 Nay, I present this very Town as witness.1

Note 1


This is the 90th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 20 Short verses. The Town refers to Makkah, the birthplace of the exalted Messenger. The way to Success is like a steep hill, tiring but rewarding, taking one to new heights. God has shown man the two ways, one of virtue and the other of vice, and given him free will to make his choices.



‘Wa’ in many Surahs and verses is most commonly rendered as - God says, “I swear!” - The alternative meanings in the Quraish dialect are, ‘Witness’, ‘Reflect’, ‘Consider’. Adopted by some outstanding commentators these latter meanings are not only much more fitting to the context in every single instance, but beautifully blend with the Big Picture of the Qur’an.



With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness



90:2 وانت حل بهذا البلد

Transcription (English)
90:2 Waanta hillun bihatha albaladi
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:2 While you are a legal resident at this land.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:2 And you are a dweller in this land.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:2 this land in which thou art free to dwell -1

Note 1
Lit., "while thou art dwelling in this land". The classical commentators give to the term balad the connotation of "city", and maintain that the phrase hadha 'l-balad ("this city") signifies Mecca, and that the pronoun "thou" in the second verse refers to Muhammad. Although this interpretation is plausible in view of the fact that the sacredness of Mecca is repeatedly stressed in the Qur'an, the sequence - as well as the tenor of the whole surah - seems to warrant a wider, more general interpretation. In my opinion, the words hadha 'l-balad denote "this land of man", i.e., the earth (which latter term is, according to all philologists, one of the primary meanings of balad). Consequently, the "thou" in verse 2 relates to man in general, and that which is metaphorically "called to witness" is his earthly environment.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:2 The town where you live.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:2 The Town where (O Prophet) you have lived.

90:3 ووالد وما ولد

90:3 wwald wma wld
Transcription (English)
90:3 Wawalidin wama walada
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:3 A father and what he begets.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:3 And a father and what he begets.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:3 and [I call to witness] parent and offspring:2

Note 2
Lit., "the begetter and that which he has begotten". According to Tabari's convincing explanation, this phrase signifies "every parent and all their offspring" - i.e., the human race from its beginning to its end. (The masculine form al-walid denotes, of course, both male and female parents.)
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:3 The begetting and the begotten.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:3 And where your ancestors have multiplied.2

Note 2
A Sanctuary of Peace for everyone

90:4 لقد خلقنا الانسن فى كبد

Transcription (English)
90:4 Laqad khalaqna al-insana feekabadin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:4 We have created the human being to struggle.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:4 We have created man in struggle.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:4 Verily, We have created man into [a life of] pain, toil and trial.3

Note 3
The term kabad, comprising the concepts of "pain", "distress", "hardship", "toil", "trial"', etc., can be rendered only by a compound expression like the one above.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:4 We created the human being to work hard,1

Note 1
See the Introduction and Appendix 7 for thepurpose behind our creation.
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:4 We have created the human being for struggle and toil.3

Note 3
This is the Town where Abraham and Ishmael labored, and where you began your strife to raise the Name of your Lord. 2:125

90:5 ايحسب ان لن يقدر عليه احد

Transcription (English)
90:5 Ayahsabu an lan yaqdira AAalayhi ahadun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:5 Does he think that no one is able to best him?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:5 Does he think that no one is able to best him?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:5 Does he, then, think that no one has power over him?
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
(to redeem himself).90:5 Does he think that no one will ever call him to account?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:5 Does he think that none has Power over him?

90:6 يقول اهلكت مالا لبدا

Transcription (English)
90:6 Yaqoolu ahlaktu malan lubadan
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:6 He says: "I spent so much money!"
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:6 He says: "I spent so much money!"
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:6 He boasts, "I have spent wealth abundant!"4

Note 4
Implying that his resources - and, therefore, his possibilities - are inexhaustible. We must remember that the term "man" is used here in the sense of "human race": hence, the above boast is a metonym for the widespread belief - characteristic of all periods of religious decadence - that there are no limits to the power to which man may aspire, and that, therefore, his worldly "interests" are the only criteria of right and wrong.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:6 He boasts, "I spent so much money!",
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:6 He keeps boasting, “I have wasted so much wealth!”

90:7 ايحسب ان لم يره احد

90:7 ayHsb an lm yrh aHd
Transcription (English)
90:7 Ayahsabu an lam yarahu ahadun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:7 Does he think that no one saw him?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:7 Does he think that no one saw him?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:7 Does he, then, think that no one sees him?5

Note 5
I.e., "Does he think that he is responsible to none but himself?"
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:7 Does he think that no one sees him?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:7 What! Does he think that no one sees him?4

Note 4
How much and where he spends it

90:8 الم نجعل له عينين

90:8 alm njAl lh Aynyn
Transcription (English)
90:8 Alam najAAal lahu AAaynayni
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:8 Did We not make for him two eyes?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:8 Did We not make for him two eyes?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:8 Have We not given him two eyes,
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:8 Did we not give him two eyes?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:8 Did We not give him two eyes?5

Note 5
‘Ainain = Two physical eyes = The sense of sight and vision of the heart = Sight and insight

90:9 ولسانا وشفتين

Transcription (English)
90:9 Walisanan washafatayni
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:9 A tongue and two lips?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:9 And a tongue and two lips?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:9 and a tongue, and a pair of lips,6

Note 6
I.e., to recognize and to voice the truth of God's existence or, at least to ask for guidance.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:9 A tongue and two lips?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:9 And a tongue and a pair of lips?6

Note 6
The ability to speak and converse meaningfully

90:10 وهدينه النجدين

90:10 whdynh alnjdyn
Transcription (English)
90:10 Wahadaynahu alnnajdayni
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:10 We guided him to both paths?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:10 And We guided him to both paths?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:10 and shown him the two highways [of good and evil]?
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:10 Did we not show him the two paths?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:10 And shown him the two highways?7

Note 7
Of virtue and vice

90:11 فلا اقتحم العقبة

Transcription (English)
90:11 Fala iqtahama alAAaqabata
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:11 He should choose the better path.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:11 He should choose the better path.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:11 But he would not try to ascend the steep uphill road...
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:11 He should choose the difficult path.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:11 But he seldom tries the uphill road, the Ascent.

90:12 وما ادرىك ما العقبة

Transcription (English)
90:12 Wama adraka maalAAaqabatu
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:12 Do you know which the better path is?
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:12 Do you know which is the better path?
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:12 And what could make thee conceive what it is, that steep uphill road?
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:12 Which one is the difficult path?,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:12 Ah, what will convey to you what that Ascent is!

90:13 فك رقبة

90:13 fk rqbẗ
Transcription (English)
90:13 Fakku raqabatin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:13 The freeing of slaves.2

Note 2

Appreciative people, monotheists, cannot have slaves. To be a slave owner is equivalent to claiming to be a "lord" and thus tantamount to polytheism. See 4:3; 2:286; 3:79; 5:89; 8:67; 24:32; 58:3; 90:13; 2:286; 12:39; 79:24.

The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:13 The freeing of slaves.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:13 [It is] the freeing of one's neck [from the burden of sin],7

Note 7
Thus lkrimah, as quoted by Baghawi; also Razi. Alternatively, the phrase fakk raqabah may be rendered as "the freeing of a human being from bondage" (cf. note 146 on 2:190), with the latter term covering all those forms of subjugation and exploitation - social, economic or political - which can be rightly described as ";slavery".
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:13 The freeing of slaves.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:13 Freeing others from bondage, physical or mental, and from any social, economic or political oppression.8

Note 8
Freeing the neck includes all the above meanings and establishing the System wherein the only Master is God

90:14 او اطعم فى يوم ذى مسغبة

Transcription (English)
90:14 Aw itAAamun fee yawmin theemasghabatin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:14 Or the feeding on a day of great hardship.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:14 Or the feeding on a day of great hardship.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:14 or the feeding, upon a day of [one's own] hunger,
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:14 Feeding, during the time of hardship.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:14 Feeding in times of hunger, famine, wars and natural disasters.

90:15 يتيما ذا مقربة

90:15 ytyma źa mqrbẗ
Transcription (English)
90:15 Yateeman tha maqrabatin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:15 An orphan of relation.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:15 An orphan of relation.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:15 of an orphan near of kin,
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:15 Orphans who are related.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:15 Taking special care of those who, despite being a part of the community, feel left out.9

Note 9
Za maqrabah = Near one = Relative = Part of the community

90:16 او مسكينا ذا متربة

Transcription (English)
90:16 Aw miskeenan tha matrabatin
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:16 Or a poor person in need.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:16 Or a poor person in need.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:16 or of a needy [stranger] lying in the dust –
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:16 Or the poor who is in need.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:16 Helping him who remains needy though he toils in the dust.

90:17 ثم كان من الذين ءامنوا وتواصوا بالصبر وتواصوا بالمرحمة

Transcription (English)
90:17 Thumma kana mina allatheena amanoowatawasaw bialssabri watawasaw bialmarhamati
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:17 Then he has become one of those who have acknowledged, and exhort one another to patience, and exhort one another to kindness.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:17 Then he has become one of those who have believed, and exhort one another to patience, and exhort one another to kindness.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:17 and being, withal, of those who have attained to faith, and who enjoin upon one another patience in adversity, and enjoin upon one another compassion.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:17 And being one of those who believe, and exhorting one another to be steadfast, and exhorting one another to be kind.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:17 And being of those who have chosen to be graced with belief that become living reminders of perseverance and living reminders of compassion.

90:18 اولئك اصحب الميمنة

Transcription (English)
90:18 Ola-ika as-habualmaymanati
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:18 Those are the people of happiness.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:18 Those are the people of the right.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:18 Such are they that have attained to righteousness;8

Note 8
Lit., "people (ashab) of the right side": see note 25 on 74:39.
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:18 These have deserved happiness.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:18 Such are the companions of the right hand (immersed in bliss).

90:19 والذين كفروا بايتنا هم اصحب المشمة

Transcription (English)
90:19 Waallatheena kafaroo bi-ayatinahum as-habu almash-amati
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:19 As for those who rejected Our signs, they are the people of misery.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:19 As for those who rejected Our revelations, they are the people of misery.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:19 whereas those who are bent on denying the truth of Our messages – they are such as have lost themselves in evil,
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:19 As for those who disbelieved in our revelations, they have incurred misery.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:19 And those who deny Our messages, such are the companions of the left hand (immersed in despondence).10

Note 10
Right Hand and Left Hand indicate the tropical significance of Mayimanah = Those on the side of righteousness. Mash’amah = Those on the side of evil

90:20 عليهم نار مؤصدة

90:20 Alyhm nar maSdẗ
Transcription (English)
90:20 AAalayhim narun mu/sadatun
Edip-Layth (Quran: A Reformist Translation)
90:20 Upon them is a fire closed over.
The Monotheist Group (The Quran: A Monotheist Translation)
90:20 Upon them is a Fire closed over.
Muhammad Asad (The Message Of Quran)
90:20 [with] fire closing in upon them.9

Note 9
I.e., the fires of despair in the life to come "rising over the [sinners') hearts" and "closing in upon them": cf. 104:6 and the corresponding note 5. The phrase rendered by me as "such as have lost themselves in evil" reads, literally, "people of "the left side (al-mash'amah)".
Rashad Khalifa (The Final Testament)
90:20 They will be confined in the Hellfire.,
Shabbir Ahmed (Quran As It Explains Itself)
90:20 With fire all around them.11

Note 11
The Hellfire is such that its flames originate in, and engulf the hearts. The fire of regret, anguish and despair. 104:6