بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Compassionate.
In the name of God, the Almighty, the Merciful.
In the name of God, The Most Gracious, The Dispenser of Grace:
In the name of GOD, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. ,
All praise is due to God, the Lord/Cherisher/Sustainer of the Universe and everything therein.
Bismillâhir rahmânir rahîm.
Rahman, Rahim Allah'ın ismiyle
Rahman ve Rahim Allah'ın adıyla...
RAHMÂN, RAHÎM ALLAH ADINA
Rahman ve Rahim olan Allah'ın adıyla
74:1 Ya ayyuha almuddaththiru
74:1 O you hidden one.1
The All-Wise God, though He revealed the Quran to Muhammed about 14 centuries ago, kept its mathematical miracle as a gift to our times.
Rashad Khalifa, an Egyptian biochemist living in the USA, did not have any knowledge that his curiosity regarding the meaning of the alphabet letters that initialize 29 chapters of the Quran would end up with the discovery of its mathematical system. His computerized study that started in 1969 gave its fruits in early 1974 by the discovery of the 14-century-old SECRET. The discovery of this code opened a new era that has been changing the paradigm of those who do not turn off the circuits of their brains in matters related to God. This discovery provided very powerful verifiable and falsifiable evidence for God's existence, His communication with us, and the fulfillment of a great prophecy. Besides, it saved monotheists from the contradiction of trusting past generations regarding the Quran, knowing that they have fabricated, narrated and followed volumes of man-made teachings, demonstrated ignorance, distorted the meaning of the Quranic words, and glorified gullibility and sheepish adherence to the fatwas of clerics.
If the Code 19 was going to provide strong evidence for the existence of God and for the authenticity of the Quran, then it is reasonable to expect that the identity of the discoverer and the time of the discovery would not be coincidental. Indeed, the events have demonstrated a prophetic design in the timing of this miraculous mathematical design.
The number 19 is mentioned only in a chapter known as "The Hidden," the 74th chapter of the Quran. Juxtaposing these two numbers yields 1974, exactly the year in which the code was deciphered. (Calendar based on the birth of Jesus and the solar year are accepted by the Quran as units of calculating time. See, 19:33; 43:61; 18:24. Besides, this is the most commonly used calendar in the world.) If we multiply these two numbers, 19x74, we end up with 1406, the exact number of lunar years between the revelation of the Quran and the discovery of the code.
In January 31, 1990, Rashad Khalifa was assassinated in Tucson, Arizona, by a terrorist group affiliated with al-Qaida. Ironically, soon after his departure, ignorant people started idolizing him and created a cult distorting his message of strict monotheism. Also See 27:82; 40:28; 72:19. For further information on this historical discovery, see the Appendix On it is Nineteen.
74:1 O you who are cloaked.
74:1 O THOU [in thy solitude] enfolded!1
The expression muddaththir (an abbreviated form of mutadaththir) signifies "one who is covered [with something]" or "enfolded [in something]"; and all philologists point out that the verb dathara, from which the above participial noun is derived, may equally well have a concrete or abstract connotation. Most of the commentators understand the phrase "O thou enfolded one" in its literal, concrete sense, and assume that it refers to the Prophet's habit of covering himself with a cloak or blanket when he felt that a revelation was about to begin. Razi, however, notes that this apostrophe may well have been used metaphorically, as an allusion to Muhammad's intense desire for solitude before the beginning of his prophetic mission (cf. introductory note to surah 96): and this, according to Razi, would explain his being thus addressed in connection with the subsequent call, "Arise and warn" - i.e., "Give now up thy solitude, and stand up before all the world as a preacher and warner."
74:1 O you hidden secret.,1
God's infinite wisdom willed to reveal the Quran through Muhammad, while the Quran's awesome 19-based mathematical miracle was revealed throughGod's Messenger of the Covenant 1406 lunar years after revelation of theQuran (1406=19x74 & 1974 AD was the Solar Year of discovery). In retrospect,we realize that the whole sura refers to the Quran's 19-based miracle( Appendix 1 &2)
74:1 O You founder of the most Benevolent Order!1
This is the 74th Surah of the Qur’an. It has 56 verses. Like the previous Surah, Al-Muddaththir is usually given a very feeble meaning unbecoming of the exalted Prophet - that Al-Muddaththir is the man who cloaks himself in hiding.In fact, it is a title of great honor.
Muddaththir signifies a man who sets things in order beyond regional and spatial boundaries. It also indicates a man of impeccable character. In addition, it refers to a fearless rider who jumps upon a moving horse. Keeping all these meanings in mind Al-Muddaththir is the title of Muhammad (S) - A man of flawless character who has been entrusted with setting the house of humanity to order. And he will do it fast (jumping on the moving horse). The matchless personality of the exalted Prophet was entrusted with establishing a most Benevolent Social Order in the world. He achieved the results with lightning speed and the entire humanity since then has been consciously or unconsciously moving along with the Qur’anic Principles.
This Surah has the characteristic of embracing almost all the basic tenets of Islam, giving us a glimpse of the Big Picture of the Qur’an.
With the Glorious Name of God, the Instant and Sustaining Source of all Mercy and Kindness
74:2 Qum faanthir
74:2 Stand and warn.
74:2 Stand and warn.
74:2 Arise and warn!
74:2 Come out and warn.,
74:2 Rise up to the occasion and post danger signs on the highway of Life.
74:3 Warabbaka fakabbir
74:3 Your Lord glorify.
74:3 And your Lord magnify.
74:3 And thy Sustainer's greatness glorify!
74:3 Extol your Lord.,
74:3 Establish the greatness of your Lord on earth!
74:4 Wathiyabaka fatahhir
74:4 Your garments purify.2
What could the metaphorical message of this verse be?
74:4 And purify your garments.
74:4 And thine inner self purify!2
Lit., "thy garments (thiyab) purify": but almost all the classical commentators point out that the noun thawb and its plural thiyab is often metonymically applied to that which a garment encloses, i.e., a person's "body" or, in a wider sense, his "self' or his "heart", or even his "spiritual state" or "conduct" (Taj al-'Arus). Thus, commenting on the above verse, Zamakhshari draws the reader's attention to the well-known idiomatic phrases tahir ath-thiyab (lit., "one who is clean in his garments") and danis ath-thiyab ("one who is filthy in his garments"), and stresses their tropical significance of "free from faults and vices" and "vicious and perfidious", respectively. Razi states with approval that "according to most of the [earlier] commentators, the meaning [of this verse] is, 'purify thy heart of all that is blameworthy' ".
74:4 Purify your garment.,2
Quran is the garment containing the secret code. This refers to removing9:128-129.
74:4 Keep a spotless character!2
Literally but erroneously here, purify your garments
74:5 Waalrrujza faohjur
74:5 Abandon all that is vile.
74:5 And abandon that which afflicts.
74:5 And all defilement shun!
74:5 Forsake what is wrong.,
74:5 Leave alone the opponents. And leave alone friends who are unable to stand up straight in one motion. (‘Rujz’ = A neurological disease in the cattle and camels that prevents them from rising from a sitting position to standing in one smooth, quick and sharp movement).
74:6 Wala tamnun tastakthiru
74:6 Do not be greedy.
74:6 And do not give for a return.
74:6 And do not through giving seek thyself to gain,3
Lit., "and do not bestow favours to obtain increase".
74:6 Be content with your lot.,
74:6 Seek not rivalry in material gains. [30:39, 76:9]
74:7 Walirabbika faisbir
74:7 To your Lord be patient.
74:7 And to your Lord be patient.
74:7 but unto thy Sustainer turn in patience.
74:7 Steadfastly commemorate your Lord.,
74:7 And be steadfast for the Mission of your Lord.
74:8 Fa-itha nuqira fee alnnaqoori
74:8 So when the trumpet is sounded.
74:8 So when the horn is sounded.
74:8 And [warn all men that] when the trumpet-call [of resurrection] is sounded,
74:8 Then, when the horn is blown.,
74:8 For when the Trumpet is sounded,
74:9 Fathalika yawma-ithin yawmunAAaseerun
74:9 That will be a very difficult day.
74:9 That will be a very difficult Day.
74:9 that very Day shall be a day of anguish,
74:9 That will be a difficult day.,
74:9 That will be the Day – A Day of hardship,
74:10 AAala alkafireena ghayruyaseerin
74:10 Upon the ingrates it will not be easy.
74:10 Upon the rejecters it will not be easy.
74:10 not of ease, for all who [now] deny the truth!4
Since this is the earliest Qur'anic occurrence of the expression kafir (the above surah having been preceded only by the first five verses of surah 96), its use here - and, by implication, in the whole of the Qur'an - is obviously determined by the meaning which it had in the speech of the Arabs before the advent of the Prophet Muhammad: in other words, the term kafir cannot be simply equated, as many Muslim theologians of post-classical times and practically all Western translators of the Qur'an have done, with "unbeliever" or "infidel" in the specific, restricted sense of one who rejects the system of doctrine and law promulgated in the Qur'an and amplified by the teachings of the Prophet - but must have a wider, more general meaning. This meaning is easily grasped when we bear in mind that the root verb of the participial noun kafir (and of the infinitive noun kufr) is kafara, "he [or "it"] covered [a thing]": thus, in 57:20 the tiller of the soil is called (without any pejorative implication) kafir, "one who covers", i.e., the sown seed with earth, just as the night is spoken of as having "covered" (kafara) the earth with darkness. In their abstract sense, both the verb and the nouns derived from it have a connotation of "concealing" something that exists or "denying" something that is true. Hence, in the usage of the Qur'an - with the exception of the one instance ((in 57:20) where this participial noun signifies a "tiller of the soil" - a kafir is "one who denies [or "refuses to acknowledge"] the truth" in the widest, spiritual sense of this latter term: that is, irrespective of whether it relates to a cognition of the supreme truth - namely, the existence of God - or to a doctrine or ordinance enunciated in the divine writ, or to a self-evident moral proposition, or to an acknowledgment of, and therefore gratitude for, favours received. (Regarding the expression alladhinakafaru, implying conscious intent, see surah 2, note 6.)
74:10 For the disbelievers, not easy.,
74:10 Not of ease, for all who deny the truth.
74:11 Tharnee waman khalaqtu waheedan
74:11 So leave Me alone with the one I have created.
74:11 So leave Me alone with he whom I have created.
74:11 LEAVE Me alone [to deal] with him whom I have created alone,5
Or: " whom I alone have created". The above sentence can be understood in either of these two senses, depending on whether one relates the expression "alone" (wahid) to God - thus stressing His uniqueness as Creator - or to this particular object of His creation, man, who begins and ends his life in a state of utter loneliness (cf. 6:94 and 19:80 and 95). In either case, our attention is drawn to the fact of man's inescapable dependence on God. Beyond that, the phrase in question carries a further meaning, namely, "Leave it to Me alone to decide what to do with him who forgets that I am his Creator and Sustainer" - thus forbidding any human punishment of "those who deny the truth".
74:11 Let Me deal with one I created as an individual.,
74:11 Leave it to Me (My law) alone to decide about him whom I alone have created.3
This is another verse forbidding worldly punishment for deniers of the truth or ‘apostates’
74:12 WajaAAaltu lahu malan mamdoodan
74:12 I gave him abundant wealth.
74:12 And I gave him abundant wealth.
74:12 and to whom I have granted resources vast,
74:12 I provided him with lots of money.,
74:12 And then granted him abundant wealth and resources. [73:11]
74:13 Wabaneena shuhoodan
74:13 Children to bear witness.
74:13 And sons to bear witness.
74:13 and children as [love's] witnesses,
74:13 And children to behold.,
74:13 And children and party abiding in his presence.
74:14 Wamahhadtu lahu tamheedan
74:14 I made everything comfortable for him.
74:14 And I made everything comfortable for him.
74:14 and to whose life I gave so wide a scope:6
Lit., "for whom I have spread [all] out in a [wide] spread" - i.e., "whom I have endowed with potentialities far beyond those open to other living beings".
74:14 I made everything easy for him.,
74:14 And made life comfortable for him like a cradle.
74:15 Thumma yatmaAAu an azeeda
74:15 Then he wishes that I give more.
74:15 Then he is greedy, wanting that I give more.
74:15 and yet, he greedily desires that I give yet more!
74:15 Yet, he is greedy for more.,
74:15 But he keeps increasing in greed, desiring more and more.
74:16 كلا انه كان لءاياتنا عنيدا
74:16 Kalla innahu kana li-ayatinaAAaneedan
74:16 No. He was stubborn to Our signs.
74:16 No. He was stubborn to Our revelations.
74:16 Nay, verily, it is against Our messages that he knowingly, stubbornly sets himself7
Lit., "he is wont (kana) to set himself". The noun anid, derived from the verb anada, denotes "one who opposes or rejects something that is true, knowing it to be true" (Lisan al-Arab). The element of human contrariness and stubbornness is implied in the use of the auxiliary verb kana, which indicates here a permanently recurring phenomenon despite its past-tense formulation. I am, therefore of the opinion that verses 18-25, although ostensibly formulated in the past tense, must also be rendered in the present tense.
74:16 He stubbornly refused to accept these proofs.,
74:16 Nay, he has been a stubborn opponent of Our revelations.
74:17 Saorhiquhu saAAoodan
74:17 I will exhaust him in climbing.
74:17 I will exhaust him in ascending.
74:17 [and so] I shall constrain him to endure a painful uphill climb!8
In combination with the verb urhiquhu ("I shall constrain him to endure"') the term sa'ud (lit., "ascent" or "climb"') has the tropical connotation of something extremely difficult, painful or distressing. In the above context, it is an allusion to the loss of all instinctive innocence - and, hence, to the individual and social suffering - which unavoidably follows upon man's wilful neglect of moral and spiritual truths ("God's messages") in this world, and bars his spiritual development in the life to come.
74:17 I will increasingly punish him.,
74:17 I will cause him to walk an exhausting uphill climb.
74:18 Innahu fakkara waqaddara
74:18 He thought and he analyzed.
74:18 He thought and he analyzed.
74:18 Behold, [when Our messages are conveyed to one who is bent on denying the truth,] he reflects and meditates [as to how to disprove them]
74:18 For he reflected, then decided.,
74:18 He thought and he determined.
74:19 Faqutila kayfa qaddara
74:19 So woes to him for how he analyzed.
74:19 So woe to him for how he thought.
74:19 and thus he destroys himself,9 the way he meditates:
The expression qutila reads, literally, "he has been killed" or, as an imprecation, "may he be killed". Since a literal rendering of this expression - whether conceived as a statement of fact or an imprecation - would be meaningless here, many commentators (Tabari among them) understand it as signifying "he is rejected from God's grace" (lu'ina), i.e., "killed" spiritually by his own action or attitude; hence my rendering, "he destroys himself".
74:19 Miserable is what he decided.,
74:19 Woe to him! How he determined.
74:20 Thumma qutila kayfa qaddara
74:20 Then woe to him for how he analyzed.
74:20 Then woe to him for how he thought.
74:20 yea, he destroys himself, the way he meditates!
74:20 Miserable indeed is what he decided.,
74:20 Woe to him again! How he determined.
74:21 Thumma nathara
74:21 Then he looked.
74:21 Then he looked.
74:21 and then he looks [around for new arguments],
74:21 He looked.,
74:21 And then he looked around.
74:22 Thumma AAabasa wabasara
74:22 Then he frowned and scowled.
74:22 Then he frowned and became bad tempered.
74:22 and then he frowns and glares,10
I.e., he becomes emotionally involved because he suspects in his heart that his arguments are weak (Razi).
74:22 He frowned and whined.,
74:22 Then he frowned and glared.
74:23 Thumma adbara waistakbara
74:23 Then he turned away in arrogance.
74:23 Then he turned away and was arrogant.
74:23 and in the end he turns his back [on Our message], and glories in his arrogance,11
74:23 Then he turned away arrogantly.,
74:23 And then he turned away in pride.
74:24 فقال ان هاذا الا سحر يؤثر
74:24 Faqala in hatha illa sihrunyu/tharu
Prophecy Fulfilled74:24 He said, "This is nothing but an impressive magic."
74:24 So he said: "This is nothing except the magic of old."
74:24 and says, "All this is mere spellbinding eloquence handed down [from olden times]!12
The term sihr, which usually denotes "sorcery" or "magic", primarily signifies "the turning of something from its proper [or "natural"] state of being into another state"; hence, it is often applied to the fascination or enchantment caused by exceptional, "spellbinding" eloquence (Taj al-'Arus). In its pejorative sense - as used by deniers of the truth to describe a divine message - it has also the connotation of wilful deception" or "delusion".
74:24 He said, "This is but clever magic!,
74:24 And said, "All this is a remnant of ancient magic.
74:25 In hatha illa qawlu albashari
74:25 "This is nothing but the words of a human."
74:25 "This is nothing except the saying of a human being."
74:25 This is nothing but the word of mortal man!"
74:25 "This is human made.",
74:25 This is nothing but the speech of a human.”
74:26 Saosleehi saqara
74:26 I will cast him in the Saqar.
74:26 I will cast him in the scorching heat.
74:26 [Hence,] I shall cause him to endure hell-fire [in the life to come]!13
This is unquestionably the earliest instance of the term saqar ("hell-fire"'), one of the seven metaphorical names given in the Qur'an to the concept of the suffering in the hereafter which man brings upon himself by sinning and deliberately remaining blind and deaf, in this world, to spiritual truths (cf. surah 15, note 33). The allegorical character of this and all other Qur'anic descriptions of man's condition and destiny in the hereafter is clearly alluded to in the subsequent verse as well as in verses 28 ff.
74:26 I will commit him to retribution.,
74:26 I shall soon cast him into Saqar.
74:27 Wama adraka ma saqaru
74:27 Do you know what Saqar is?
74:27 And do you know what is the scorching heat?
74:27 And what could make thee conceive what hell-fire is?
74:27 What retribution!,
74:27 Ah, what will convey to you what Saqar is!
74:28 La tubqee wala tatharu
74:28 It does not spare nor leave anything.3
The Quran does not want us to rush into defining the meaning of the word saqar, since it introduced it with a question followed up by an explanation. Past generations understood it as another word for Hell. After the discovery of the role of 19 in the Quran and fulfillment of the prophecies in this chapter and in other verses of the Quran, now we know that Saqar refers to an intellectual punishment. The extreme allergy and aversion demonstrated by Sunni and Shiite mushriks against the number 19 is part of the prophetic fulfillment of these verses.
74:28 It does not spare nor leave anything.
74:28 It does not allow to live, and neither leaves [to die],
74:28 Thorough and comprehensive.,
74:28 A fire that lets not live and lets not die.4
Fire of Regret, Remorse, Anguish
74:29 Lawwahatun lilbashari
74:29 Manifest to all the people.4
This verse, like many of the verses and words in this chapter, before 1974 had multiple meanings (mutashabih) and commentators were aware of them. Though all commentators knew the primary meaning of this verse to be "manifest to all the people," few of them mentioned it in their commentaries, and most of them chose the alternative meaning, "scorching the skin." Some, picked a mixture and preferred "scorching humans." Commentators who lived in pre-1974 had an excuse to use ‘scorch’ and ‘burn,’ but after the discovery of the secret, after the prophecy of this chapter was unveiled, translators and commentators have no excuse for repeating the misunderstanding of previous generations.
We translate the word bashar as "humans" while many classic commentaries rendered it as "skin." The Quran uses it invariably for humans. For instance, it used for humans just two verses down, at the end of verse 31. The word we render as "manifest" or "succeeding tablets/screens," is lawaha and the Quran never use it to mean "scorching," "burning" or "shriveling." See 7:145; 54:13; 75:22.
After learning the discovery of the mathematical system based on the number 19, it takes a blindness and bigotry in the magnitude of miracle to not see the obvious meaning and implication of this verse. Those who assert that the only response the Lord of the Universe could give to a skeptic who challenged the authenticity of His word is to tell such a skeptic, "I will throw you in fire and scorch you!", do not appreciate God as He should be appreciated. These people can accept a God who can produce the best literary work, but they cannot accept Him as the ultimate mathematician and advocate. They see hell, fire and smoke in verses where an amazing intellectual piece of evidence is prophesied. See 6:91; 22:74; 39:67. For a comparative discussion of this verse, see the Sample Comparisons section in the Introduction.
74:29 A signal to human beings.
74:29 making [all truth] visible to mortal man.14
Most of the commentators interpret the above elliptic phrase in the sense of "changing the appearance of man" or "scorching the skin of man". The rendering adopted by me, on the other hand, is based on the primary significance of the verb laha - "it appeared", "it shone forth" or "it became visible". Hence, the primary meaning of the intensive participial noun lawwah is "that which makes [something] visible". In the above context, it relates to the sinner's belated cognition of the truth, as well as to his distressing insight into his own nature, his past failings and deliberate wrongdoings, and the realization of his own responsibility for the suffering that is now in store for him: a state neither of life nor of death (cf. 87:12).
74:29 Obvious to all the people.,
74:29 Visibly written on the tablet of an individual’s life,
74:30 AAalayha tisAAata AAashara
74:30 On it is nineteen.5
I have presented and discussed the many details of this physical, verifiable and falsifiable miracle in a Turkish book titled Üzerinde 19 Var (On it is Nineteen) and its improved English version is published under the title, NINETEEN: God's Signature in Nature and Scripture. In fact, you do not need to read that book to witness the great miracle for yourself. All you need is to hear that the literal and numeral units of the Quran are designed according to a mathematical system based on code 19. If you do your research objectively, with a critical mind, you will discover many features that already have been discovered and witnessed by many. You should also be informed about two extreme reactions and groups. The majority of the followers of hadith and sunna have a great allergy and aversion against this number. Their blood pressure goes up when they hear the number 19. They are quick in repeating excuses, or false claims made by their scholars. Another group, however, entails the manipulators and innumerates who are too gullible and too eager to discover even more examples. They are somehow impressed by the pattern of 19 in the Quran, but because of their lack of comprehension of the laws of probability and solid base in mathematics, they juggle with numbers in an arbitrary and anecdotal fashion and come up with many so-called miracles.
A careful and objective reader will notice that short verses build and prepare the reader to verse 74:30 and the verses afterwards describe the function of the number 19 and the reaction of people to it. Verse 74:30 is the longest verse in the Quran in proportion to the average length of verses in the chapters they belong. The reader, at the start, encounters "the hidden one" and is informed about a typical profile of an arrogant and ignorant antagonist with a fast paced series of short descriptions that lead to a question and an enigmatic answer in 74:30. The enigma is described in cryptic, yet prophetic words of in 74:31. Later, following a powerful emphasis on the importance of the prophecy, verse 74:37 describes those who would witness the prophetic fulfillment of these verses as "progressive" and depicts those who deprive themselves from such a blessing as "regressive" people. The rest of the chapter elaborates on the characteristics of two groups and connects them to their reaction to the prophetic message (ZiKRa).
Many verses of the Quran implicitly or explicitly refer to this prophetic event that will be witnessed only by those who are appreciative. For instance, see 1:1; 2:2; 2:118; 6:4; 6:25; 6:67; 6:104; 6:158; 7:146; 10:1; 10:20; 12:1; 13:1; 13:38; 15:1; 15:9; 17:88; 20:133; 25:4; 26:1; 27:1; 27:82; 27:93; 28:1; 29:1; 29:50; 31:1; 38:1; 38:29; 38:87; 40:44; 40:78; 41:53; 46:10; 54:1; 59:21; 72:28; 78:27; 83:7; 98:4. Also, see 4:82 and 13:38. We highly recommend Rashad's book, Quran: Visual Presentation of the Miracle, which is available at amazon.com. For the details of this extraordinary and intricate mathematical design, new discoveries, and refutations of major criticism see: NINETEEN: God's Signature in Nature and Scripture, Edip Yuksel, Brainbow Press, 2009.
74:30 Upon it is nineteen.
74:30 Over it are nineteen [powers].15
Whereas most of the classical commentators are of the opinion that the "nineteen"' are the angels that act as keepers or guardians of hell, Razi advances the view that we may have here a reference to the physical, intellectual and emotional powers within man himself: powers which raise man potentially far above any other creature, but which, if used wrongly, bring about a deterioration of his whole personality and, hence, intense suffering in the life to come. According to Razi, the philosophers (arbab al-hikmah) identify these powers or faculties with, firstly, the seven organic functions of the animal - and therefore also human - body (gravitation, cohesion, repulsion of noxious foreign matter, absorption of beneficent external matter, assimilation of nutrients, growth, and reproduction); secondly, the five "external" or physical senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste); thirdly, the five "internal" or intellectual senses., defined by Ibn Sina - on whom Razi apparently relies - as (1) perception of isolated sense-images, (2) conscious apperception of ideas, (3) memory of sense-images, (4) memory of conscious apperceptions, and (5) the ability to correlate sense-images and higher apperceptions; and, lastly, the emotions of desire or aversion (resp. fear or anger), which have their roots in both the "external" and "internal" sense-categories - thus bringing the total of the powers and faculties which preside over man's spiritual fate to nineteen. In their aggregate, it is these powers that confer upon man the ability to think conceptually, and place him, in this respect, even above the angels (cf. 2:30 ff. and the corresponding notes; see also the following note).
The Quran's Common Denominator74:30 Over it is nineteen.,3
This ``One of the great miracles'' provides the first physical evidence that the Quran is God's message to the world. This 19-based miracle isdetailed in Appendix1.
74:30 Over which are nineteen.5
Arbitrarily, the following might be worth considering: On the tablet of human life are inscribed nineteen several patterns of behavior that lead to the fire. They could be the telltale signs written on the tablet of an individual’s life. The intelligent reader may reflect on those patterns and reach one’s own conclusions. According to my humble understanding, some patterns of behavior that lead to the Hellfire could be: SHIRK = Associating others with God. Accepting human authorities parallel to Divine revelation. Sectarianism. Idol worship in any form. Being content with manmade systems. Worshiping graves, saints, ancestors or one's own desires. Blind following or accepting religious information without discernment. Failing to use the Divine Word as the Criterion. ITHM = Actions that deplete individual and collective potential. Destroying human lives. Lewd behavior. Discouraging productive work. Causing fear or grief by any means. Indulgence in pursuit of material pleasure. 3. ‘UDWAN = Creating wedges of discord between people. Causing dissension. Spreading disorder and corruption. Promoting racial, sectarian and nationalistic hatred. ISRAAF = Wasting resources or one’s own ‘self’. Crossing limits. Moving away from moderation. Committing excesses in any aspect of life including Religion. Defying Moral Values given in the Qur’an. Using intoxicants that waste the human ‘self’. M’ASIAH = Disobedience of Divine Commands as given in the Qur’an. Rebelling against God and the rightly guided Central Authority. SAYYEH = Destabilizing the lives of others. Failing to fulfill the rights of others. Injustice. Inequity. Deceiving in business or other dealings. Falling short in discharging duties. Nepotism. ZULM = Relegating the truth or displacing anything from its rightful place. Oppressing people. Violating human rights. Hurting others or one’s own ‘self’. Doing wrong to God's creatures and environment. Enslaving bodies and minds. IFK = Backbiting. Evil scheming. Defaming. Undue criticism. Fault finding. Slandering. Presenting the 'heard' as 'seen'. Alarmist behavior. ZANN = False assumptions about people. Condemnation without investigation. Falling for superstitions. Belittling the truth. Following conjecture. Staying out of touch with reality. JURM = Stealing the fruit of others’ labor. Violating human rights. Living subhuman life. Witnessing for falsehood. Depriving others from their rights. Devouring others' possessions. Not giving share where it is due. TAKABBUR = False pride. Arrogance. Self-glorification. Holding others in contempt. Refusing to learn and unlearn. Insisting on blind following. Refusing to admit fault. Being forward before the messages of God. Mocking the truth. Deeming to ‘know it all'. Considering material goods higher than moral virtue. GHILL = Harboring malice in the heart. Failing to forgive people. Looking forward to take revenge. Plotting to hurt others. Being hateful. Bearing. GHADHAB = Extreme anger. Letting loose virulent emotions. Succumbing to violent desires. Yelling at others. Intimidating the weak. Losing self-control. Impulsive attitude. TAKZEEB = Belying the Truth. Denying Faith with in practice. BUKHL = Stinginess. Hoarding. Withholding resources from humanity. Apathy toward the needy. Greed. LAGHW = Wasting time. Idle talk. Meaningless assemblies. Conspiring. Senseless play and pastime. SADD = Barring from the path of God. Considering human thoughts superior to Divine revelation. Hindering emigration from the domain of evil. Presenting falsehood as truth. Misleading people with conjecture. Hindering from the Divinely ordained System of Life. JADAL = Disputation = Vain argumentation. Opposing Divine messages. Confounding the truth with falsehood. KUFR = Stubborn denial of the truth. Ingratitude. Concealing the truth. Choosing to live in the darkness of ignorance. Knowingly oppose the truth. Uncritical adherence to ancestral views. Being with the majority without discernment
74:31 وما جعلنا اصحاب النار الا ملائكة وما جعلنا عدتهم الا فتنة للذين كفروا ليستيقن الذين اوتوا الكتاب ويزداد الذين ءامنوا ايمانا ولا يرتاب الذين اوتوا الكتاب والمؤمنون وليقول الذين فى قلوبهم مرض والكافرون ماذا اراد الله بهاذا مثلا كذالك يضل الله من يشاء ويهدى من يشاء وما يعلم جنود ربك الا هو وما هى الا ذكرىا للبشر
74:31 Wama jaAAalna as-habaalnnari illa mala-ikatan wamajaAAalna AAiddatahum illa fitnatan lillatheenakafaroo liyastayqina allatheena ootoo alkitabawayazdada allatheena amanoo eemananwala yartaba allatheena ootoo alkitabawaalmu/minoona waliyaqoola allatheena feequloobihim maradun waalkafiroona mathaarada Allahu bihatha mathalan kathalikayudillu Allahu man yashao wayahdee man yashaowama yaAAlamu junooda rabbika illa huwa wamahiya illa thikra lilbashari
74:31 We have made the guardians of the fire to be angels/controllers; and We did not make their number except as a test for those who have rejected, to convince those who were given the book, to strengthen the acknowledgment of those who have acknowledged, so that those who have been given the book and those who acknowledge do not have doubt, and so that those who have a sickness in their hearts and the ingrates would say, "What did God mean by this example?" Thus God misguides whoever/whomever He wishes, and He guides whoever/whomever He wishes. None knows your Lord's soldiers except Him. It is but a reminder for people.
74:31 And We have made the guardians of the Fire to be angels; and We did not make their number except as a test for those who have rejected, so that those who were given the Book would understand, and those who have faith would be increased in faith, and so that those who have been given the Book and the believers do not have doubt, and so that those who have a sickness in their hearts and the rejecters would say: "What did God mean with an example such as this?" It is such that God misguides whom He wishes, and He guides whom He wishes. And none know the soldiers of your Lord except He; and it is but a reminder for human beings.
74:31 For We have caused none but angelic powers to lord over the fire [of hell];16 and We have not caused their number to be aught but a trial for those who are bent on denying the truth17 - to the end that they who have been granted revelation aforetime might be convinced [of the truth of this divine writ];18 and that they who have attained to faith [in it] might grow yet more firm in their faith; and that [both] they who have been granted the earlier revelation and they who believe [in this one] might be freed of all doubt; and that they in whose hearts is disease19 and the who deny the truth outright might ask, "What does [your] God mean by this parable?"20 In this way God lets go astray him that wills [to go astray], and guides aright him that wills [to be guided].21 And none can comprehend thy Sustainers forces save Him alone: and all this22 is but a reminder to mortal man.
Since it is by virtue of his powers of conscious perception and conceptual thinking that man can arrive at a discriminating cognition of good and evil and, thus, rise to great spiritual heights, these powers are described here as "angelic" (lit., "angels" - this being the earliest occurrence of the term malak in the history of Qur'anic revelation). On the other hand, since a neglect or a deliberately wrong use of these angelic powers is at the root of all sinning on the part of man and, therefore, of his suffering in the hereafter, they are spoken of as "the lords (ashab) of the fire [of hell]", which complements the expression "over it"' in the preceding verse.
This is apparently an allusion to the allegorical character of this passage, which "those who are bent on denying the truth" are unwilling to recognize as such and, hence, fail to grasp its real purport. By speculating on the reasons which allegedly induced Muhammad - whom they regard as the "author" of the Qur'an - to lay ~tress on one particular number, they tend to take the allegory in a literal sense, thus missing its point entirely.
Namely, by being enabled, through an understanding of the above allegory, to appreciate the rational approach of the Qur'an to all questions of faith. The reference to "those who have been granted revelation aforetime is the earliest statement outlining the principle of continuity in mankind's religious experience.
I.e., in this instance, the half-hearted ones who, despite their ability to discern between right and wrong, incline towards unbelief.
Cf. the identical phrase in 2:26, together with the corresponding note 18. My interpolation, in both these passages, of the word "your" between brackets is necessitated by the fact that it is the unbelievers who ask this question.
Or: "God lets go astray whomever He wills, and guides aright whomever He wills" (see surah 14, note 4). The stress on the allegorical nature of the above passage, spoken of as a "parable" (mathal), has here the same purpose as in 2:26- namely, to prevent the followers of the Qur'an from attaching a literal meaning to its eschatological descriptions - a purpose that is unmistakably expressed in the concluding sentence of this passage: "All this is but a reminder to mortal man". (See also next note.)
Lit., "it" or "these" - depending on whether the personal pronoun hiya is taken to denote a singular - in which case it would refer to the feminine noun saqar, "hell-fire" (Tabari, Zamakhshari, Baghawi, Ibn Kathir) - or a plural, referring to what Razi pinpoints as "those [Qur'anic] verses dealing with these allegories (hadhihi 'l-mutashabihat)": hence my compromise rendering "all this".
74:31 We appointed angels to be guardians of Hell, and we assigned their number (19) (1) to disturb the disbelievers, (2) to convince the Christians and Jews (that this is a divine scripture), (3) to strengthen the faith of the faithful, (4) to remove all traces of doubt from the hearts of Christians, Jews, as well as the believers, and (5) to expose those who harbor doubt in their hearts, and the disbelievers; they will say, "What did GOD mean by this allegory?" GOD thus sends astray whomever He wills, and guides whomever He wills. None knows the soldiers of your Lord except He. This is a reminder for the people.,
74:31 We have appointed none but angelic powers (universal laws) to be the keepers of the fire. And We have made their number a trial for those who are bent upon denying the truth. This allegory should grant certainty to those who received the scripture before while the believers shall increase in faith. The believers and those who have been given the scripture before shall harbor no doubt about this declaration. The hypocrites and the deniers may say, “What does God mean by this parable?” Thus, God lets go astray him who wills to go astray, and guides him who wills to be guided. And no one knows the forces of your Lord but He. This (Qur’an) is nothing but a Reminder to humans.6
See 2:26, 3:7. Those who love to harbor and spread doubt try to give literal meanings to allegories. With increasing knowledge, we have come to understand many of the allegories in their literal meanings, and more is forthcoming. See 41:53 Soon, shall We show them Our signs in the utmost Horizons and within themselves until it becomes obvious to them that this Qur’an is certainly the Truth. Is it not enough that your Lord is Witness to all things including this proclamation? 9:31, 13:31, 14:48, 18:48, 41:53, 48:28, 51:20, 61:9
74:32 Kalla waalqamari
74:32 No, by the moon.6
For the meaning and function of the Quranic oaths, see 89:5.
74:32 No, by the moon.
74:32 NAY, but consider the moon!23
This is the earliest Qur'anic instance of the adjurative particle wa used in the sense of a solemn, oathlike assertion - a calling to witness, as it were - meant (as in the expression "by God!") to give weight to a subsequently stated truth or evidence of the truth: hence, I am rendering it here and elsewhere as "consider". In the present case, the truth thus to be stressed is the implied statement that just as the changing phases of the moon and the alternation of night and day are the outcome of God-given, natural laws, so, too, a sinner's suffering in the hereafter is but a natural outcome of his deliberate wrongdoing in this world. (See also note 7 on 2:7.)
74:32 Absolutely, (I swear) by the moon.,
74:32 Nay! The Moon stands witness.
74:33 Waallayli ith adbara
74:33 By the night when it passes.
74:33 And by the night when it withdraws.
74:33 Consider the night when it departs,
74:33 And the night as it passes.,
74:33 And the Night when it departs.
74:34 Waalssubhi ithaasfara
74:34 By the morning when it shines.
74:34 And by the morning when it brightens.
74:34 and the morn when it dawns!
74:34 And the morning as it shines.,
74:34 And the Dawn as it shines forth.
74:35 Innaha la-ihda alkubari
74:35 It is one of the great ones.
74:35 It is one of the great ones.
74:35 Verily, that [hell-fire) is Indeed one of the great [forewarnings]
One of the Great Miracles74:35 This is one of the great miracles.,
74:35 This (the fore-going) is one of the greatest allegories (that the revolution is coming in all its splendor).
74:36 Natheeran lilbashari
74:36 A warning to people.
74:36 A warning to human beings.
74:36 a warning to mortal man
74:36 A warning to the human race.,
74:36 This is a forewarning for every human being.
74:37 لمن شاء منكم ان يتقدم او يتاخر
74:37 Liman shaa minkum an yataqaddama awyataakhkhara
74:37 For any among you who wishes to progress or regress.
74:37 For any among you who wishes to advance or regress.
74:37 to everyone of you, whether he chooses to come forward or to hang back!24
Lit., "any of you who chooses. . .", etc.- i.e., irrespective of whether one has chosen to follow or to disregard the divine call: implying that even true believers may stumble into sinning, and hence need to be warned.
74:37 For those among you who wish to advance, or regress.,
74:37 To every one of you, whether he chooses to advance or to lag behind.
74:38 Kullu nafsin bima kasabat raheenatun
74:38 Every person is held by what it earned;
74:38 Every soul is held by what it earned.
74:38 [On the Day of Judgment,] every human being will be held in pledge for whatever [evil] he has wrought
74:38 Every soul is trapped by its sins.,
74:38 Every person is held in pledge for all that he has done. [52:21]
74:39 Illa as-haba alyameeni
74:39 Except for the people of the right.
74:39 Except for the people of the right.
74:39 save those who shall have attained to righteousness:25
Lit., "those [or "the people"] on the right hand" (ashab al-yamin), an expression based on the tropical significance of yamin as "righteous" or "righteousness" and consequently, "blessedness". The above is probably the oldest Qur'anic incidence of this expression, which evidently comprises all those whose conduct in life will have earned them God's forgiveness of whatever sins they may have committed.
74:39 Except for those on the right.,
74:39 But those who will stand on the right hand side.7
The righteous ones. Yameen = A metaphor for righteousness and success. They have actualized their own ‘self’ by doing good to others
74:40 Fee jannatin yatasaaloona
74:40 In paradises, they will be asking
74:40 In gardens, they will inquire.
74:40 [dwelling] In gardens [of paradise], they will inquire
74:40 While in Paradise, they will ask.,
74:40 In Gardens they will ask,
74:41 AAani almujrimeena
74:41 About the criminals.
74:41 About the criminals.
74:41 of those who were lost in sin:
74:41 About the guilty.,
74:41 Of those who used to steal the fruit of others' toil.
74:42 Ma salakakum fee saqara
74:42 "What has caused you to be in Saqar?"
74:42 "What has caused you to be in the scorching heat?"
74:42 "What has brought you into hell-fire?"
74:42 "What brought you to this retribution?",
74:42 “What has led you into Saqar?”8
A fire that lets not live and lets not die. Fire of Regret 74:28
74:43 Qaloo lam naku mina almusalleena
74:43 They said, "We were not of those who maintained communal support (or observed contact prayer)."7
74:43 They said: "We were not as those who made the contact prayer."
74:43 They will answer: "We were not among those who prayed;26
In view of the fact that at the time of the revelation of this very early surah the canonical prayer (salah) had not yet been made obligatory on the followers of the Qur'an, it is reasonable to assume that in the above context this term is used in its widest sense, namely, conscious belief in God.
74:43 They will say, "We did not observe the contact prayers (Salat).,
74:43 They will reply, "We were not of the Musalleen.”9
Who are Musalleen? 70:22. The Musalleenfrom Salaat - are not the so called ritualistic praying ones, but Those who always follow the Divine System. Those in whose wealth and possessions is a known right. For him who asks for help, and for him who is deprived. Those who have conviction in the Day of Judgment. Those who are fearful of their Lord’s requital. They know that none can feel secure against their Lord’s requital. Still Musalleen are also Those men and women who maintain their chastity. They have intimate relations only with their spouses – that is, those who are rightfully theirs through wedlock. For such relationship they are free of blame. But anyone who seeks beyond this, those are the transgressors. And Musalleen are Those who guard their trusts and duties assigned to them, and their pledges, as a shepherd guards his flock. Those who are truthful as witness and stand by their testimony. Those who consolidate and protect the Divine System. Musalleen are the ones who collectively build Paradise on earth and inherit that in the Hereafter. They will be the honored ones dwelling in the Gardens of bliss
74:44 Walam naku nutAAimu almiskeena
74:44 "We did not feed the poor."
74:44 "And we did not feed the poor person."
74:44 and neither did we feed the needy;
74:44 "We did not feed the poor.,
74:44 “Neither did we feed the hungry, nor did we take part in helping those who had lost their jobs, those whose businesses had stalled, and those whose hard-earned income was insufficient to meet their basic needs.”
74:45 Wakunna nakhoodu maAAa alkha-ideena
74:45 "We used to participate with those who spoke falsehood."
74:45 "And we used to participate with those who spoke falsehood."
74:45 and we were wont to indulge in sinning together with all [the others] who indulged in it;
74:45 "We blundered with the blunderers.,
74:45 “And we were among those who used to say what they did not do.”
74:46 Wakunna nukaththibu biyawmi alddeeni
74:46 "We used to deny the day of Judgment."8
The majority of Jews, Christians, Sunnis and Shiites do not acknowledge the Day of Judgment. According to the definition of the Quran, the ruler and judge of that day is God alone (1:4) and none can help or harm the other (82:19). Those who believe in intercession, by their very belief, have denied the Day of Judgment as defined by God. Atheists, on the other hand, deny the Day of Judgment explicitly.
74:46 "And we used to deny the Day of Recompense."
74:46 and the Day of Judgment we were wont to call a lie
74:46 "We disbelieved in the Day of Judgment.,
74:46 “And we used to deny the Day of Judgment and that the Divine System will eventually prevail,”
74:47 Hatta atanaalyaqeenu
74:47 "Until the certainty came to us."
74:47 "Until the certainty came to us."
74:47 until certainty came upon us [in death]."
74:47 "Until certainty came to us now.",
74:47 “Till the inevitable truth came to us.”
74:48 فما تنفعهم شفاعة الشافعين
74:48 Fama tanfaAAuhum shafaAAatu alshshafiAAeena
74:48 Thus, no intercession of intercessors could help them.
74:48 So no intercession of intercessors could help them.
74:48 And so, of no benefit to them could be the intercession of any that would intercede for them.27
Lit., "the intercession of intercessors" - implying that there would be none to intercede for them with God. As regards the much-misunderstood Islamic concept of "intercession", see 10:3 - "there is none that could intercede with Him unless He grants His leave there for" - and the corresponding note 7.
74:48 The intercession of the intercessors will never help them.,
74:48 Then no mediation of any mediator will help.
74:49 فما لهم عن التذكرة معرضين
74:49 Fama lahum AAani alttathkiratimuAArideena
74:49 Why did they turn away from this reminder?9
74:49 Why did they turn away from being reminded?
74:49 WHAT, THEN, is amiss with them28 that they turn away from all admonition
I.e., with so many people who refuse to listen to the truth.
74:49 Why are they so averse to this reminder?,
74:49 What, then, is the matter with them that they are turning away from a clear Advisory?
74:50 Kaannahum humurun mustanfiratun
74:50 Like fleeing zebras,
74:50 They are like fleeing zebras.
74:50 as though they were terrified asses
74:50 Running like zebras.,
74:50 As if they were frightened zebras.
74:51 Farrat min qaswaratin
74:51 Running from the lion?
74:51 Running from the lion.
74:51 fleeing from a lion?
74:51 Who are fleeing from the lion!,
74:51 Fleeing from a lion!
74:52 بل يريد كل امرئ منهم ان يؤتىا صحفا منشرة
74:52 Bal yureedu kullu imri-in minhum an yu/tasuhufan munashsharatan
74:52 Alas, every one of them wants to be given separate manuscripts.
74:52 Alas, every one of them wants to be given separate scripts.
74:52 Yea, everyone of them claims that he [himself] ought to have been given revelations unfolded!29
Lit., "everyone of them wants to be given wide-open scriptures", or "scriptures unfolded" (i.e., open to everyone's understanding): cf. 2:118 - "Why does not God speak unto us, nor is a message conveyed to us?" - i.e., directly, without the intervention of a prophet. The above is the earliest illustration of the "arrogance" or "false pride" to which the Qur'an so often refers.
74:52 Does each one of them want to receive the scripture personally?,
74:52 Nay, each of them wants to be given the scrolls of revelation personally, unfolded.
74:53 كلا بل لا يخافون الءاخرة
74:53 Kalla bal la yakhafoonaal-akhirata
74:53 No, they do not fear the Hereafter.
74:53 No, they do not fear the Hereafter.
74:53 Nay, but they do not [believe in and, hence, do not] fear the life to come.
74:53 Indeed, they do not fear the Hereafter.,
74:53 They do not fear the Hereafter.
74:54 Kalla innahu tathkiratun
74:54 No, it is a reminder.
74:54 No, it is a reminder.
74:54 Nay, verily, this is an admonition
74:54 Indeed, this is a reminder.,
74:54 Nay, this is an Advisory.
74:55 Faman shaa thakarahu
74:55 Whosoever wishes will take heed.
74:55 So whoever wishes will remember it.
74:55 and whoever wills may take it to heart.
74:55 For those who wish to take heed.,
74:55 So whoever wills may take it to heart.
74:56 وما يذكرون الا ان يشاء الله هو اهل التقوىا واهل المغفرة
74:56 Wama yathkuroona illaan yashaa Allahu huwa ahlu alttaqwawaahlu almaghfirati
74:56 None will take heed except if God wills. He is the source of righteousness and the source of forgiveness.
74:56 And none will remember except if God wills. He is the source of righteousness and the source of forgiveness.
74:56 But they [who do not believe in the life to come] will not take it to heart unless God so wills:30 [for] He is the Fount of all God-consciousness, and the Fount of all forgiveness.
74:56 They cannot take heed against GOD's will. He is the source of righteousness; He is the source of forgiveness.,
74:56 But they will not take it to heart except according to God’s laws (of guidance). He is the Lord of righteousness, and the Lord of forgiveness. [4:88, 76:30, 81:29]